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Effects of Stratosphere-Troposphere-Land-Ocean Interaction on the Atmospheric Environment and Ecosystem II

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Atmospheric Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2023) | Viewed by 10893

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Global Change and Earth System Science (GCESS), Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Interests: stratosphere and troposphere interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
Interests: remote sensing technology in the stratosphere and mesosphere
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Resources and Environment, Center for Information Geoscience, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Interests: thermal infrared remote sensing; uav remote sensing; urban remote sensing; land surface temperature; hydrological process; climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stratosphere–troposphere interaction is one of the four core research programs of WCRP. The radiation–dynamic chemistry coupling processes between the stratosphere and troposphere affect the weather and climate change and significantly impact the tropospheric environment and ecosystem. However, as the earth experiences many complex interactions, there are still numerous controversies regarding the effects of stratosphere–troposphere–land–ocean interaction on the atmospheric environment and ecosystem. With the increasing abundance of ground-based remote sensing data regarding the lower atmosphere and land and satellite remote sensing data regarding the middle atmosphere and ocean, this provides conditions for the study of the effects of stratosphere–troposphere–land–ocean interaction on the atmospheric environment and ecosystem from a more comprehensive and detailed perspective.

This Special Issue concerns the multi-disciplinary intersection of atmospheric, environmental and ecological sciences supported by remote sensing. It will showcase recent endeavors in studies regarding the effects of stratosphere–troposphere interaction on the atmospheric environment and ecosystem.

  • Stratosphere–troposphere interaction;
  • Land/ocean–atmosphere interaction;
  • The application of satellite remote sensing in stratosphere research;
  • The application of satellite remote sensing in the Earth's surface–atmosphere interface;
  • Tropospheric, atmospheric chemical processes;
  • Stratospheric and mesospheric dynamic processes;
  • The evaluation of atmosphere/land/ocean products provided by satellite remote sensing.

This Special Issue is the second edition of “Effects of Stratosphere-Troposphere-Land-Ocean Interaction on the Atmospheric Environment and Ecosystem”.

Dr. Fei Xie
Dr. Zheng Sheng
Prof. Dr. Ji Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stratosphere
  • atmospheric chemistry
  • environment
  • ecosystem
  • remote sensing data
  • mesosphere
  • in situ detection
  • atmospheric/land/ocean parameter
  • surface temperature
  • satellite product evaluation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 9235 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Atmospheric Elements in Near Space Based on Meteorological-Rocket Soundings over the East China Sea
by Yuyang Song, Yang He and Hongze Leng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16020402 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
As an important means of in situ detection in near space, meteorological rockets can provide a high-precision distribution analysis of atmospheric elements. However, there are currently few studies on the principles of meteorological-rocket detection and the application of rocket-sounding data. The purpose of [...] Read more.
As an important means of in situ detection in near space, meteorological rockets can provide a high-precision distribution analysis of atmospheric elements. However, there are currently few studies on the principles of meteorological-rocket detection and the application of rocket-sounding data. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by providing a detailed introduction to the detection principle of a meteorological rocket launched in the East China Sea in November 2022. Moreover, empirical models, satellite data, and reanalysis data were selected for comparison and verification with the rocket-sounding data. Furthermore, the accuracy of these widely used datasets was studied based on the rocket-sounding data in the near space over the East China Sea. Additionally, gravity-wave power–frequency spectra were extracted using the maximum entropy method from both the rocket-sounding data and the remote-sensing data. Furthermore, the relationship between gravity waves and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) was investigated by analyzing the gravity-wave energy and the Richardson number. The research findings indicate that among the remote-sensing data describing the atmospheric environment over the launch site, the COSMIC occultation data is more accurate compared with the SABER data. The wind-field distribution derived from rocket detection is consistent with the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data, while also providing a more detailed description of the wind field. The main wavelengths of gravity waves extracted from rocket-sounding data are consistently smaller than those obtained from satellite remote-sensing data, indicating that rocket sounding is capable of capturing more intricate structures of gravity waves. The good correspondence between the peaks of gravity-wave energy and the regions where KHI occurs indicates that there is a strong interaction between gravity waves and KHI in the middle atmosphere. Full article
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13 pages, 3744 KiB  
Communication
Intraseasonal Reversal of Winter Temperature Anomalies in Eastern China in Early 2022 and Its Possible Causes
by Keyu Zhang, Chunhua Shi, Ziqian Zheng, Yiwei Wang and Tongtong Shi
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(17), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15174176 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 825
Abstract
A remarkable intraseasonal reversal of temperature anomaly is witnessed in eastern China in early 2022, characterized by a warm January and a cold February. ERA5 daily reanalysis data, multiple regression and the Linear Baroclinic Model (LBM) are employed to investigate the characteristics and [...] Read more.
A remarkable intraseasonal reversal of temperature anomaly is witnessed in eastern China in early 2022, characterized by a warm January and a cold February. ERA5 daily reanalysis data, multiple regression and the Linear Baroclinic Model (LBM) are employed to investigate the characteristics and causes of this abnormal temperature Pattern. The findings indicate that: (1) The two Rossby wave trains along the south and north westerly jets over Eurasia have synergistic impacts on middle and high latitudes. In January, the south branch Rossby wave train exhibited a positive phase, coinciding with a negative phase in the north branch wave train. As a result, the south trough strengthens, while the north trough weakens, leading to anomalous warm advection that warms eastern China. In February, the phases of these two Rossby waves are reversed, causing anomalous cold advection as the southern trough diminishes and the northern trough intensifies, resulting in colder conditions in eastern China. (2) Tropical convection activity weakens in January, whereas it intensifies in February in the northeast Indian Ocean. The weakening of the East Asian trough as a result of the convective latent heat anomalies caused an anticyclonic circulation over the Korean Peninsula in January through the Pacific-Japan teleconnection-like pattern, which is necessary for the maintenance of warm anomalies. Conversely, increased convective activity in February induces cyclonic circulation, deepening the East Asian trough over the Korean Peninsula and contributing to the persistence of cold anomalies. (3) The Rossby wave trains along the two westerly jets and the tropical convective activity in the northeastern Indian Ocean work in tandem, simultaneously strengthening or weakening the East Asian trough. Consequently, the East Asian trough weakens in January and strengthens in February. Full article
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20 pages, 8740 KiB  
Article
Significant Stratospheric Moistening Following Extreme El Niño Events
by Quanliang Chen, Yujing Liao, Xin Zhou, Ting Duan, Xiaotian Xue, Ziqi Zhang, Dandan Dong and Wuhu Feng
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(13), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15133346 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The moistening impact of El Niño on the tropical lower stratosphere has been extensively studied, yet a long-standing challenge is its potential nonlinearities regarding the strength of El Niño. Extreme El Niño’s hydration in 2015/2016 was unprecedented in the satellite era, providing a [...] Read more.
The moistening impact of El Niño on the tropical lower stratosphere has been extensively studied, yet a long-standing challenge is its potential nonlinearities regarding the strength of El Niño. Extreme El Niño’s hydration in 2015/2016 was unprecedented in the satellite era, providing a great opportunity to distinguish the differential response of water vapor to extreme and moderate El Niño. Using ERA5 and MERRA-2 reanalysis data from 1979–2019, we compare the composite tropical lower stratospheric water vapor anomalies throughout all extreme and moderate El Niño episodes since the satellite era. We validate the variations in the lower stratospheric water vapor during the two distinct El Niño episodes using a three-dimensional chemistry transport model simulating the same period. The model reproduces the observed pattern in lower stratospheric water vapor. Both demonstrate that robust moistening during extreme El Niño events occurs throughout the tropical lower stratosphere. However, moderate El Niño events seem to have a weak effect on lower stratospheric water vapor. In comparison to moderate El Niño, the strong convective activities induced by extreme El Niño release large amounts of latent heat, causing extensive and intense warming in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, thus greatly increasing the water vapor content in the tropical lower stratosphere. Additionally, moderate El Niño events have strong seasonality in their hydration effect in the tropics, whereas the intense moistening effect of extreme El Niño events prevails in all seasons during their episodes. Full article
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13 pages, 8568 KiB  
Communication
A Preliminary Study on the Inversion Method for the Refraction Structure Parameter from Vortex Electromagnetic Waves
by Qixiang Liao, Zheng Sheng, Shudao Zhou, Peng Guo, Zhiyong Long, Mingyuan He and Jiping Guan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(12), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15123140 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
When vortex electromagnetic waves propagate through a turbulent atmosphere, the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic waves are disturbed, creating the scintillation effect. According to the scintillation index of vortex waves, a new method of retrieving the turbulent refraction structure parameter was proposed [...] Read more.
When vortex electromagnetic waves propagate through a turbulent atmosphere, the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic waves are disturbed, creating the scintillation effect. According to the scintillation index of vortex waves, a new method of retrieving the turbulent refraction structure parameter was proposed using a genetic algorithm, and the feasibility of this method was verified by simulated experiments. The numerical results showed that the inversed value obtained by the genetic algorithm was close to the real parameter when the turbulent inner scale and outer scale were fixed. However, there was a gap between the inversed value and the real parameter when only the turbulent outer scale was fixed. These results suggest that vortex wave data can be used for turbulent refraction structure parameter inversion, and they provide new research directions for atmospheric remote sensing. Full article
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18 pages, 8194 KiB  
Article
Detection and Attribution of Greening and Land Degradation of Dryland Areas in China and America
by Zheng Chen, Jieyu Liu, Xintong Hou, Peiyi Fan, Zhonghua Qian, Li Li, Zhisen Zhang, Guolin Feng, Bailian Li and Guiquan Sun
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(10), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15102688 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Global dryland areas are vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic activities, making it essential to understand the primary drivers and quantify their effects on vegetation growth. In this study, we used the Time Series Segmented Residual Trends (TSS-RESTREND) method to attribute changes in [...] Read more.
Global dryland areas are vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic activities, making it essential to understand the primary drivers and quantify their effects on vegetation growth. In this study, we used the Time Series Segmented Residual Trends (TSS-RESTREND) method to attribute changes in vegetation to CO2, land use, climate change, and climate variability in Chinese and American dryland areas. Our analysis showed that both Chinese and American drylands have undergone a greening trend over the past four decades, with Chinese greening likely linked to climatic warming and humidification of Northwest China. Climate change was the dominant factor driving vegetation change in China, accounting for 48.3%, while CO2 fertilization was the dominant factor in American drylands, accounting for 47.9%. However, land use was the primary factor resulting in desertification in both regions. Regional analysis revealed the importance of understanding the drivers of vegetation change and land degradation in Chinese and American drylands to prevent desertification. These findings highlight the need for sustainable management practices that consider the complex interplay of climate change, land use, and vegetation growth in dryland areas. Full article
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20 pages, 7496 KiB  
Article
Lagged Linkage between the Kara–Barents Sea Ice and Early Summer Rainfall in Eastern China in Chinese CMIP6 Models
by Huidi Yang, Jian Rao, Haohan Chen, Qian Lu and Jingjia Luo
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(8), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15082111 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
The lagged relationship between Kara–Barents sea ice and summer precipitation in eastern China is evaluated for Chinese models participating in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). A previous study revealed a dipole rainfall structure in eastern China related to winter [...] Read more.
The lagged relationship between Kara–Barents sea ice and summer precipitation in eastern China is evaluated for Chinese models participating in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). A previous study revealed a dipole rainfall structure in eastern China related to winter Arctic sea ice variability. Almost all Chinese CMIP6 models reproduce the variability and climatology of the sea ice in most of the Arctic well except the transition regions with evident biases. Further, all Chinese CMIP6 models successfully simulate the decreasing trend for the Kara–Barents sea ice. The dipole centers located in the Yangtze–Huai River Valley (YHRV) and South China (SC) related to Kara–Barents sea ice variability are simulated with different degrees of success. The anomalous dipole rainfall structure related to the winter Kara–Barents sea ice variability can roughly be reproduced by two models, while other models reproduce a shifted rainfall anomaly pattern or with the sign reversed. The possible delayed influence of sea ice forcing on early summer precipitation in China is established via three possible processes: the long memory of ice, the long-lasting stratospheric anomalies triggered by winter sea ice forcing, and the downward impact of the stratosphere as the mediator. Most Chinese models can simulate the negative Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) phase in early winter but fail to reproduce the reversal of the stratospheric anomalies to a positive NAM pattern in spring and early summer. Most models underestimate the downward impact from the stratosphere to the troposphere. This implies that the stratospheric pathway is essential to mediate the winter sea ice forcing and rainfall in early summer over China for CMIP6 models. Full article
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25 pages, 33195 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Four Satellite Precipitation Products over Mainland China Using Spatial Correlation Analysis
by Yu Li, Bo Pang, Ziqi Zheng, Haoming Chen, Dingzhi Peng, Zhongfan Zhu and Depeng Zuo
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071823 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The accuracy and reliability of satellite precipitation products (SPPs) are important for their applications. In this study, four recently presented SPPs, namely, GSMaP_Gauge, GSMaP_NRT, IMERG, and MSWEP, were evaluated against daily observations from 2344 gauges of mainland China from 2001 to 2018. Bivariate [...] Read more.
The accuracy and reliability of satellite precipitation products (SPPs) are important for their applications. In this study, four recently presented SPPs, namely, GSMaP_Gauge, GSMaP_NRT, IMERG, and MSWEP, were evaluated against daily observations from 2344 gauges of mainland China from 2001 to 2018. Bivariate Moran’s I (BMI), a method that has demonstrated high applicability in characterizing spatial correlation and dependence, was first used in research to assess their spatial correlations with gauge observations. Results from four conventional indices indicate that MSWEP exhibited the best performance, with a correlation coefficient of 0.78, an absolute deviation of 1.6, a relative bias of −5%, and a root mean square error of 5. Six precipitation indices were selected to further evaluate the spatial correlation between the SPPs and gauge observations. MSWEP demonstrated the best spatial correlation in annual total precipitation, annual precipitation days, continuous wet days, continuous dry days, and very wet day precipitation with global BMI of 0.95, 0.78, 0.78, 0.78, and 0.87, respectively. Meanwhile, IMERG showed superiority in terms of maximum daily precipitation with a global BMI value of 0.91. IMERG also exhibited superior performance in quantifying the annual count days that experience precipitation events exceeding 25 mm and 50 mm, with a global BMI of 0.96, 0.92. In four sub-regions, these products exhibited significant regional characteristics. MSWEP demonstrated the highest spatial correlation with gauge observations in terms of total and persistent indices in the four sub-regions, while IMERG had the highest global BMI for extreme indices. In general, global BMI can quantitatively compare the spatial correlation between SPPs and gauge observations. The Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) cluster map provides clear visual representation of areas that are significantly overestimated or underestimated. These advantages make BMI a suitable method for SPPs assessment. Full article
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16 pages, 11435 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Land Degradation through Vegetation Dynamics Mathematical Modeling: Case of Jornada Basin (in the U.S.)
by Zheng Chen, Jieyu Liu, Zhonghua Qian, Li Li, Zhiseng Zhang, Guolin Feng, Shigui Ruan and Guiquan Sun
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15040978 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Arid ecosystems are known to be sensitive to climate change. The Jornada Basin in the USA, as one representative of arid land, has suffered from land degradation in recent decades. In order to disentangle the climate–vegetation feedback, we analyzed the vegetation dynamics under [...] Read more.
Arid ecosystems are known to be sensitive to climate change. The Jornada Basin in the USA, as one representative of arid land, has suffered from land degradation in recent decades. In order to disentangle the climate–vegetation feedback, we analyzed the vegetation dynamics under the effects of climate change via a mathematical model based on the reaction–diffusion mechanism. Using this model, we conducted a sensitive analysis of climate factors and concluded that the ecosystem might experience a catastrophic shift with the climatic deterioration. We considered the non-local interaction term to explain the competition among plants. Additionally, the PLR (power law range) metric was used to quantify the extent of the degradation and to compare the results of the vegetation patterns from the remote sensing data and the simulations. From the results, this model could simulate the trends of land degradation in this area. We found that the land degradation could be mainly attributed to climate changes in recent years. This approach suggests that vegetation patterns can provide hints as to whether the ecosystem is approaching desertification. These results can help with mapping vulnerable arid areas around the world through model simulation and satellite images. Full article
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16 pages, 4107 KiB  
Article
The Gravity Wave Activity during Two Recent QBO Disruptions Revealed by U.S. High-Resolution Radiosonde Data
by Haiyan Li, Jian Zhang, Bosi Sheng, Yi Fan, Xuanting Ji and Qingxiang Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15020472 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
The westerly phase of the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) was unprecedentedly interrupted by an easterly jet at around 22 km during boreal wintertime in 2015/2016 and 2019/2020. Many studies have investigated the role of planetary waves during these disruptions. However, the behavior of [...] Read more.
The westerly phase of the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) was unprecedentedly interrupted by an easterly jet at around 22 km during boreal wintertime in 2015/2016 and 2019/2020. Many studies have investigated the role of planetary waves during these disruptions. However, the behavior of gravity waves (GWs) during these disruptions is still unclear. In this paper, we investigated the characteristics of stratospheric GWs during QBO disruptions by analyzing the U.S. high-resolution radiosonde data from 1998 to 2021 from three equatorial stations. The disruptions were separated into three stages: the westerly zonal wind decreasing stage, the easterly zonal wind developing stage, and the westerly zonal wind recovery stage. Notably, the tropical stratospheric GWs’ total energy densities were enhanced during all three stages of both events compared to those in typical years. The low-tropospheric convection, the middle-tropospheric jet, and the low-stratospheric vertical wind shear were statistically associated with the stratospheric GW variations. A quantitative analysis further indicated that the low-tropospheric convection activity, tropospheric jets, and wind shears in the lower stratosphere could well explain the variations in the stratospheric GWs in the westerly zonal wind decreasing and easterly zonal wind developing stages by applying a partial least squares regress analysis. Full article
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