Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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33 pages, 904 KiB  
Review
Contaminant Metals and Cardiovascular Health
by Karl Kristian Lundin, Yusuf Kamran Qadeer, Zhen Wang, Salim Virani, Roman Leischik, Carl J. Lavie, Markus Strauss and Chayakrit Krittanawong
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110450 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
A growing body of research has begun to link exposure to environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals, with a variety of negative health outcomes. In this paper, we sought to review the current research describing the impact of certain common contaminant metals on [...] Read more.
A growing body of research has begun to link exposure to environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals, with a variety of negative health outcomes. In this paper, we sought to review the current research describing the impact of certain common contaminant metals on cardiovascular (CV) health. We reviewed ten metals: lead, barium, nickel, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, selenium, zinc, and copper. After a literature review, we briefly summarized the routes of environmental exposure, pathophysiological mechanisms, CV health impacts, and exposure prevention and/or mitigation strategies for each metal. The resulting article discloses a broad spectrum of pathological significance, from relatively benign substances with little to no described effects on CV health, such as chromium and selenium, to substances with a wide-ranging and relatively severe spectrum of CV pathologies, such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. It is our hope that this article will provide clinicians with a practical overview of the impact of these common environmental contaminants on CV health as well as highlight areas that require further investigation to better understand how these metals impact the incidence and progression of CV diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention)
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12 pages, 808 KiB  
Article
“I Just Want You to Hear That Term”: Characterizing Language Used in Fetal Cardiology Consultations
by Kelsey Schweiberger, Kelly W. Harris, Ann Kavanaugh-McHugh, Abdesalam Soudi, Robert M. Arnold, Jessica S. Merlin, Nadine A. Kasparian and Judy C. Chang
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(9), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10090394 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
The way clinicians communicate with parents during pregnancy about congenital heart disease (CHD) can significantly influence parental understanding of and psychological response to the diagnosis. A necessary first step to improving communication used in fetal cardiology consultations is to understand and describe the [...] Read more.
The way clinicians communicate with parents during pregnancy about congenital heart disease (CHD) can significantly influence parental understanding of and psychological response to the diagnosis. A necessary first step to improving communication used in fetal cardiology consultations is to understand and describe the language currently used, which this paper aims to do. Nineteen initial fetal cardiology consultations with parents were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded by two independent coders. A codebook was inductively developed and applied to all transcripts. The finalized coding was used to characterize fetal cardiologists’ language. We identified four discourse styles employed in fetal cardiology consultations: small talk, medical, plain, and person-centered. Plain language was used to define and emphasize the meaning of medical language. Person-centered language was used to emphasize the baby as a whole person. Each consultation included all four discourse styles, with plain and medical used most frequently. Person-centered was used less frequently and mostly occurred near the end of the encounters; whether this is the ideal balance of discourse styles is unknown. Clinicians also used person-centered language (as opposed to disease-centered language), which is recommended by medical societies. Future studies should investigate the ideal balance of discourse styles and the effects of clinician discourse styles on family outcomes, including parents’ decision-making, psychological adjustment, and quality of life. Full article
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16 pages, 3134 KiB  
Review
Transport and Anaesthesia Consideration for Transcatheter Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure in Premature Infants
by Tuan Chen Aw, Belinda Chan and Yogen Singh
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(9), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10090377 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Transcatheter device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants has been proven to be a feasible and safe technique with promising results when compared to surgical ligation. However, managing transport and anaesthesia in extremely premature infants with haemodynamically significant PDA and [...] Read more.
Transcatheter device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants has been proven to be a feasible and safe technique with promising results when compared to surgical ligation. However, managing transport and anaesthesia in extremely premature infants with haemodynamically significant PDA and limited reserves presents unique challenges. This review article focuses on the key considerations throughout the clinical pathway for the PDA device closure, including referral hospital consultation, patient selection, intra- and inter-hospital transport, and anaesthesia management. The key elements encompass comprehensive patient assessment, meticulous airway management, optimised ventilation strategies, precise thermoregulation, patient-tailored sedation protocols, vigilant haemodynamic monitoring, and safe transport measures throughout the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative phases. A multidisciplinary approach enhances the chances of procedure success, improves patient outcomes, and minimises the risk of complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Babies)
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7 pages, 1843 KiB  
Case Report
Cor Triatriatum Dexter Associated with an Ostium Primum Atrial Defect and Left-Sided Opening of the Coronary Sinus in a Stillborn Fetus
by Silvia Farkašová Iannaccone, David Sedmera, Alžbeta Ginelliová, Peter Bohuš, Lucia Mistríková and Daniel Farkaš
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(9), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10090370 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Cor triatriatum is a very rare cardiac malformation characterized by the presence of an abnormal interatrial membrane separating either the left or right atrial chamber into two compartments. It can be associated with other cardiac defects and is often symptomatic in childhood. The [...] Read more.
Cor triatriatum is a very rare cardiac malformation characterized by the presence of an abnormal interatrial membrane separating either the left or right atrial chamber into two compartments. It can be associated with other cardiac defects and is often symptomatic in childhood. The signs depend on the size and position of the interatrial membrane and other associated malformations. Here we report a case of right-sided cor triatriatum associated with an ostium primum-type interatrial septum defect and left-sided opening of the coronary sinus in a fetus. The cause of intrauterine death was asphyxia due to total placental abruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease)
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14 pages, 3146 KiB  
Article
Cardiac Morphology, Function, and Left Ventricular Geometric Pattern in Patients with Hypertensive Crisis: A Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Based Study
by Mohammed A. Talle, Anton F. Doubell, Pieter-Paul S. Robbertse, Sa’ad Lahri and Philip G. Herbst
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(9), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10090367 - 27 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
(1) Background: Altered cardiac morphology and function are associated with increased risks of adverse cardiac events in hypertension. Our study aimed to assess left ventricular (LV) morphology, geometry, and function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with hypertensive crisis. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Altered cardiac morphology and function are associated with increased risks of adverse cardiac events in hypertension. Our study aimed to assess left ventricular (LV) morphology, geometry, and function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with hypertensive crisis. (2) Methods: Patients with hypertensive crisis underwent CMR imaging at 1.5 Tesla to assess cardiac volume, mass, function, and contrasted study. Left ventricular (LV) function and geometry were defined according to the guideline recommendations. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was qualitatively assessed and classified into ischemic and nonischemic patterns. Predictors of LGE was determined using regression analysis. (3) Results: Eighty-two patients with hypertensive crisis (aged 48.5 ± 13.4 years, and 57% males) underwent CMR imaging. Of these patients, seventy-eight percent were hypertensive emergency and twenty-two percent were urgency. Diastolic blood pressure was higher under hypertensive emergency (p = 0.032). Seventy-nine percent (92% of emergency vs. 59% of urgency, respectively; p = 0.003) had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The most prevalent LV geometry was concentric hypertrophy (52%). Asymmetric LVH occurred in 13 (22%) of the participants after excluding ischemic LGE. Impaired systolic function occurred in 46% of patients, and predominantly involved hypertensive emergency. Nonischemic LGE occurred in 75% of contrasted studies (67.2% in emergency versus 44.4% in urgency, respectively; p < 0.001). Creatinine and LV mass were independently associated with nonischemic LGE. (5) Conclusion: LVH, altered geometry, asymmetric LVH, impaired LV systolic function, and LGE are common under hypertensive crisis. LVH and LGE more commonly occurred under hypertensive emergency. Longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic implications of asymmetric LVH and LGE in hypertensive crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Imaging)
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24 pages, 16692 KiB  
Article
Recognition of Supraventricular Arrhythmias in Holter ECG Recordings by ECHOView Color Map: A Case Series Study
by Stefan Naydenov, Irena Jekova and Vessela Krasteva
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(9), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10090360 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Ambulatory 24–72 h Holter ECG monitoring is recommended for patients with suspected arrhythmias, which are often transitory and might remain unseen in resting standard 12-lead ECG. Holter manufacturers provide software diagnostic tools to assist clinicians in evaluating these large amounts of data. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Ambulatory 24–72 h Holter ECG monitoring is recommended for patients with suspected arrhythmias, which are often transitory and might remain unseen in resting standard 12-lead ECG. Holter manufacturers provide software diagnostic tools to assist clinicians in evaluating these large amounts of data. Nevertheless, the identification of short arrhythmia events and differentiation of the arrhythmia type might be a problem in limited Holter ECG leads. This observational clinical study aims to explore a novel and weakly investigated ECG modality integrated into a commercial diagnostic tool ECHOView (medilog DARWIN 2, Schiller AG, Switzerland), while used for the interpretation of long-term Holter-ECG records by a cardiologist. The ECHOView transformation maps the beat waveform amplitude to a color-coded bar. One ECHOView page integrates stacked color bars of about 1740 sequential beats aligned by R-peak in a window (R ± 750 ms). The collected 3-lead Holter ECG recordings from 86 patients had a valid duration of 21 h 20 min (19 h 30 min–22 h 45 min), median (quartile range). The ECG rhythm was reviewed with 3491 (3192–3723) standard-grid ECG pages and a substantially few number of 51 (44–59) ECHOView pages that validated the ECHOView compression ratio of 67 (59–74) times. Comments on the ECG rhythm and ECHOView characteristic patterns are provided for 14 examples representative of the most common rhythm disorders seen in our population, including supraventricular arrhythmias (supraventricular extrasystoles, paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and flutter) and ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular extrasystoles, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia). In summary, the ECHOView color map transforms the ECG modality into a novel diagnostic image of the patient’s rhythm that is comprehensively interpreted by a cardiologist. ECHOView has the potential to facilitate the manual overview of Holter ECG recordings, to visually identify short-term arrhythmia episodes, and to refine the diagnosis, especially in high-rate arrhythmias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Diagnostic Imaging for Cardiovascular Disease)
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13 pages, 10975 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance—Detected Acute Myocardial Edema as Predictor of Favourable Prognosis: A Comprehensive Review
by Giulio Sinigiani, Laura De Michieli, Giorgio De Conti, Fabrizio Ricci, Manuel De Lazzari, Federico Migliore, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Alessandro Zorzi, Domenico Corrado and Alberto Cipriani
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(8), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10080319 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Acute myocardial edema (AME) is increased water content in the myocardium and represents the first and transient pathophysiological response to an acute myocardial injury. In-vivo and non-invasive evaluation is feasible with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), which is a powerful imaging technique capable of [...] Read more.
Acute myocardial edema (AME) is increased water content in the myocardium and represents the first and transient pathophysiological response to an acute myocardial injury. In-vivo and non-invasive evaluation is feasible with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), which is a powerful imaging technique capable of tissue characterization. In the clinical setting, early demonstration of AME has a recognized diagnostic value for acute coronary syndromes and acute myocarditis, although its prognostic value is not well established. This article provides a comprehensive narrative review on the clinical meaning of AME in heart diseases. In particular, the available evidence of a possible favourable prognostic value in several clinical scenarios is addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Imaging)
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10 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Cath Lab in the Treatment of Adult Patients with Congenital Heart Disease: A 12-Year Experience in a Single Referral Center with the Establishment of a Dedicated Working Group
by Maria Giulia Gagliardi, Roberto Formigari, Marco Alfonso Perrone, Elettra Pomiato, Francesca Fanisio, Mario Panebianco, Rosaria Barracano, Paolo Guccione, Rosalinda Palmieri, Massimiliano Raponi and Lorenzo Galletti
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(8), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10080314 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are a growing population needing ongoing care. The aim of this study was to investigate if a dedicated ACHD team impacted the timing and indication of invasive cardiology procedures in these patients at our hospital. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are a growing population needing ongoing care. The aim of this study was to investigate if a dedicated ACHD team impacted the timing and indication of invasive cardiology procedures in these patients at our hospital. Methods: Our retrospective single-center study enrolled adult patients with moderate or complex congenital heart disease and with at least one cardiac catheterization between January 2010 and December 2021. According to the period, procedures were labeled as group A (2010 to 2015) or group B (2016 to 2021) and further divided into diagnostic (DCC) and interventional cardiac catheterizations (ICC). Results: 594 patients were eligible for the study. Both DCC (p < 0.05) and ICC increased between groups A and B (p < 0.05). In group B: Fontan patients accounted for the majority of DCC (p < 0.001), while DCC decreased in arterial switch repair (p < 0.001). In Fontan patients, conduit stenting was prevalent (p < 0.001), while fenestration closures dropped (p < 0.01). In patients with tetralogy of Fallot and native outflow tract, percutaneous pulmonary valve implantations (PPVI) increased, with a concurrent reduction in pulmonary valve replacements (p < 0.001 vs. surgical series). In right ventricular conduits, ICC increased (p < 0.01), mainly due to PPVI. Among Mustard/Senning patients, baffle stenting increased from Group A to Group B (p < 0.001). In patients with pulmonary atresia and biventricular repair, ICC often increased for pulmonary artery stenting. Conclusions: A dedicated working group could improve ACHD patients’ indications for interventional procedures, leading to tailored treatment, better risk stratification and optimizing time until heart transplantation. Full article
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19 pages, 10151 KiB  
Article
H3K36 Di-Methylation Marks, Mediated by Ash1 in Complex with Caf1-55 and MRG15, Are Required during Drosophila Heart Development
by Jun-yi Zhu, Chen Liu, Xiaohu Huang, Joyce van de Leemput, Hangnoh Lee and Zhe Han
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(7), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10070307 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Methyltransferases regulate transcriptome dynamics during development and aging, as well as in disease. Various methyltransferases have been linked to heart disease, through disrupted expression and activity, and genetic variants associated with congenital heart disease. However, in vivo functional data for many of the [...] Read more.
Methyltransferases regulate transcriptome dynamics during development and aging, as well as in disease. Various methyltransferases have been linked to heart disease, through disrupted expression and activity, and genetic variants associated with congenital heart disease. However, in vivo functional data for many of the methyltransferases in the context of the heart are limited. Here, we used the Drosophila model system to investigate different histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methyltransferases for their role in heart development. The data show that Drosophila Ash1 is the functional homolog of human ASH1L in the heart. Both Ash1 and Set2 H3K36 methyltransferases are required for heart structure and function during development. Furthermore, Ash1-mediated H3K36 methylation (H3K36me2) is essential for healthy heart function, which depends on both Ash1-complex components, Caf1-55 and MRG15, together. These findings provide in vivo functional data for Ash1 and its complex, and Set2, in the context of H3K36 methylation in the heart, and support a role for their mammalian homologs, ASH1L with RBBP4 and MORF4L1, and SETD2, during heart development and disease. Full article
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17 pages, 1475 KiB  
Review
The Roles of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases in Heart Development and Disease
by Jun-yi Zhu, Joyce van de Leemput and Zhe Han
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(7), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10070305 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Epigenetic marks regulate the transcriptomic landscape by facilitating the structural packing and unwinding of the genome, which is tightly folded inside the nucleus. Lysine-specific histone methylation is one such mark. It plays crucial roles during development, including in cell fate decisions, in tissue [...] Read more.
Epigenetic marks regulate the transcriptomic landscape by facilitating the structural packing and unwinding of the genome, which is tightly folded inside the nucleus. Lysine-specific histone methylation is one such mark. It plays crucial roles during development, including in cell fate decisions, in tissue patterning, and in regulating cellular metabolic processes. It has also been associated with varying human developmental disorders. Heart disease has been linked to deregulated histone lysine methylation, and lysine-specific methyltransferases (KMTs) are overrepresented, i.e., more numerous than expected by chance, among the genes with variants associated with congenital heart disease. This review outlines the available evidence to support a role for individual KMTs in heart development and/or disease, including genetic associations in patients and supporting cell culture and animal model studies. It concludes with new advances in the field and new opportunities for treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 3007 KiB  
Article
Imaging Predictors of Left Ventricular Functional Recovery after Reperfusion Therapy of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance
by Agneta Virbickiene, Tomas Lapinskas, Christoph D. Garlichs, Stephan Mattecka, Radu Tanacli, Wolfgang Ries, Jan Torzewski, Franz Heigl, Christian Pfluecke, Harald Darius, Hueseyin Ince, Peter Nordbeck, Christian Butter, Andreas Schuster, Steffen Mitzner, Olivija Dobiliene, Ahmed Sheriff and Sebastian Kelle
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(7), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10070294 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Background: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) is a superior predictor of adverse cardiac events in patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. We investigated the ability of morphological features of infarcted myocardium to detect acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and predict [...] Read more.
Background: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) is a superior predictor of adverse cardiac events in patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. We investigated the ability of morphological features of infarcted myocardium to detect acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and predict LV functional recovery after three months in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Sixty-six STEMI patients were included in the C-reactive protein (CRP) apheresis in Acute Myocardial Infarction Study (CAMI-1). LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV GLS, LV global circumferential strain (LV GCS), infarct size (IS), area-at-risk (AAR), and myocardial salvage index (MSI) were assessed by CMR 5 ± 3 days (baseline) and 12 ± 2 weeks after (follow-up) the diagnosis of first acute STEMI. Results: Significant changes in myocardial injury parameters were identified after 12 weeks of STEMI diagnosis. IS decreased from 23.59 ± 11.69% at baseline to 18.29 ± 8.32% at follow-up (p < 0.001). AAR and MVO also significantly reduced after 12 weeks. At baseline, there were reasonably moderate correlations between IS and LVEF (r = −0.479, p < 0.001), LV GLS (r = 0.441, p < 0.001) and LV GCS (r = 0.396, p = 0.001) as well as between AAR and LVEF (r = −0.430, p = 0.003), LV GLS (r = 0.501, p < 0.001) and weak with LV GCS (r = 0.342, p = 0.020). At follow-up, only MSI and change in LV GCS over time showed a weak but significant correlation (r = −0.347, p = 0.021). Patients with larger AAR at baseline improved more in LVEF (p = 0.019) and LV GLS (p = 0.020) but not in LV GCS. Conclusion: The CMR tissue characteristics of myocardial injury correlate with the magnitude of LV dysfunction during the acute stage of STEMI. AAR predicts improvement in LVEF and LV GLS, while MSI is a sensitive marker of LV GCS recovery at three months follow-up after STEMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiology Practice)
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13 pages, 433 KiB  
Article
Cardiac Function and Serum Biomarkers throughout Staged Fontan Palliation: A Prospective Observational Study
by J. P. G. van der Ven, V P. Kamphuis, E van den Bosch, D Gnanam, C Terol, A J. J. C. Bogers, J. M. P. J. Breur, R. M. F. Berger, N. A. Blom, A. D. J. ten Harkel, L. Koopman and W. A. Helbing
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(7), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10070289 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Fontan patients undergo multiple cardiothoracic surgeries in childhood. Following these procedures, ventricular function is temporarily decreased, and recovers over months. This is presumably related to cardiopulmonary bypass, but this is incompletely understood. Throughout the Fontan palliation, cardiac function is also affected by volume [...] Read more.
Fontan patients undergo multiple cardiothoracic surgeries in childhood. Following these procedures, ventricular function is temporarily decreased, and recovers over months. This is presumably related to cardiopulmonary bypass, but this is incompletely understood. Throughout the Fontan palliation, cardiac function is also affected by volume unloading. We aimed to gain insight into the biological processes related to impaired ventricular function and recovery following Fontan palliations using a panel of biomarkers. Furthermore, we described changes in ventricular function across the Fontan palliation due to volume unloading. We performed a prospective multicenter observational study in patients undergoing partial (PCPC) or total cavo-pulmonary connection (TCPC). Patients underwent assessment—including echocardiography and blood sampling—before surgery (T1), at first follow-up (T2), and 1 year after their procedures (T3). Blood samples were analyzed using a biomarker panel (OLINK CVD-III). Ninety-two biomarkers were expressed as principal components (PC) to limit multiple statistical testing. We included 32 PCPC patients aged 7.2 [5.3–10.3] months, and 28 TCPC patients aged 2.7 [2.2–3.8] years. The single ventricular longitudinal strain (SV GLS) temporarily decreased for PCPC patients at T2 (−15.1 ± 5.6 (T1) to −13.5 ± 5.2 (T2) to −17.3 ± 4.5 (T3), p < 0.047 for all differences), but not following TCPC. The serum biomarkers were expressed as 4 PCs. PC1, including biomarkers of cell–cell adhesion, was not related to any patient characteristic. PC2, including biomarkers of superoxide anion regulation, increased at T2. PC3, including biomarkers of cardiovascular development, related to the stage of Fontan palliation. PC4 was of uncertain biological or clinical significance. No PC was found that related to ventricular performance. The SV GLS was temporarily diminished following PCPC, but not following TCPC. Several biomarkers were related to post-operative stress and adaptation to the PCPC or TCPC circulation, but none were related to the outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echocardiography in Pediatric Heart Disease)
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28 pages, 2937 KiB  
Review
The Impacts of Animal-Based Diets in Cardiovascular Disease Development: A Cellular and Physiological Overview
by Rami Salim Najjar
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(7), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10070282 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 12134
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and diet plays an instrumental role in CVD development. Plant-based diets have been strongly tied to a reduction in CVD incidence. In contrast, animal food consumption may increase CVD risk. [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and diet plays an instrumental role in CVD development. Plant-based diets have been strongly tied to a reduction in CVD incidence. In contrast, animal food consumption may increase CVD risk. While increased serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations are an established risk factor which may partially explain the positive association with animal foods and CVD, numerous other biochemical factors are also at play. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the major cellular and molecular effects of animal food consumption in relation to CVD development. Animal-food-centered diets may (1) increase cardiovascular toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, due to increased serum endotoxins and oxidized LDL cholesterol, (2) increase cardiovascular lipotoxicity, (3) increase renin-angiotensin system components and subsequent angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) signaling and (4) increase serum trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations. These nutritionally mediated factors independently increase cardiovascular oxidative stress and inflammation and are all independently tied to CVD development. Public policy efforts should continue to advocate for the consumption of a mostly plant-based diet, with the minimization of animal-based foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Cardiovascular Diseases—Current Views and Trends)
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13 pages, 364 KiB  
Review
Referral of Patients for Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement before and after Introduction of the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation—Changing Patterns of Preoperative Characteristics and Volume and Postoperative Outcome
by Wilhelm Mistiaen
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(5), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10050223 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was first presented in 2002 as a case report. Randomized controlled trials showed that TAVI could serve as an alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk patients. While the indications for TAVI have expanded into low-risk [...] Read more.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was first presented in 2002 as a case report. Randomized controlled trials showed that TAVI could serve as an alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk patients. While the indications for TAVI have expanded into low-risk groups, favorable results of SAVR in elderly showed an increase in application of surgical treatment in this age category. This review aims to explore the effect of the introduction of TAVI in the referral for SAVR with respect to volume, patient profile, early outcome, and use of mechanical heart valves. Results show that the volume of SAVR has increased in several cardiac centers. In a small minority of series, age and risk score of the referred patients also increased. In most of the series, early mortality rate reduced. These findings, however are not universal. Different management policies could be responsible for this observation. Moreover, some patients in whom aortic valve replacement in whatever form is indicated still do not receive adequate treatment. This can be due to several reasons. Heart teams consisting of interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons should become a universal approach in order to minimize the number of untreated patients. Full article
29 pages, 3379 KiB  
Review
Noncoding RNAs as Key Regulators for Cardiac Development and Cardiovascular Diseases
by Satoshi Kawaguchi, Bruno Moukette, Taiki Hayasaka, Angela K. Haskell, Jessica Mah, Marisa N. Sepúlveda, Yaoliang Tang and Il-man Kim
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10040166 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play fundamental roles in cardiac development and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. With advances in RNA sequencing technology, the focus of recent research has transitioned from studies of specific candidates to whole transcriptome [...] Read more.
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play fundamental roles in cardiac development and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. With advances in RNA sequencing technology, the focus of recent research has transitioned from studies of specific candidates to whole transcriptome analyses. Thanks to these types of studies, new ncRNAs have been identified for their implication in cardiac development and CVDs. In this review, we briefly describe the classification of ncRNAs into microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs. We then discuss their critical roles in cardiac development and CVDs by citing the most up-to-date research articles. More specifically, we summarize the roles of ncRNAs in the formation of the heart tube and cardiac morphogenesis, cardiac mesoderm specification, and embryonic cardiomyocytes and cardiac progenitor cells. We also highlight ncRNAs that have recently emerged as key regulators in CVDs by focusing on six of them. We believe that this review concisely addresses perhaps not all but certainly the major aspects of current progress in ncRNA research in cardiac development and CVDs. Thus, this review would be beneficial for readers to obtain a recent picture of key ncRNAs and their mechanisms of action in cardiac development and CVDs. Full article
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15 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
Purkinje Cardiomyocytes of the Adult Ventricular Conduction System Are Highly Diploid but Not Uniquely Regenerative
by Hirofumi Watanabe, Ge Tao, Peiheng Gan, Baylee C. Westbury, Kristie D. Cox, Kelsey Tjen, Ruolan Song, Glenn I. Fishman, Takako Makita and Henry M. Sucov
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10040161 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Adult hearts are characterized by inefficient regeneration after injury, thus, the features that support or prevent cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation are important to clarify. Diploid CMs are a candidate cell type that may have unique proliferative and regenerative competence, but no molecular markers are [...] Read more.
Adult hearts are characterized by inefficient regeneration after injury, thus, the features that support or prevent cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation are important to clarify. Diploid CMs are a candidate cell type that may have unique proliferative and regenerative competence, but no molecular markers are yet known that selectively identify all or subpopulations of diploid CMs. Here, using the conduction system expression marker Cntn2-GFP and the conduction system lineage marker Etv1CreERT2, we demonstrate that Purkinje CMs that comprise the adult ventricular conduction system are disproportionately diploid (33%, vs. 4% of bulk ventricular CMs). These, however, represent only a small proportion (3%) of the total diploid CM population. Using EdU incorporation during the first postnatal week, we demonstrate that bulk diploid CMs found in the later heart enter and complete the cell cycle during the neonatal period. In contrast, a significant fraction of conduction CMs persist as diploid cells from fetal life and avoid neonatal cell cycle activity. Despite their high degree of diploidy, the Purkinje lineage had no enhanced competence to support regeneration after adult heart infarction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Development, Regeneration and Repair)
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12 pages, 2546 KiB  
Review
Moderator Band and Ventricular Tachycardia: Structural or Functional Substrate?
by Federico Landra, Carmine Marallo, Amato Santoro, Simone Taddeucci, Maria Cristina Tavera, Claudia Baiocchi and Alberto Palazzuoli
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10040159 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 4106
Abstract
The moderator band (MB) is an intracavitary structure of the right ventricle composed of muscular fibers encompassing specialized Purkinje fibers, separated each other by collagen and adipose tissue. In the last decades, premature ventricular complexes originating within the Purkinje network have been implicated [...] Read more.
The moderator band (MB) is an intracavitary structure of the right ventricle composed of muscular fibers encompassing specialized Purkinje fibers, separated each other by collagen and adipose tissue. In the last decades, premature ventricular complexes originating within the Purkinje network have been implicated in the genesis of life-threatening arrhythmias. However, right Purkinje network arrhythmias have been much less reported in the literature compared to the left counterpart. The MB has unique anatomical and electrophysiological properties, which may account for its arrhythmogenicity and may be responsible for a significant portion of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. MB embodies autonomic nervous system cells, with important implications in arrhythmogenesis. Some idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, defined as the absence of any identifiable structural heart disorder, can begin from this site. Due to these complex structural and functional peculiarities strictly interplayed each other, it is arduous to determine the precise mechanism underlying MB arrhythmias. MB-related arrhythmias should be differentiated from other right Purkinje fibers arrhythmias because of the opportunity for intervention and the unusual site for the ablation poorly described in the literature. In the current paper, we report the characteristics and electrical properties of the MB, their involvement in arrhythmogenesis, clinical and electrophysiological peculiarities of MB-related arrhythmias, and current treatment options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Approach to Complex Arrhythmias)
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12 pages, 2596 KiB  
Review
Echocardiography vs. CMR in the Quantification of Chronic Mitral Regurgitation: A Happy Marriage or Stormy Divorce?
by Francesca Baessato, Laura Fusini, Manuela Muratori, Gloria Tamborini, Sarah Ghulam Ali, Valentina Mantegazza, Andrea Baggiano, Saima Mushtaq, Mauro Pepi, Giuseppe Patti and Gianluca Pontone
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10040150 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
Quantification of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) is essential to guide patients’ clinical management and define the need and appropriate timing for mitral valve surgery. Echocardiography represents the first-line imaging modality to assess MR and requires an integrative approach based on qualitative, semiquantitative, and [...] Read more.
Quantification of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) is essential to guide patients’ clinical management and define the need and appropriate timing for mitral valve surgery. Echocardiography represents the first-line imaging modality to assess MR and requires an integrative approach based on qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative parameters. Of note, quantitative parameters, such as the echocardiographic effective regurgitant orifice area, regurgitant volume (RegV), and regurgitant fraction (RegF), are considered the most reliable indicators of MR severity. In contrast, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has demonstrated high accuracy and good reproducibility in quantifying MR, especially in cases with secondary MR; nonholosystolic, eccentric, and multiple jets; or noncircular regurgitant orifices, where quantification with echocardiography is an issue. No gold standard for MR quantification by noninvasive cardiac imaging has been defined so far. Only a moderate agreement has been shown between echocardiography, either with transthoracic or transesophageal approaches, and CMR in MR quantification, as supported by numerous comparative studies. A higher agreement is evidenced when echocardiographic 3D techniques are used. CMR is superior to echocardiography in the calculation of the RegV, RegF, and ventricular volumes and can provide myocardial tissue characterization. However, echocardiography remains fundamental in the pre-operative anatomical evaluation of the mitral valve and of the subvalvular apparatus. The aim of this review is to explore the accuracy of MR quantification provided by echocardiography and CMR in a head-to-head comparison between the two techniques, with insight into the technical aspects of each imaging modality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Regurgitation)
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12 pages, 992 KiB  
Review
Growing Heart Valve Implants for Children
by Haley Konsek, Curry Sherard, Cora Bisbee, Lillian Kang, Joseph W. Turek and Taufiek K. Rajab
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10040148 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2438
Abstract
The current standard of care for pediatric patients with unrepairable congenital valvular disease is a heart valve implant. However, current heart valve implants are unable to accommodate the somatic growth of the recipient, preventing long-term clinical success in these patients. Therefore, there is [...] Read more.
The current standard of care for pediatric patients with unrepairable congenital valvular disease is a heart valve implant. However, current heart valve implants are unable to accommodate the somatic growth of the recipient, preventing long-term clinical success in these patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a growing heart valve implant for children. This article reviews recent studies investigating tissue-engineered heart valves and partial heart transplantation as potential growing heart valve implants in large animal and clinical translational research. In vitro and in situ designs of tissue engineered heart valves are discussed, as well as the barriers to clinical translation. Full article
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13 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Functional Remodeling of the Ischemic Heart Correlates with Homocysteine Levels
by Attila Cziraki, Zoltan Nemeth, Sandor Szabados, Tamas Nagy, Márk Szántó, Csaba Nyakas and Akos Koller
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10030122 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) is involved in various methylation processes, and its plasma level is increased in cardiac ischemia. Thus, we hypothesized that levels of homocysteine correlate with the morphological and functional remodeling of ischemic hearts. Thus, we aimed to measure the Hcy levels [...] Read more.
Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) is involved in various methylation processes, and its plasma level is increased in cardiac ischemia. Thus, we hypothesized that levels of homocysteine correlate with the morphological and functional remodeling of ischemic hearts. Thus, we aimed to measure the Hcy levels in the plasma and pericardial fluid (PF) and correlate them with morphological and functional changes in the ischemic hearts of humans. Methods: Concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) and cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) of plasma and PF were measured in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (n = 14). Left-ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter (LVED), LV end-systolic diameter (LVES), right atrial, left atrial (LA) area, thickness of interventricular septum (IVS) and posterior wall, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and right ventricular outflow tract end-diastolic area (RVOT EDA) of CABG and non-cardiac patients (NCP; n = 10) were determined by echocardiography, and LV mass was calculated (cLVM). Results: Positive correlations were found between Hcy levels of plasma and PF, tHcy levels and LVED, LVES and LA, and an inverse correlation was found between tHcy levels and LVEF. cLVM, IVS, and RVOT EDA were higher in CABG with elevated tHcy (>12 µM/L) compared to NCP. In addition, we found a higher cTn-I level in the PF compared to the plasma of CABG patients (0.08 ± 0.02 vs. 0.01 ± 0.003 ng/mL, p < 0.001), which was ~10 fold higher than the normal level. Conclusions: We propose that homocysteine is an important cardiac biomarker and may have an important role in the development of cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in chronic myocardial ischemia in humans. Full article
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10 pages, 1369 KiB  
Review
Minimal Access Tricuspid Valve Surgery
by Jean-Alexandre Sauvé, Yung-Szu Wu, Ravi Ghatanatti and Joseph Zacharias
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10030118 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1816
Abstract
Tricuspid valve diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that typically have poor prognoses when treated medically and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality with traditional surgical techniques. Minimal access tricuspid valve surgery may mitigate some of the surgical risks associated with [...] Read more.
Tricuspid valve diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that typically have poor prognoses when treated medically and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality with traditional surgical techniques. Minimal access tricuspid valve surgery may mitigate some of the surgical risks associated with the standard sternotomy approach by limiting pain, reducing blood loss, lowering the risk of wound infections, and shortening hospital stays. In certain patient populations, this may allow for a prompt intervention that could limit the pathologic effects of these diseases. Herein, we review the literature on minimal access tricuspid valve surgery focusing on perioperative planning, technique, and outcomes of minimal access endoscopic and robotic surgery for isolated tricuspid valve disease. Full article
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18 pages, 2280 KiB  
Review
Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Current Insights and Future Perspectives
by Colton J. Ross, Arshid Mir, Harold M. Burkhart, Gerhard A. Holzapfel and Chung-Hao Lee
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10030111 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3765
Abstract
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect that requires a three-stage surgical palliation to create a single ventricle system in the right side of the heart. Of patients undergoing this cardiac palliation series, 25% will develop tricuspid regurgitation (TR), [...] Read more.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect that requires a three-stage surgical palliation to create a single ventricle system in the right side of the heart. Of patients undergoing this cardiac palliation series, 25% will develop tricuspid regurgitation (TR), which is associated with an increased mortality risk. Valvular regurgitation in this population has been extensively studied to understand indicators and mechanisms of comorbidity. In this article, we review the current state of research on TR in HLHS, including identified valvular anomalies and geometric properties as the main reasons for the poor prognosis. After this review, we present some suggestions for future TR-related studies to answer the central question: What are the predictors of TR onset during the three palliation stages? These studies involve (i) the use of engineering-based metrics to evaluate valve leaflet strains and predict tissue material properties, (ii) perform multivariate analyses to identify TR predictors, and (iii) develop predictive models, particularly using longitudinally tracked patient cohorts to foretell patient-specific trajectories. Regarded together, these ongoing and future efforts will result in the development of innovative tools that can aid in surgical timing decisions, in prophylactic surgical valve repair, and in the refinement of current intervention techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Congenital Heart Defects: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment)
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11 pages, 1077 KiB  
Article
Target Balloon-Assisted Antegrade and Retrograde Use of Re-Entry Catheters in Complex Chronic Total Occlusions
by Lorenzo Patrone, Nada Selva Theivacumar, Brahman Dharmarajah, Narayanan Thulasidasan, Athanasios Diamantopoulos, Luis Mariano Palena, Muliadi Antaredja, Lisa Tilemann and Erwin Blessing
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10020053 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Purpose, Retrograde recanalizations have gained increasing recognition in complex arterial occlusive disease. Re-entry devices are a well described adjunct for antegrade recanalizations. We present our experience with target balloon-assisted antegrade and retrograde recanalizations using re-entry devices in challenging chronic total occlusions. Materials and [...] Read more.
Purpose, Retrograde recanalizations have gained increasing recognition in complex arterial occlusive disease. Re-entry devices are a well described adjunct for antegrade recanalizations. We present our experience with target balloon-assisted antegrade and retrograde recanalizations using re-entry devices in challenging chronic total occlusions. Materials and Methods: We report data from a retrospective multicenter registry. Eligibility criteria included either antegrade or retrograde use of the OutbackTM or GoBackTM re-entry catheter in combination with a balloon as a target to accomplish wire passage, when conventional antegrade and retrograde recanalization attempts had been unsuccessful. Procedural outcomes included technical success (defined as wire passage though the occlusion and delivery of adjunctive therapy with <30% residual stenosis at final angiogram), safety (periprocedural complications, e.g., bleeding, vessel injury, or occlusion of the artery at the re-entry site, and distal embolizations), and clinical outcome (amputation-free survival and freedom from target lesion revascularization after 12-months follow-up). Results: Thirty-six consecutive patients underwent target balloon-assisted recanalization attempts. Fourteen (39 %) patients had a history of open vascular surgery in the index limb. Fifteen patients were claudications (Rutherford Class 2 or 3, 21 presented with chronic limb threatening limb ischemia (Rutherford Class 4 to 6). The locations of the occlusive lesions were as follows: iliac arteries in 3 cases, femoropopliteal artery in 39 cases, and in below-the-knee arteries in 12 cases. In 15 cases, recanalization was attempted in multilevel occlusions. Retrograde access was attempted in 1 case in the common femoral artery, in the femoropopliteal segment in 10 cases, in below-the-knee arteries in 23 cases, and finally in 2 patients via the brachial artery. In 10 cases, the re-entry devices were inserted via the retrograde access site. Technical success was achieved in 34 (94 %) patients. There were 3 periprocedural complications, none directly related to the target balloon-assisted re-entry maneuver. Amputation-free survival was 87.8 % and freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization was 86.6 % after 12-months follow-up. Conclusion: Target balloon-assisted use of re-entry devices in chronic total occlusions provides an effective and safe endovascular adjunct, when conventional antegrade and retrograde recanalization attempts have failed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Challenges in Peripheral Arterial Disease)
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10 pages, 830 KiB  
Review
Targeted Atrial Fibrillation Therapy and Risk Stratification Using Atrial Alternans
by Neha Muthavarapu, Anmol Mohan, Sharanya Manga, Palak Sharma, Aditi Kishor Bhanushali, Ashima Yadav, Devanshi Narendra Damani, Pierre Jais, Richard D. Walton, Shivaram P. Arunachalam and Kanchan Kulkarni
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10020036 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most persistent arrhythmia today, with its prevalence increasing exponentially with the rising age of the population. Particularly at elevated heart rates, a functional abnormality known as cardiac alternans can occur prior to the onset of lethal arrhythmias. Cardiac [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most persistent arrhythmia today, with its prevalence increasing exponentially with the rising age of the population. Particularly at elevated heart rates, a functional abnormality known as cardiac alternans can occur prior to the onset of lethal arrhythmias. Cardiac alternans are a beat-to-beat oscillation of electrical activity and the force of cardiac muscle contraction. Extensive evidence has demonstrated that microvolt T-wave alternans can predict ventricular fibrillation vulnerability and the risk of sudden cardiac death. The majority of our knowledge of the mechanisms of alternans stems from studies of ventricular electrophysiology, although recent studies offer promising evidence of the potential of atrial alternans in predicting the risk of AF. Exciting preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a link between atrial alternans and the onset of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the clinical utility of atrial alternans in identifying the risk and guiding treatment of AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Approach to Complex Arrhythmias)
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13 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
An Individualized, Less-Invasive Surgical Approach Algorithm Improves Outcome in Elderly Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery
by Ulvi Cenk Oezpeker, Fabian Barbieri, Daniel Höfer, Can Gollmann-Tepeköylü, Johannes Holfeld, Florian Sommerauer, Julian Wagner, Sasa Rajsic, Suat Ersahin, Nikolaos Bonaros, Michael Grimm and Müller Ludwig
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010028 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Background: For mitral valve surgery (MVS) in elderly, frail patients with increasing life expectancy, finding the least harmful means of access is a challenge. In the complexity of MVS approach evolution, using three different approaches (mini-thoracotomy (MT), partial upper-sternotomy (PS), full-sternotomy (FS), we [...] Read more.
Background: For mitral valve surgery (MVS) in elderly, frail patients with increasing life expectancy, finding the least harmful means of access is a challenge. In the complexity of MVS approach evolution, using three different approaches (mini-thoracotomy (MT), partial upper-sternotomy (PS), full-sternotomy (FS), we developed a personalized, minimized-invasiveness algorithm for MVS. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 517 elderly patients (≥70 years) were identified who had undergone MVS ± TV repair. MVS was performed via MT (n = 274), FS (n = 128) and PS (n = 115). The appropriate access type was defined according to several clinical patient conditions. Using uni- and multivariate regression models, we analyzed combined operative success (residual MV regurgitation, conversion to MV replacement or larger thoracic incisions); perioperative success (30-days mortality, thoracotomy, ECMO, pacemaker implantation, dialysis, longer ventilation); and reoperation-free long-term survival. An additional EuroSCORE2 adjustment was performed to reduce the bias of clinical conditions between all access types. Results: The EuroSCORE2-adjusted Cox regression analysis showed significantly increased reoperation-free survival in the MT cohort compared to FS (HR 0.640; 95% CI 0.442–0.926; p = 0.018). Mortality was additionally reduced after the implementation of PS (p = 0.023). Combined operative success was comparable between the three access types. The perioperative success was higher in the MT cohort compared to FS (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.32–3.63; p = 0.002). Conclusion: Less-invasive approaches in elderly patients improve perioperative success and reoperation-free survival in those undergoing MVS procedures. Full article
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14 pages, 24390 KiB  
Article
Elderly with Varying Extents of Cardiac Disease Show Interindividual Fluctuating Myocardial TRPC6-Immunoreactivity
by Jan Michael Federspiel, Jil Gartner, Peter Lipp, Peter Schmidt and Thomas Tschernig
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010026 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Both particular myocardial locations in the human heart and the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) cation channel have been linked with cardiac pathophysiologies. Thus, the present study mapped TRPC6-protein distribution in select anatomic locations associated with cardiac disease in the context of [...] Read more.
Both particular myocardial locations in the human heart and the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) cation channel have been linked with cardiac pathophysiologies. Thus, the present study mapped TRPC6-protein distribution in select anatomic locations associated with cardiac disease in the context of an orienting pathological assessment. Specimens were obtained from 5 body donors (4 formalin fixation, 1 nitrite pickling salt-ethanol-polyethylene glycol (NEP) fixation; median age 81 years; 2 females) and procured for basic histological stains and TRPC6-immunohistochemistry. The latter was analyzed descriptively regarding distribution and intensity of positive signals. The percentage of positively labelled myocardium was also determined (optical threshold method). Exclusively exploratory statistical analyses were performed. TRPC6-protein was distributed widespread and homogenously within each analyzed sample. TRPC6-immunoreactive myocardial area was comparable regarding the different anatomic regions and sex. A significantly larger area of TRPC6-immunoreactive myocardium was found in the NEP-fixed donor compared to the formalin fixed donors. Two donors with more severe heart disease showed smaller areas of myocardial TRPC6-immunoreactivity overall compared to the other 3 donors. In summary, in the elderly, TRPC6-protein is widely and homogenously distributed, and severe cardiac disease might be associated with less TRPC6-immunoreactive myocardial area. The tissue fixation method represents a potential confounder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Acquired Cardiovascular Disease)
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11 pages, 808 KiB  
Article
Higher Incidence of Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction in the COVID-19 Era: A Single Cardio-Oncology Center Experience
by Daniela Di Lisi, Cristina Madaudo, Luca Di Fazio, Antonino Gulotta, Oreste Fabio Triolo, Alfredo Ruggero Galassi, Lorena Incorvaia, Antonio Russo and Giuseppina Novo
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010023 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Aim: COVID-19 pandemic had a big impact on our life, it has revolutionized the practice of cardiology and the organization of hospital and outpatient activities. Thus the aim of our study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development [...] Read more.
Aim: COVID-19 pandemic had a big impact on our life, it has revolutionized the practice of cardiology and the organization of hospital and outpatient activities. Thus the aim of our study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD). Methods and results: A single center retrospective study was carried out evaluating 96 cancer patients treated with anthracyclines and admitted to our Cardio-Oncology unit from June to August 2019 and 60 patients from June to August 2021. The incidence of CTRCD was assessed performing an echocardiogram at the time of the enrollment. We found a significantly higher incidence of CTRCD in the second period compared to first period (13% vs. 2%, p value 0.0058). In addition we found that fewer yearly visits were performed in our Cardio-oncology unit in 2021 compared to 2019 (300 patients/year in 2019 vs. 144 patients/year in the COVID era). Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic seems to influence the onset of CTRCD in cancer patients by indirectly reducing hospital access of cancer patients and cardiological checks. In addition our data reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the late diagnosis of cancer, in the reduction of hospital admissions and regular medical checks, in the increase of comorbidities and cardiovascular complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Toxicity Related to Cancer Treatment)
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20 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
A Story of PA/BSA and Biomarkers to Diagnose Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis—The Rise of IGF-BP2 and GDF-15
by Joseph Kletzer, Stefan Hecht, Susanne Ramsauer, Bernhard Scharinger, Reinhard Kaufmann, Jürgen Kammler, Jörg Kellermair, Kaveh Akbari, Hermann Blessberger, Clemens Steinwender, Klaus Hergan, Uta C. Hoppe, Michael Lichtenauer and Elke Boxhammer
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010022 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
(1) Background: Currently, echocardiography is the primary non-invasive diagnostic method used to screen patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) for pulmonary hypertension (PH) by estimating systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). Other radiological methods have been a focus of research in the past [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Currently, echocardiography is the primary non-invasive diagnostic method used to screen patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) for pulmonary hypertension (PH) by estimating systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). Other radiological methods have been a focus of research in the past couple of years, as it was shown that by determining the pulmonary artery (PA) diameter, prognostic statements concerning overall mortality could be made in these patients. This study compared established and novel cardiovascular biomarkers with the PA/BSA value to detect PH in patients with severe AS. (2) Methods: The study cohort comprised 188 patients with severe AS undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), who were then divided into two groups based on PA/BSA values obtained through CT-angiography. The presence of PH was defined as a PA/BSA ≥ 16.6 mm/m2 (n = 81), and absence as a PA/BSA < 16.6 mm/m2 (n = 107). Blood samples were taken before TAVR to assess cardiovascular biomarkers used in this study, namely brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), high-sensitive troponin (hsTN), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2), growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGF-BP2), and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). (3) Results: Patients with a PA/BSA ≥ 16.6 mm/m2 showed significantly higher levels of BNP (p = <0.001), GDF-15 (p = 0.040), and H-FABP (p = 0.007). The other investigated cardiovascular biomarkers did not significantly differ between the two groups. To predict a PA/BSA ≥ 16.6 mm/m2, cut-off values for the biomarkers were calculated. Here, GDF-15 (p = 0.029; cut-off 1172.0 pg/mL) and BNP (p < 0.001; cut-off 2194.0 pg/mL) showed significant results. Consequently, analyses of combined biomarkers were performed, which yielded IGF-BP2 + BNP (AUC = 0.721; 95%CI = 0.585–0.857; p = 0.004) as the best result of the two-way analyses and GDF-15 + IGF-BP2 + BNP (AUC = 0.727; 95%CI = 0.590–0.864; p = 0.004) as the best result of the three-way analyses. No significant difference regarding the 1-year survival between patients with PA/BSA < 16.6 mm/m2 and patients with PA/BSA ≥ 16.6 mm/m2 was found (log-rank test: p = 0.452). (4) Conclusions: Although PA/BSA aims to reduce the bias of the PA value caused by different body compositions and sizes, it is still a controversial parameter for diagnosing PH. Combining the parameter with different cardiovascular biomarkers did not lead to a significant increase in the diagnostic precision for detecting PH in patients with severe AS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH))
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13 pages, 1066 KiB  
Review
Inflammation and Heart Failure: Searching for the Enemy—Reaching the Entelechy
by Ioannis Paraskevaidis, Dimitrios Farmakis, Georgios Papingiotis and Elias Tsougos
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010019 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
The pivotal role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of heart-failure (HF) development and progression has long been recognized. High blood levels of pro-inflammatory and inflammatory markers are present and associated with adverse outcomes in patients with HF. In addition, there seems to be [...] Read more.
The pivotal role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of heart-failure (HF) development and progression has long been recognized. High blood levels of pro-inflammatory and inflammatory markers are present and associated with adverse outcomes in patients with HF. In addition, there seems to be an interrelation between inflammation and neurohormonal activation, the cornerstone of HF pathophysiology and management. However, clinical trials involving anti-inflammatory agents have shown inconclusive or even contradictory results in improving HF outcomes. In the present review, we try to shed some light on the reciprocal relationship between inflammation and HF in an attempt to identify the central regulating factors, such as inflammatory cells and soluble mediators and the related inflammatory pathways as potential therapeutic targets. Full article
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18 pages, 691 KiB  
Review
SCUBA Diving in Adult Congenital Heart Disease
by Robert M. Kauling, Rienk Rienks, Judith A. A. E. Cuypers, Harald T. Jorstad and Jolien W. Roos-Hesselink
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10010020 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
Conventionally, scuba diving has been discouraged for adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD). This restrictive sports advice is based on expert opinion in the absence of high-quality diving-specific studies. However, as survival and quality of life in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients [...] Read more.
Conventionally, scuba diving has been discouraged for adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD). This restrictive sports advice is based on expert opinion in the absence of high-quality diving-specific studies. However, as survival and quality of life in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have dramatically improved in the last decades, a critical appraisal whether such restrictive sports advice is still applicable is warranted. In this review, the cardiovascular effects of diving are described and a framework for the work-up for ACHD patients wishing to engage in scuba diving is provided. In addition, diving recommendations for specific CHD diagnostic groups are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Cardiology: From Diagnosis to Clinical Management)
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12 pages, 1196 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Parametric Mapping Techniques for the Assessment of Chronic Coronary Syndromes
by Maria Anna Bazmpani, Chrysovalantou Nikolaidou, Christos A. Papanastasiou, Antonios Ziakas and Theodoros D. Karamitsos
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120443 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
The term chronic coronary syndromes encompasses a variety of clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD), ranging from stable angina due to epicardial coronary artery disease to microvascular coronary dysfunction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has an established role in the diagnosis, prognostication [...] Read more.
The term chronic coronary syndromes encompasses a variety of clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD), ranging from stable angina due to epicardial coronary artery disease to microvascular coronary dysfunction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has an established role in the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment planning of patients with CAD. Recent advances in parametric mapping CMR techniques have added value in the assessment of patients with chronic coronary syndromes, even without the need for gadolinium contrast administration. Furthermore, quantitative perfusion CMR techniques have enabled the non-invasive assessment of myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve and can reliably identify multivessel coronary artery disease and microvascular dysfunction. This review summarizes the clinical applications and the prognostic value of the novel CMR parametric mapping techniques in the setting of chronic coronary syndromes and discusses their strengths, pitfalls and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiology Practice)
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8 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Right Ventricular Septal Versus Apical Pacing: Long-Term Incidence of Heart Failure and Survival
by André Dias-Frias, Ricardo Costa, Andreia Campinas, André Alexandre, David Sá-Couto, Maria João Sousa, Carla Roque, Pinheiro Vieira, Vitor Lagarto, Hipólito Reis and Severo Torres
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120444 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The clinical benefits of right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing compared to those of right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing are still in debate. We aimed to compare the incidence of heart failure (HF) and all-cause mortality in patients submitted to RVS and RVA pacing [...] Read more.
The clinical benefits of right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing compared to those of right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing are still in debate. We aimed to compare the incidence of heart failure (HF) and all-cause mortality in patients submitted to RVS and RVA pacing during a longer follow-up. This a single-center, retrospective study analysis of consecutive patients submitted to pacemaker implantation. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of HF during follow-up. The secondary outcome was all-cause death. A total of 251 patients were included, 47 (18.7%) with RVS pacing. RVS pacing was associated to younger age, male gender, lower body mass index, ischemic heart disease, and atrial fibrillation. During a follow-up period of 5.2 years, the primary outcome occurred in 89 (37.1%) patients. RVS pacing was independently associated with a 3-fold lower risk of HF, after adjustment. The secondary outcome occurred in 83 (34.2%) patients, and pacemaker lead position was not a predictor. Fluoroscopy time and rate of complications (rarely life-threatening) were similar in both groups. Our study points to a potential clinical benefit of RVS positioning, with a 3.3-fold lower risk of HF, without accompanying increase in procedure complexity nor complication rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure: Clinical Diagnostics and Treatment)
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12 pages, 1428 KiB  
Review
The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Patients with Mitral Regurgitation
by Anna Giulia Pavon, Marco Guglielmo, Pierpaolo Mattia Mennilli, Mariana B. L. Falcão, Luca Bergamaschi, David Filip Costantin, Michele Vivaldo, Laura Anna Leo, Susanne Schlossbauer, Christopher W. Roy, Matthias Stuber, Giovanni Pedrazzini and Francesco Faletra
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(11), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9110399 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
The 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study estimated that there were approximately 24.2 million people affected worldwide by degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), resulting in 34,200 deaths. After aortic stenosis, MR is the most prevalent VHD in Europe and the second-most common VHD [...] Read more.
The 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study estimated that there were approximately 24.2 million people affected worldwide by degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), resulting in 34,200 deaths. After aortic stenosis, MR is the most prevalent VHD in Europe and the second-most common VHD to pose indications for surgery in western countries. Current ESC and AHA/ACC guidelines for the management of VHD emphasize the importance of an integrative approach for the assessment of MR severity, which is of paramount importance in dictating the timing for surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are the first-line imaging modalities; however, despite the technological advancement, sometimes, the final diagnosis on the degree of the disease may still be challenging. In the last 20 years, CMR has emerged as a robust technique in the assessment of patients with cardiac disease, and, recently, its role is gaining more and more importance in the field of VHD. In fact, CMR is the gold standard in the assessment of cardiac volumes, and it is possible to accurately evaluate the regurgitant volume. The purpose of this review is to outline the current state-of-the-art management of MR by using Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease)
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8 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Pre-Stroke Statin Use Is Associated with Mild Neurological Deficits at the Onset of Acute Ischemic Stroke
by Takahisa Mori, Kazuhiro Yoshioka and Yuichi Miyazaki
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(11), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9110396 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Pre-stroke statin use reduces infarct size. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to investigate whether pre-stroke statin use is associated with mild neurological deficits (mND) at the onset of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We included patients with AIS admitted to our institution within 24 [...] Read more.
Pre-stroke statin use reduces infarct size. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to investigate whether pre-stroke statin use is associated with mild neurological deficits (mND) at the onset of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We included patients with AIS admitted to our institution within 24 h of stroke onset between 2011 and 2019. We collected data on age, sex, pre-stroke use of statins, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, the serum biomarker levels, and stroke subtypes at admission. In addition, we defined mND as an NIHSS score ≤3 points. We conducted a logistic regression analysis using variables for pre-stroke statin initiation, calculated the propensity scores for pre-stroke statin use, and implemented propensity score matching (PSM). Finally, we used the McNemar test to evaluate whether pre-stroke statin administration significantly affected mND. Of 4370 patients, 2615 met our inclusion criteria. Among the 594 patients with pre-stroke statin use, 308 presented with mND. After PSM, 555 patients received pre-stroke statin treatment, while 286 patients with pre-stroke statin use presented with mND at admission (p = 0.0411). The binary matched pairs contingency table of mND was not symmetrical (p = 0.0385). Pre-stroke statin use is thus associated with mND at the onset of AIS. Full article
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16 pages, 20381 KiB  
Article
OCT Meets micro-CT: A Subject-Specific Correlative Multimodal Imaging Workflow for Early Chick Heart Development Modeling
by Nina Kraus, Fabian Placzek and Brian Metscher
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(11), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9110379 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Structural and Doppler velocity data collected from optical coherence tomography have already provided crucial insights into cardiac morphogenesis. X-ray microtomography and other ex vivo methods have elucidated structural details of developing hearts. However, by itself, no single imaging modality can provide comprehensive information [...] Read more.
Structural and Doppler velocity data collected from optical coherence tomography have already provided crucial insights into cardiac morphogenesis. X-ray microtomography and other ex vivo methods have elucidated structural details of developing hearts. However, by itself, no single imaging modality can provide comprehensive information allowing to fully decipher the inner workings of an entire developing organ. Hence, we introduce a specimen-specific correlative multimodal imaging workflow combining OCT and micro-CT imaging which is applicable for modeling of early chick heart development—a valuable model organism in cardiovascular development research. The image acquisition and processing employ common reagents, lab-based micro-CT imaging, and software that is free for academic use. Our goal is to provide a step-by-step guide on how to implement this workflow and to demonstrate why those two modalities together have the potential to provide new insight into normal cardiac development and heart malformations leading to congenital heart disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Models and Methods for Computational Cardiology)
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18 pages, 904 KiB  
Review
New Biomarkers and Their Potential Role in Heart Failure Treatment Optimisation—An African Perspective
by Marheb Badianyama, Dineo Mpanya, Umar Adamu, Farai Sigauke, Samantha Nel and Nqoba Tsabedze
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(10), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9100335 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome resulting from various cardiovascular diseases of different aetiologies and pathophysiology. These varying pathologies involve several complex mechanisms that lead to the activation of the neurohumoral system, inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, fibrosis, and eventually adverse cardiac remodelling associated with [...] Read more.
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome resulting from various cardiovascular diseases of different aetiologies and pathophysiology. These varying pathologies involve several complex mechanisms that lead to the activation of the neurohumoral system, inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, fibrosis, and eventually adverse cardiac remodelling associated with a progressive decline in cardiac function. Once a diagnosis is made, the cardiac function has a gradual decline characterised by multiple hospital admissions. It is therefore imperative to identify patients at different stages of the heart failure continuum to better risk stratify and initiate optimal management strategies. Biomarkers may play a role in the diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and biomarkers commonly used in clinical practice such as natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins. In addition, we provide a brief overview of novel biomarkers and genetic coding and non-coding biomarkers used in the management of patients with heart failure. We also discuss barriers that hinder the clinical application of novel biomarkers. Finally, we appraise the value of polygenic risk scoring, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Strategies for Heart Failure)
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10 pages, 522 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Atrioventricular Dysfunction Recovery after Post-TAVI Pacemaker Implantation
by Gaetano Pinnacchio, Eleonora Ruscio, Erica Rocco, Carlo Trani, Francesco Burzotta, Cristina Aurigemma, Enrico Romagnoli, Roberto Scacciavillani, Maria Lucia Narducci, Gianluigi Bencardino, Francesco Perna, Francesco Raffaele Spera, Gianluca Comerci, Antonio Bisignani and Gemma Pelargonio
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(10), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9100324 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) represents a frequent complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) due to atrio-ventricular (AV) node injury. Predictors of early AV function recovery were investigated. We analyzed 50 consecutive patients (82 ± 6 years, 58% males, EuroSCORE: 7.8 ± 3.3%, [...] Read more.
Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) represents a frequent complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) due to atrio-ventricular (AV) node injury. Predictors of early AV function recovery were investigated. We analyzed 50 consecutive patients (82 ± 6 years, 58% males, EuroSCORE: 7.8 ± 3.3%, STS mortality score: 5 ± 2.8%). Pacemaker interrogations within 4–6 weeks from PPI were performed to collect data on AV conduction. The most common indication of PPI was persistent third-degree (44%)/high-degree (20%) AV block/atrial fibrillation (AF) with slow ventricular conduction (16%) after TAVI. At follow-up, 13 patients (26%) recovered AV conduction (i.e., sinus rhythm with stable 1:1 AV conduction/AF with a mean ventricular response >50 bpm, associated with a long-term ventricular pacing percentage < 5%). At multivariate analysis, complete atrio-ventricular block independently predicted pacemaker dependency at follow-up (p = 0.019). Patients with persistent AV dysfunction showed a significant AV conduction time prolongation after TAVI (PR interval from 207 ± 50 to 230 ± 51, p = 0.02; QRS interval from 124 ± 23 to 147 ± 16, p < 0.01) compared to patients with recovery, in whom AV conduction parameters remained unchanged. Several patients receiving PPI after TAVI have recovery of AV conduction within a few weeks. Longer observation periods prior to PPI might be justified, and algorithms to minimize ventricular pacing should be utilized whenever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI))
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11 pages, 693 KiB  
Review
The Management of Myocardial Injury Related to SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia
by Mohammed Ahmed Akkaif, Ahmad Naoras Bitar, Laith A. I. K. Al-Kaif, Nur Aizati Athirah Daud, Abubakar Sha’aban, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Fatimatuzzahra’ Abd Aziz, Arturo Cesaro, Muhamad Ali SK Abdul Kader, Mohamed Jahangir Abdul Wahab, Chee Sin Khaw and Baharudin Ibrahim
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(9), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9090307 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
The global evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is known to all. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is expected to worsen, and mortality will be higher when combined with myocardial injury (MI). The combination of novel coronavirus infections in patients with MI can cause [...] Read more.
The global evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is known to all. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is expected to worsen, and mortality will be higher when combined with myocardial injury (MI). The combination of novel coronavirus infections in patients with MI can cause confusion in diagnosis and assessment, with each condition exacerbating the other, and increasing the complexity and difficulty of treatment. It would be a formidable challenge for clinical practice to deal with this situation. Therefore, this review aims to gather literature on the progress in managing MI related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. This article reviews the definition, pathogenesis, clinical evaluation, management, and treatment plan for MI related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia based on the most recent literature, diagnosis, and treatment trial reports. Many studies have shown that early diagnosis and implementation of targeted treatment measures according to the different stages of disease can reduce the mortality rate among patients with MI related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The reviewed studies show that multiple strategies have been adopted for the management of MI related to COVID-19. Clinicians should closely monitor SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients with MI, as their condition can rapidly deteriorate and progress to heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and/or cardiogenic shock. In addition, appropriate measures need to be implemented in the diagnosis and treatment to provide reasonable care to the patient. Full article
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22 pages, 1115 KiB  
Review
Effects of COVID-19 on Arrhythmia
by Yujia Zhan, Honghua Yue, Weitao Liang and Zhong Wu
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(9), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9090292 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4389
Abstract
The World Health Organization announced that COVID-19, with SARS-CoV-2 as its pathogen, had become a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Today, the global epidemic situation is still serious. With the development of research, cardiovascular injury in patients with COVID-19, such as arrhythmia, myocardial [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization announced that COVID-19, with SARS-CoV-2 as its pathogen, had become a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Today, the global epidemic situation is still serious. With the development of research, cardiovascular injury in patients with COVID-19, such as arrhythmia, myocardial injury, and heart failure, is the second major symptom in addition to respiratory symptoms, and cardiovascular injury is related to the prognosis and mortality of patients. The incidence of arrhythmia in COVID-19 patients ranges from 10% to 20%. The potential mechanisms include viral infection-induced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression change, myocarditis, cytokine storm, cardiac injury, electrophysiological effects, hypoxemia, myocardial strain, electrolyte abnormalities, intravascular volume imbalance, drug toxicities and interactions, and stress response caused by virus infection. COVID-19 complicated with arrhythmia needs to be accounted for and integrated in management. This article reviews the incidence, potential mechanisms, and related management measures of arrhythmia in COVID-19 patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrophysiology and Cardiovascular Physiology)
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15 pages, 3062 KiB  
Review
Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Guided by Functional Substrate Mapping: Practices and Outcomes
by Sara Vázquez-Calvo, Ivo Roca-Luque and Andreu Porta-Sánchez
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(9), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9090288 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia has demonstrated its important role in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural cardiomyopathy. Conventional mapping techniques used to define the critical isthmus, such as activation mapping and entrainment, are limited by the non-inducibility of the [...] Read more.
Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia has demonstrated its important role in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural cardiomyopathy. Conventional mapping techniques used to define the critical isthmus, such as activation mapping and entrainment, are limited by the non-inducibility of the clinical tachycardia or its poor hemodynamic tolerance. To overcome these limitations, a voltage mapping strategy based on bipolar electrograms peak to peak analysis was developed, but a low specificity (30%) for VT isthmus has been described with this approach. Functional mapping strategy relies on the analysis of the characteristics of the electrograms but also their propagation patterns and their response to extra-stimulus or alternative pacing wavefronts to define the targets for ablation. With this review, we aim to summarize the different functional mapping strategies described to date to identify ventricular arrhythmic substrate in patients with structural heart disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Practices and Outcomes)
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12 pages, 304 KiB  
Review
Technical Aspects and Development of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
by Klemen Steblovnik and Matjaz Bunc
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080282 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Aortic stenosis is the most common valve disease requiring surgery or percutaneous treatment. Since the first-in-man implantation in 2002 we have witnessed incredible progress in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In this article, we review the technical aspects of TAVI development with a [...] Read more.
Aortic stenosis is the most common valve disease requiring surgery or percutaneous treatment. Since the first-in-man implantation in 2002 we have witnessed incredible progress in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In this article, we review the technical aspects of TAVI development with a look at the future. Durability, low thrombogenicity, good hydrodynamics, biocompatibility, low catheter profile, and deployment stability are the attributes of an ideal TAVI device. Two main design types exist—balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses. Balloon-expandable prostheses use a cobalt-chromium alloy frame providing high radial strength and radiopacity, while the self-expanding prostheses use a nickel-titanium (Nitinol) alloy frame, which expands to its original shape once unsheathed and heated to the body temperature. The valve is sewn onto the frame and consists of the porcine or bovine pericardium, which is specially treated to prevent calcinations and prolong durability. The lower part of the frame can be covered by polyethylene terephthalate fabric or a pericardial skirt, providing better sealing between the frame and aortic annulus. The main future challenges lie in achieving lower rates of paravalvular leaks and new pacemaker implantations following the procedure, lower delivery system profiles, more precise positioning, longer durability, and a good hemodynamic profile. Patient-specific design and the use of autologous tissue might solve these issues. Full article
12 pages, 1742 KiB  
Review
The Left Ventricular Myocardium in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
by Bill Chaudhry, Ahlam Alqahtani, Lorraine Eley, Louise Coats, Corina Moldovan, Srinivas R. Annavarapu and Deborah J. Henderson
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080279 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a collective term applied to severe congenital cardiac malformations, characterised by a combination of abnormalities mainly affecting the left ventricle, associated valves, and ascending aorta. Although in clinical practice HLHS is usually sub-categorised based on the patency [...] Read more.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a collective term applied to severe congenital cardiac malformations, characterised by a combination of abnormalities mainly affecting the left ventricle, associated valves, and ascending aorta. Although in clinical practice HLHS is usually sub-categorised based on the patency of the mitral and aortic (left-sided) valves, it is also possible to comprehensively categorise HLHS into defined sub-groups based on the left ventricular morphology. Here, we discuss the published human-based studies of the ventricular myocardium in HLHS, evaluating whether the available evidence is in keeping with this ventricular morphology concept. Specifically, we highlight results from histological studies, indicating that the appearance of cardiomyocytes can be different based on the sub-group of HLHS. In addition, we discuss the histological appearances of endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), which is a common feature of one specific sub-group of HLHS. Lastly, we suggest investigations that should ideally be undertaken using HLHS myocardial tissues at early stages of HLHS development to identify biological pathways and aid the understanding of HLHS aetiology. Full article
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12 pages, 1760 KiB  
Review
Following the Beat: Imaging the Valveless Pumping Function in the Early Embryonic Heart
by Shang Wang and Irina V. Larina
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080267 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
In vertebrates, the coordinated beat of the early heart tube drives cardiogenesis and supports embryonic growth. How the heart pumps at this valveless stage marks a fascinating problem that is of vital significance for understanding cardiac development and defects. The developing heart achieves [...] Read more.
In vertebrates, the coordinated beat of the early heart tube drives cardiogenesis and supports embryonic growth. How the heart pumps at this valveless stage marks a fascinating problem that is of vital significance for understanding cardiac development and defects. The developing heart achieves its function at the same time as continuous and dramatic morphological changes, which in turn modify its pumping dynamics. The beauty of this muti-time-scale process also highlights its complexity that requires interdisciplinary approaches to study. High-resolution optical imaging, particularly fast, four-dimensional (4D) imaging, plays a critical role in revealing the process of pumping, instructing numerical modeling, and enabling biomechanical analyses. In this review, we aim to connect the investigation of valveless pumping mechanisms with the recent advancements in embryonic cardiodynamic imaging, facilitating interactions between these two areas of study, in hopes of encouraging and motivating innovative work to further understand the early heartbeat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Models and Methods for Computational Cardiology)
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10 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Contractile Reserve in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
by Daniela Di Lisi, Quirino Ciampi, Cristina Madaudo, Girolamo Manno, Francesca Macaione, Salvatore Novo and Giuseppina Novo
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080248 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Background: Diastolic stress echocardiography (SE) is useful for confirming the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) when it is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the value of new echocardiographic parameters during diastolic SE in [...] Read more.
Background: Diastolic stress echocardiography (SE) is useful for confirming the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) when it is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the value of new echocardiographic parameters during diastolic SE in patients with dyspnea and suspected HFpEF. Methods: Sixty-two patients with exertional dyspnea and inconclusive rest echocardiography for a diagnosis of HFpEF were enrolled. Exercise SE was performed in all patients. Contractile reserve (LVCR) was assessed by measuring: 1. changes in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between rest and peak stress; 2. stress-to-rest ratio of force (force was defined as the ratio between systolic arterial pressure and left ventricular end-systolic volume); and 3. mechanical reserve, defined as the change in systolic strain (GLS) between rest and peak stress. Results: Diagnosis of HFpEF was performed by SE in 26 patients. Comparing patients with a diagnosis of HFpEF (group A) to patients with other causes of dyspnea (group B), we found a significant increase in the E/e’ ratio in group A at peak stress. LV GLS was significantly reduced in group A compared to group B at rest and stress (p value 0.01 at rest; p value 0.04 at stress). At peak stress, GLS did not significantly increase in group A, while it increased in group B (p value 0.04). LVEF increased significantly in both groups. Conclusion: Patients with HFpEF have impaired LVCR when assessed using GLS. Thus, the assessment of mechanical reserve could give additional diagnostic information during stress tests in patients with HFpEF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Imaging)
11 pages, 1052 KiB  
Review
Congenital Heart Disease and the Risk of Cancer: An Update on the Genetic Etiology, Radiation Exposure Damage, and Future Research Strategies
by Jonica Campolo, Giuseppe Annoni, Marzia Giaccardi and Maria Grazia Andreassi
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080245 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of cancer in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) as compared with the general population. The underlying risk factors for the acquired cancer risk remain poorly understood, and shared genetic anomalies and cumulative radiation exposure from [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of cancer in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) as compared with the general population. The underlying risk factors for the acquired cancer risk remain poorly understood, and shared genetic anomalies and cumulative radiation exposure from repeated imaging and catheterization procedures may be contributing factors. In the present review, we provide an update on the most recent literature regarding the associations between CHD and cancer, with a particular focus on genetic etiology and radiation exposure from medical procedures. The current evidence indicates that children with CHD may be a high-risk population, already having the first genetic “hit”, and, consequently, may have increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation from birth or earlier. Future research strategies integrating biological and molecular measures are also discussed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease)
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13 pages, 3337 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Prognostic Relevance of Ventricular Arrhythmia in Patients with Myocarditis
by Ann-Kathrin Kahle, Rebekka Güde, Jana M. Schwarzl, Paula Münkler, Ruken Ö. Akbulak, Charlotte Jahnke, Sebastian Bohnen, Tilman Würger, Michael Schwarzl, Stephan Willems, Ulf K. Radunski and Christian Meyer
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080243 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2828
Abstract
Myocarditis is characterized by various clinical manifestations, with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) as a frequent symptom at initial presentation. Here, we investigated characteristics and prognostic relevance of VA in patients with myocarditis. The study population consisted of 76 patients with myocarditis, verified by biopsy [...] Read more.
Myocarditis is characterized by various clinical manifestations, with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) as a frequent symptom at initial presentation. Here, we investigated characteristics and prognostic relevance of VA in patients with myocarditis. The study population consisted of 76 patients with myocarditis, verified by biopsy and/or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, including 38 consecutive patients with VA (45 ± 3 years, 68% male) vs. 38 patients without VA (NVA) (38 ± 2 years, 84% male) serving as a control group. VA was monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in 55% of patients, premature ventricular complexes in 50% and ventricular fibrillation in 29%. The left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline was 47 ± 2% vs. 40 ± 3% in VA vs. NVA patients (p = 0.069). CMR showed late gadolinium enhancement more often in VA patients (94% vs. 69%; p = 0.016), incorporating 17.6 ± 1.8% vs. 8.2 ± 1.3% of myocardial mass (p < 0.001). Radiofrequency catheter ablation for VA was initially performed in nine (24%) patients, of whom five remained free from any recurrence over 24 ± 3 months. Taken together, in patients with myocarditis, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction does not predict VA occurrence but CMR shows late gadolinium enhancement more frequently and to a larger extent in VA than in NVA patients, potentially guiding catheter ablation as a reasonable treatment of VA in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Practices and Outcomes)
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19 pages, 1053 KiB  
Review
Effects of Exercise on Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: An Updated Review of Literature
by Giulia Crisci, Mariarosaria De Luca, Roberta D’Assante, Brigida Ranieri, Anna D’Agostino, Valeria Valente, Federica Giardino, Valentina Capone, Salvatore Chianese, Salvatore Rega, Rosangela Cocchia, Muhammad Zubair Israr, Radek Debiek, Liam M. Heaney and Andrea Salzano
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080241 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5661
Abstract
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents the most common HF phenotype of patients aged > 65 years, with an incidence and a prevalence that are constantly growing. The HFpEF cardinal symptom is exercise intolerance (EI), defined as the impaired ability to [...] Read more.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents the most common HF phenotype of patients aged > 65 years, with an incidence and a prevalence that are constantly growing. The HFpEF cardinal symptom is exercise intolerance (EI), defined as the impaired ability to perform physical activity and to reach the predicted age-related level of exercise duration in the absence of symptoms—such as fatigue or dyspnea—and is associated with a poor quality of life, a higher number of hospitalizations, and poor outcomes. The evidence of the protective effect between exercise and adverse cardiovascular outcomes is numerous and long-established. Regular exercise is known to reduce cardiovascular events and overall mortality both in apparently healthy individuals and in patients with established cardiovascular disease, representing a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of many cardio-metabolic conditions. Several studies have investigated the role of exercise in HFpEF patients. The present review aims to dwell upon the effects of exercise on HFpEF. For this purpose, the relevant data from a literature search (PubMed, EMBASE, and Medline) were reviewed. The analysis of these studies underlines the fact that exercise training programs improve the cardiorespiratory performance of HFpEF patients in terms of the increase in peak oxygen uptake, the 6 min walk test distance, and the ventilatory threshold; on the other hand, diastolic or systolic functions are generally unchanged or only partially modified by exercise, suggesting that multiple mechanisms contribute to the improvement of exercise tolerance in HFpEF patients. In conclusion, considering that exercise training programs are able to improve the cardiorespiratory performance of HFpEF patients, the prescription of exercise training programs should be encouraged in stable HFpEF patients, and further research is needed to better elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Effects and Benefits of Exercise)
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12 pages, 5052 KiB  
Article
Electroporation Parameters for Human Cardiomyocyte Ablation In Vitro
by Jara M. Baena-Montes, Tony O’Halloran, Cormac Clarke, Kevin Donaghey, Eoghan Dunne, Martin O’Halloran and Leo R. Quinlan
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080240 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Cardiac ablation with irreversible electroporation (IRE) is quickly being established as a modality of choice for atrial fibrillation treatment. While it has not yet been optimised, IRE has the potential to significantly limit collateral damage and improve cell-specific targeting associated with other energy [...] Read more.
Cardiac ablation with irreversible electroporation (IRE) is quickly being established as a modality of choice for atrial fibrillation treatment. While it has not yet been optimised, IRE has the potential to significantly limit collateral damage and improve cell-specific targeting associated with other energy sources. However, more tissue and cell-specific evidence is required to demonstrate the selective threshold parameters for human cells. The aim here is to determine the optimal ablation threshold parameters related to lesion size for human cardiomyocytes in 2D culture. Conventional biphasic pulses of different field strengths and on-times were delivered in a monolayer culture system of human AC16 cardiomyocytes. The dynamics of cell death and lesion dimensions were examined at different time points. Human cardiomyocytes are susceptible to significant electroporation and cell death at a field strength of 750 V/cm or higher with 100 μs pulses. Increasing the IRE on-time from 3 ms to 60 ms reduces the effective field threshold to 250 V/cm. Using very short pulses of 2 μs and 5 μs also causes significant cell death, but only at fields higher than 1000 V/cm. A longer on-time results in more cell death and induced greater lesion area in 2D models. In addition, different forms of cell death are predicted based on the evolution of cell death over time. This study presents important findings on the ability of different IRE parameters to induce human cardiomyocyte cell death. Lesion size can be tuned by appropriate choice of IRE parameters and cardiomyocytes display an upregulation of delayed cell death 24 h after electroporation, which is an important consideration for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Practices and Outcomes)
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20 pages, 1471 KiB  
Review
Sex Differences in Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Global Perspective
by F Aaysha Cader, Shrilla Banerjee and Martha Gulati
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(8), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9080239 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5611
Abstract
Despite increasing evidence and improvements in the care of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), sex disparities in presentation, comorbidities, access to care and invasive therapies remain, even in the most developed countries. Much of the currently available data are derived from more developed regions [...] Read more.
Despite increasing evidence and improvements in the care of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), sex disparities in presentation, comorbidities, access to care and invasive therapies remain, even in the most developed countries. Much of the currently available data are derived from more developed regions of the world, particularly Europe and the Americas. In contrast, in more resource-constrained settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia, more data are needed to identify the prevalence of sex disparities in ACS, as well as factors responsible for these disparities, particularly cultural, socioeconomic, educational and psychosocial. This review summarizes the available evidence of sex differences in ACS, including risk factors, pathophysiology and biases in care from a global perspective, with a focus on each of the six different World Health Organization (WHO) regions of the world. Regional trends and disparities, gaps in evidence and solutions to mitigate these disparities are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Disease in Women)
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13 pages, 1548 KiB  
Article
Left Atrial Remodeling after Mitral Valve Repair for Primary Mitral Regurgitation: Evolution over Time and Prognostic Significance
by Jan Stassen, Aniek L. van Wijngaarden, Hoi W. Wu, Meindert Palmen, Anton Tomsic, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J. Bax and Nina Ajmone Marsan
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(7), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9070230 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Left atrial (LA) dilatation is associated with worse outcomes in primary mitral regurgitation (MR). However, the effects of mitral valve repair on LA size and its prognostic implications are not well known. In the current study, LA volume index (LAVi) and LA reservoir [...] Read more.
Left atrial (LA) dilatation is associated with worse outcomes in primary mitral regurgitation (MR). However, the effects of mitral valve repair on LA size and its prognostic implications are not well known. In the current study, LA volume index (LAVi) and LA reservoir strain (LASr) were evaluated immediately before and after surgery, and during long-term follow-up in 226 patients undergoing mitral valve repair for primary MR (age 62 ± 13 years, 66% male). Mean LAVi was reduced significantly after surgery and at long-term follow-up (from 56 ± 28 to 38 ± 21 to 32 ± 17 mL/m2; p < 0.001). LASr reduced significantly after surgery but increased again during the long-term (from 23.6 ± 9.4 to 11.5 ± 5.0 to 17.3 ± 7.5%; p < 0.001). Age, pre-operative LAVi, MR severity, and postoperative transmitral pressure gradient were associated with LA reverse remodeling by the long-term check-up. During a median follow-up of 72 (40–114) months, 43 (19%) patients died. Patients with LAVi ≥ 42 mL/m2 at long-term follow-up showed significant higher mortality rates compared to patients with LAVI < 42 mL/m2 (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for clinical covariates. In conclusion, significant LA reverse remodeling was observed both immediately and at long-term follow-up after mitral valve repair. LA dilatation at long term follow-up after surgery was still associated with all-cause mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitral Valve Prolapse and Mitral Regurgitation)
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