Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 May 2024 | Viewed by 13701

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
2. University of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: mitochondria; redox; aging acceleration; metabolic disorder
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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Interests: aging; age-related diseases; redox; metabolic regulation

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China
Interests: aging; life span; lipid metabolism; ferroptosis; antioxidants; age-related diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

“You are what you eat” and “An apple a day keeps the doctor away". These popular proverbs demonstrate that people have well known the importance of diet and nutrition in keeping healthy and preventing diseases from very old times. However, the detailed and exact reasons and mechanisms can only be explored scientifically by the rapid and fast advances of modern science and technology, especially the development of the studies on the relation of aging/age-related diseases and nutrition/food science, such as nutrigenomics, personalized nutrition and precise nutrition in recent years. In order to give a summary of the recent advances in nutritional regulation of aging and age-related diseases, we are launching this special issue of Nutrients on the topic of “Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-related Diseases. We will invite outstanding scientists in the areas of aging/age-related diseases and nutrition/food sciences to contribute original research and reviews to have an exceptionally excellent special issue for Nutrients, one of the top journals in nutrition and food sciences.

Prof. Dr. Jiankang Liu
Prof. Dr. Dongyun Shi
Prof. Dr. Ke Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • aging
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • metabolic disorders
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • cancer
  • skin protection
  • precise nutrition
  • nutrients
  • caloric restriction

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of the Vitamin D Status Diagnosticator amongst Geriatric Patients with COVID-19
by Caroline Charonnat, Dolores Sanchez-Rodriguez, Spyridon N. Karras, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun and Cédric Annweiler
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060856 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The vitamin D status diagnosticator (VDSD), a 16-item tool, effectively identifies hypovitaminosis D in healthy older adults and can assist in determining the need for blood tests in this population. Assessing vitamin D levels is particularly crucial in the context of COVID-19. This [...] Read more.
The vitamin D status diagnosticator (VDSD), a 16-item tool, effectively identifies hypovitaminosis D in healthy older adults and can assist in determining the need for blood tests in this population. Assessing vitamin D levels is particularly crucial in the context of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the VDSD’s effectiveness in pinpointing hypovitaminosis D in older adults affected by COVID-19. The research involved 102 unsupplemented geriatric inpatients consecutively admitted to the acute geriatric division of Angers University Hospital, France, with an average age of 85.0 ± 5.9 years (47.1% women). The physician-administered VDSD was conducted simultaneously with the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Hypovitaminosis D was defined as a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≤75 nmol/L for vitamin D insufficiency and ≤50 nmol/L for vitamin D deficiency. Results revealed that 87 participants (85.3%) had vitamin D insufficiency and 63 (61.8%) had vitamin D deficiency. The VDSD accurately identified vitamin D deficiency with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 and an odds ratio (OR) of 40. However, its accuracy in identifying vitamin D insufficiency was lower (AUC = 0.57). In conclusion, the 16-item VDSD, a concise questionnaire, effectively identifies vitamin D deficiency in geriatric patients with COVID-19. This tool can be valuable in guiding the decision to administer vitamin D supplementation during the early stages of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
17 pages, 2193 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors in Older Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Laura Cano-García, Rocío Redondo-Rodríguez, Sara Manrique-Arija, Carmen Domínguez-Quesada, Juan Crisóstomo Vacas, Pedro Armenteros-Ortiz, Desiree Ruiz-Vilchez, José María Martín-Martín, Aimara García-Studer, Fernando Ortiz-Márquez, Natalia Mena-Vázquez and Antonio Fernández-Nebro
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163500 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Objective: To describe the frequency of malnutrition in older patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and investigate associated risk factors. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study included participants aged ≥65 years who met the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for RA. Nutritional status was assessed using the [...] Read more.
Objective: To describe the frequency of malnutrition in older patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and investigate associated risk factors. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study included participants aged ≥65 years who met the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for RA. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and based on variables, such as albumin level, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), and vitamin D. Data were also collected on epidemiological variables, inflammatory disease activity, quality of life, physical function, and frailty. Multivariate models were used to study factors associated with nutritional status. Results: The study population comprised 76 RA patients aged ≥65 years, of whom 68.4% had a normal nutritional status, and 31.5% had an impaired nutritional status: 28.9% were at risk of malnutrition, and 2.6% were malnourished. Additionally, 10% had albumin levels <3.8 g/L. Patients with impaired nutritional status had poorer quality of life and physical function. The factors associated with compromised nutritional status (OR [95% CI]) were age (1.0 [1.0–1.1]; p = 0.035), DAS28-ESR (1.8 [1.0–3.2]; p = 0.024), and EuroQoL-5D-5L (0.9 [0.9–0.9]; p = 0.040). Furthermore, the GNRI was associated with the MNA score (0.06 [0.0–0.1]; p = 0.014). Conclusions: Approximately one-third of older patients with RA have impaired nutritional status. Older age, higher inflammatory disease activity, and decreased quality of life are associated with impaired nutritional status. The MNA and GNRI are valuable tools for assessing the nutritional status of patients with RA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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Review

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14 pages, 1337 KiB  
Review
The Ketogenic Diet in the Prevention of Migraines in the Elderly
by Michal Fila, Jan Chojnacki, Elzbieta Pawlowska, Piotr Sobczuk, Cezary Chojnacki and Janusz Blasiak
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234998 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Migraines display atypical age dependence, as the peak of their prevalence occurs between the ages of 20–40 years. With age, headache attacks occur less frequently and are characterized by a lower amplitude. However, both diagnosis and therapy of migraines in the elderly are [...] Read more.
Migraines display atypical age dependence, as the peak of their prevalence occurs between the ages of 20–40 years. With age, headache attacks occur less frequently and are characterized by a lower amplitude. However, both diagnosis and therapy of migraines in the elderly are challenging due to multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. Dietary components and eating habits are migraine triggers; therefore, nutrition is a main target in migraine prevention. Several kinds of diets were proposed to prevent migraines, but none are commonly accepted due to inconsistent results obtained in different studies. The ketogenic diet is featured by very low-carbohydrate and high-fat contents. It may replace glucose with ketone bodies as the primary source of energy production. The ketogenic diet and the actions of ketone bodies are considered beneficial in several aspects of health, including migraine prevention, but studies on the ketogenic diet in migraines are not standardized and poorly evidenced. Apart from papers claiming beneficial effects of the ketogenic diet in migraines, several studies have reported that increased levels of ketone bodies may be associated with all-cause and incident heart failure mortality in older adults and are supported by research on mice showing that the ketogenic diets and diet supplementation with a human ketone body precursor may cause life span shortening. Therefore, despite reports showing a beneficial effect of the ketogenic diet in migraines, such a diet requires further studies, including clinical trials, to verify whether it should be recommended in older adults with migraines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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18 pages, 823 KiB  
Review
Vegetable as a Source of Bioactive Compounds with Photoprotective Properties: Implication in the Aging Process
by Justyna Moskwa, Monika Bronikowska, Katarzyna Socha and Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163594 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2787
Abstract
The skin, as an external organ, protects the entire body against harmful external factors. One of these factors is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which in excessive amounts can lead to premature skin aging, DNA damage, and even skin cancer. Therefore, it is worth supporting [...] Read more.
The skin, as an external organ, protects the entire body against harmful external factors. One of these factors is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which in excessive amounts can lead to premature skin aging, DNA damage, and even skin cancer. Therefore, it is worth supporting skin protection not only with commercially available preparations, but also with a proper diet. Consuming certain vegetables and applying them topically may reduce the effects of UV radiation. The aim of the review was to collect information on the effects of vegetables and their compounds on the skin when used externally or included in the diet. This review summarizes studies on vegetables, such as broccoli, cucumber, kale, tomato, and carrot, which have shown significant activity in skin photoprotection. Additionally, it outlines the bioactive substances present in these vegetables and their effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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15 pages, 1306 KiB  
Review
Redox Regulation in Age-Related Cataracts: Roles for Glutathione, Vitamin C, and the NRF2 Signaling Pathway
by Eloy Bejarano, Jasper Weinberg, Madison Clark, Allen Taylor, Sheldon Rowan and Elizabeth A. Whitcomb
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153375 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Age is the biggest risk factor for cataracts, and aberrant oxidative modifications are correlated with age-related cataracts, suggesting that proper redox regulation is important for lens clarity. The lens has very high levels of antioxidants, including ascorbate and glutathione that aid in keeping [...] Read more.
Age is the biggest risk factor for cataracts, and aberrant oxidative modifications are correlated with age-related cataracts, suggesting that proper redox regulation is important for lens clarity. The lens has very high levels of antioxidants, including ascorbate and glutathione that aid in keeping the lens clear, at least in young animals and humans. We summarize current functional and genetic data supporting the hypothesis that impaired regulation of oxidative stress leads to redox dysregulation and cataract. We will focus on the essential endogenous antioxidant glutathione and the exogenous antioxidant vitamin C/ascorbate. Additionally, gene expression in response to oxidative stress is regulated in part by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [NFE2L2]), thus we will summarize our data regarding cataracts in Nrf2-/- mice. In this work, we discuss the function and integration of these capacities with the objective of maintaining lens clarity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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17 pages, 3545 KiB  
Review
Renal-Protective Roles of Lipoic Acid in Kidney Disease
by Sulin F. Kamt, Jiankang Liu and Liang-Jun Yan
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071732 - 01 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5070
Abstract
The kidney is a crucial organ that eliminates metabolic waste and reabsorbs nutritious elements. It also participates in the regulation of blood pressure, maintenance of electrolyte balance and blood pH homeostasis, as well as erythropoiesis and vitamin D maturation. Due to such a [...] Read more.
The kidney is a crucial organ that eliminates metabolic waste and reabsorbs nutritious elements. It also participates in the regulation of blood pressure, maintenance of electrolyte balance and blood pH homeostasis, as well as erythropoiesis and vitamin D maturation. Due to such a heavy workload, the kidney is an energy-demanding organ and is constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous insults, leading to the development of either acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nevertheless, there are no therapeutic managements to treat AKI or CKD effectively. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches for fighting kidney injury are urgently needed. This review article discusses the role of α-lipoic acid (ALA) in preventing and treating kidney diseases. We focus on various animal models of kidney injury by which the underlying renoprotective mechanisms of ALA have been unraveled. The animal models covered include diabetic nephropathy, sepsis-induced kidney injury, renal ischemic injury, unilateral ureteral obstruction, and kidney injuries induced by folic acid and metals such as cisplatin, cadmium, and iron. We highlight the common mechanisms of ALA’s renal protective actions that include decreasing oxidative damage, increasing antioxidant capacities, counteracting inflammation, mitigating renal fibrosis, and attenuating nephron cell death. It is by these mechanisms that ALA achieves its biological function of alleviating kidney injury and improving kidney function. Nevertheless, we also point out that more comprehensive, preclinical, and clinical studies will be needed to make ALA a better therapeutic agent for targeting kidney disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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