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High Risk Pregnancy and the Role of Nutrition

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition in Women".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2022) | Viewed by 5083

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Woman, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: fetal medicine; obstetrics; high risk pregnancy; fetal ultrasound; prenatal diagnosis

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Woman, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy
Interests: diabetes in pregnancy; fetal growth restriction; fetal medicine; preeclampsia; placenta accreta; doppler echocardiography; gestational diabetes; obstetrics; advanced ultrasound; pregnancy; twin

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-risk pregnancies represent those pregnancies with pre-existing or actual conditions that increase the risk of complications for the mother and the foetus. Several factors could be involved such as a very young or older age, low levels of education and nutrition, as well as poverty or unstable living arrangements. High-risk pregnancies should be identified as early as possible in order to offer a better treatment and increase the maternal and baby outcome.

The most frequent conditions associated with high-risk pregnancies are gestational diabetes, obesity, thyroid disease, infections, and pre-eclampsia.

The role of diet is crucial in these women, as balanced nutrition helps the mother to handle the extra demands on her body. The aim is to balance consuming enough nutrients to support the growth of the foetus with maintaining a healthy weight.

During pregnancy, several vitamins and minerals should be introduced thorough the diet, such as folic acid, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, and vitamin C.

A poor diet lacking in the above nutrients could increase the risk of anaemia, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and post-partum haemorrhage. Moreover, they can also have an impact on stillbirth, low birthweight, and developmental delays for children.

In this Special Issue, we aim to highlight new approaches and to provide summaries of the current evidence in addition to future directions in the topic of “High-risk pregnancies and nutrition”. Original research and review articles are welcome.

Dr. Antonio Schiattarella
Dr. Morlando Maddalena
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diet
  • nutrition
  • pregnancy
  • high-risk pregnancy
  • plant-based diet

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 703 KiB  
Article
The Interactive Effects of Severe Vitamin D Deficiency and Iodine Nutrition Status on the Risk of Thyroid Disorder in Pregnant Women
by Wei Lu, Zhengyuan Wang, Zhuo Sun, Zehuan Shi, Qi Song, Xueying Cui, Liping Shen, Mengying Qu, Shupeng Mai and Jiajie Zang
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214484 - 25 Oct 2022
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Abstract
Thyroid dysfunction is associated with both vitamin D deficiency and iodine; however, it is unclear whether they interact. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent the interactions between vitamin D and iodine contribute to the risk of thyroid disorder. Participants [...] Read more.
Thyroid dysfunction is associated with both vitamin D deficiency and iodine; however, it is unclear whether they interact. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent the interactions between vitamin D and iodine contribute to the risk of thyroid disorder. Participants (n = 4280) were chosen using multistage, stratified random sampling from Shanghai. Fasting blood was drawn for the 25(OH)D and thyroid parameter tests. Spot urine samples were gathered to test for urine iodine. To evaluate the interactive effects of vitamin D and iodine, crossover analysis was carried out. Pregnant women with a high urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and severe vitamin D deficiency had a significantly higher risk of thyrotropin receptor antibody (TrAb) positivity (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32, 5.22) in the first trimester. Severe vitamin D deficiency and high UIC interacted positively for the risk of TrAb positivity (relative excess risk due to interaction = 1.910, 95%CI: 0.054, 3.766; attributable proportion = 0.700, 95%CI: 0.367, 1.03). Severe vitamin D deficiency combined with excess iodine could increase the risk of TrAb positivity in pregnant women in the first trimester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Risk Pregnancy and the Role of Nutrition)
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12 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Maternal Obesity in Twin Pregnancy: The Role of Nutrition to Reduce Maternal and Fetal Complications
by María de la Calle, Jose L. Bartha, Clara Marín, Juan Carlos Rus, Guillermo Córcoles, Santiago Ruvira and David Ramiro-Cortijo
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071326 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
There are more and more obese mothers with twin gestations. For a long time before, the responses of lymphocytes and platelets in obese women can cause a low-grade inflammation. In addition, a proper control of gestational weight gain would improve the outcomes in [...] Read more.
There are more and more obese mothers with twin gestations. For a long time before, the responses of lymphocytes and platelets in obese women can cause a low-grade inflammation. In addition, a proper control of gestational weight gain would improve the outcomes in mothers with high pre-gestational body mass index (BMI). In women with high pre-gestational BMI and twin pregnancy, our aims were to explore the biochemical and hematological parameters and to study the rate of obstetric adverse outcomes. This was an observational and retrospective study conducted in the Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid, Spain). We included 20 twin pregnancies as the lean group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), homogeneous in the maternal age and ethnicity, and having parity with other 20 twin pregnancies as the obese group (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). The maternal data and maternal, fetal, obstetric, and neonatal complications were collected from the medical records. In the first and third trimester of pregnancy, the biochemical and hematological parameters of the blood were assayed. In this cohort, gestational weight gain was significantly lower in the obese than lean group. In the first trimester, the hemoglobin levels in obese women (12.1 ± 0.8 g/dL) were lower than lean women (12.6 ± 0.7 g/dL; p-Value = 0.048). In addition, the tendency of glucose levels, TSH levels and platelets was to increase in obese compared to lean women. In the third trimester, the TSH levels were higher in obese (3.30 ± 1.60 mUI/L) than lean women (1.70 ± 1.00 mUI/L; p-Value = 0.009). Furthermore, there was a tendency for levels of platelets and lymphocytes to increase in obese compared to lean women. No significant differences were detected in the rate of maternal, fetal, obstetrical, and neonatal complications between the groups. The hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes and TSH levels need further investigation to understand potential subclinical inflammation in obese women. Furthermore, obese women with twin pregnancies should follow-up with a specialist nutritionist, to help them control their gestational weight gain with appropriate dietary measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Risk Pregnancy and the Role of Nutrition)
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