Regulation of Food Fermentations by Bacteria, Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 36829

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Seafood Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Cukurova University, 01330 Balcali, Adana, Turkey
Interests: food technology & microbiology; microbial biotechnology; lactic acid bacteria; probiotics; biogenic amines; histamine; food-borne pathogens; food spoilage bacteria; modified atmosphere & vacuum packaging; food compounds analysis using HPLC, GC, GS-MS; Spectrophotometer; Texture analyses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Quality, Faculty of Animal Sciences, Institute of Animal Rearing Technologies, University of Health Sciences, Tilzes str. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: food chemical and biosafety; food technologies development; by-products valorisation, sustainable technologies, functional food, nutraceuticals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a comprehensive journal Special Issue covering all scientific aspects of food fermentation by bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi (moulds), as well as the by-products of fermentation processes across the whole production line. Topics within the scope of this Special Issue include:

  • Prospection of microbial species and strains in food matrixes for fermentation processes;
  • Innovative fermentation and technological developments towards nutritional and health attributes of food;
  • Bacterial, yeast and mould fermentations as cell factories to design breakthrough metabolites and novel derived fermented products, with potential application in the food, feed, nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries;
  • Fermentation as a tool to use agricultural and industrial by-products in a circular economy and environmentally friendly approach;
  • Fermentation as an effective way to foster food safety and prevent risks of food poisoning by foodborne pathogens;
  • Development and optimization of fermentation processes by monitoring fermentation parameters and by designing bioengineered microorganisms with beneficial encrypted genotypic and phenotypic traits;
  • Elucidation of fermentation dynamics and relationship with biotic and abiotic key factors, as well as the elucidation and regulation of the microbial metabolic pathways and driving forces to attain optimal growth and fermentation conditions; and
  • Interactions between microorganisms in fermentation processes and their potential impact on human health.

Dr. João Miguel F. Rocha
Prof. Dr. Fatih Ozogul
Prof. Dr. Elena Bartkiene
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fermentation
  • yeasts
  • bacteria
  • monitoring and regulation
  • food safety and hygiene
  • industrial applications
  • nutrition
  • healthy food

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 8482 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Ultrasonic Treatment for Black Soybean Okara Culture Medium Containing Choline Chloride on the β-Glucosidase Activity of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BCRC 10357
by Chia-Min Wu and Chun-Yao Yang
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3781; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203781 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The effects of ultrasonic treatment for the culture medium of solid black soybean okara with choline chloride (ChCl) on the survival and β-glucosidase activity of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BCRC 10357 (Lp-BCRC10357) were investigated. A mixture of 3% dried black soybean okara in [...] Read more.
The effects of ultrasonic treatment for the culture medium of solid black soybean okara with choline chloride (ChCl) on the survival and β-glucosidase activity of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BCRC 10357 (Lp-BCRC10357) were investigated. A mixture of 3% dried black soybean okara in de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (w/v) was used as the Oka medium. With ultrasonic treatment (40 kHz/300 W) of the Oka medium at 60 °C for 3 h before inoculation, the β-glucosidase activity of Lp-BCRC10357 at 12 h and 24 h of incubation amounted to 13.35 and 15.50 U/mL, respectively, which was significantly larger than that (12.58 U/mL at 12 h and 2.86 U/mL at 24 h) without ultrasonic treatment of the medium. This indicated that ultrasonic treatment could cause the microstructure of the solid black soybean okara to be broken, facilitating the transport of ingredients and Lp-BCRC10357 into the internal structure of the okara for utilization. For the effect of ChCl (1, 3, or 5%) added to the Oka medium (w/v) with ultrasonic treatment before inoculation, using 1% ChCl in the Oka medium could stimulate the best response of Lp-BCRC10357 with the highest β-glucosidase activity of 19.47 U/mL in 12 h of incubation, showing that Lp-BCRC10357 had a positive response when confronting the extra ChCl that acted as an osmoprotectant and nano-crowder in the extracellular environment. Furthermore, the Oka medium containing 1% ChCl with ultrasonic treatment led to higher β-glucosidase activity of Lp-BCRC10357 than that without ultrasonic treatment, demonstrating that the ultrasonic treatment could enhance the contact of ChCl and Lp-BCRC10357 to regulate the physiological behavior for the release of enzymes. In addition, the analysis of the isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of the fermented product revealed that the addition of 1% ChCl in the Oka medium with ultrasonic treatment before inoculation allowed a higher enhancement ratio for the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones, with a slight enhancement in the antioxidant activity at 24 h of fermentation. This study developed a methodology by combining ultrasonic treatment with a limited amount of ChCl to allow the culture medium to acclimate Lp-BCRC10357 and release high levels of β-glucosidase, and this approach has the potential to be used in the fermentation of okara-related products as nutritional supplements in foods. Full article
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24 pages, 2431 KiB  
Article
On the Molecular Selection of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Indigenous Fermented Plant-Based Foods and Further Fine Chemical Characterization
by Angel Angelov, Aneliya Georgieva, Mariana Petkova, Elena Bartkiene, João Miguel Rocha, Manol Ognyanov and Velitchka Gotcheva
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183346 - 6 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria present a particular interest for the food industry since they can be incorporated in foods via in situ production by selected starter cultures or applied as natural additives to improve the quality of various food products. [...] Read more.
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria present a particular interest for the food industry since they can be incorporated in foods via in situ production by selected starter cultures or applied as natural additives to improve the quality of various food products. In the present study, 43 strains were isolated from different plant-based fermented foods and identified by molecular methods. The species found were distinctively specific according to the food source. Only six Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains, all isolated from sauerkraut, showed the ability to produce exopolysaccharide (EPS). The utilization of glucose, fructose and sucrose was explored with regard to EPS and biomass accumulation by the tested strains. Sucrose was clearly the best carbon source for EPS production by most of the strains, yielding up to 211.53 mg/L by strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZE2, while biomass accumulation reached the highest levels in the glucose-based culture medium. Most strains produced similar levels of EPS with glucose and fructose, while fructose was utilized more poorly for biomass production, yielding about 50% of biomass compared to glucose for most strains. Composition analysis of the EPSs produced by strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZE2 from glucose (EPS-1) and fructose (EPS-2) revealed that glucose (80–83 mol%) and protein (41% w/w) predominated in both analyzed EPSs. However, the yield of EPS-1 was twice higher than that of EPS-2, and differences in the levels of all detected sugars were found, which shows that even for the same strain, EPS yield and composition vary depending on the carbon source. These results may be the basis for the development of tailored EPS-producing starter cultures for food fermentations, as well as technologies for the production of EPS for various applications. Full article
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17 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
The Comparative Effect of Lactic Acid Fermentation and Germination on the Levels of Neurotoxin, Anti-Nutrients, and Nutritional Attributes of Sweet Blue Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.)
by Nimra Arshad, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Wisha Saeed, Muhammad Qamar, Fatih Özogul, Elena Bartkiene and João Miguel Rocha
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2851; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152851 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an indigenous legume of the subcontinental region, is a promising source of protein and other nutrients of health significance. Contrarily, a high amount of β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) and other anti-nutrients limits its wider acceptability as healthier substitute [...] Read more.
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an indigenous legume of the subcontinental region, is a promising source of protein and other nutrients of health significance. Contrarily, a high amount of β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) and other anti-nutrients limits its wider acceptability as healthier substitute to protein of animal and plant origin. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of different processing techniques, viz. soaking, boiling, germination, and fermentation, to improve the nutrient-delivering potential of grass pea lentil and to mitigate its anti-nutrient and toxicant burden. The results presented the significant (p < 0.05) effect of germination on increasing the protein and fiber content of L. sativus from 22.6 to 30.7% and 15.1 to 19.4%, respectively. Likewise, germination reduced the total carbohydrate content of the grass pea from 59.1 to 46%. The highest rate of reduction in phytic acid (91%) and β-ODAP (37%) were observed in germinated grass pea powder, whereas fermentation anticipated an 89% reduction in tannin content. The lactic acid fermentation of grass pea increased the concentration of calcium, iron, and zinc from 4020 to 5100 mg/100 g, 3.97 to 4.35 mg/100 g, and 3.52 to 4.97 mg/100 g, respectively. The results suggest that fermentation and germination significantly (p < 0.05) improve the concentration of essential amino acids including threonine, leucine, histidine, tryptophan, and lysine in L. sativus powder. This study proposes lactic acid fermentation and germination as safer techniques to improve the nutrient-delivering potential of L. sativus and suggests processed powders of the legume as a cost-effective alternative to existing plant proteins. Full article
15 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Influence of Biotreatment on Hordeum vulgare L. Cereal Wholemeal Contamination and Enzymatic Activities
by Grazina Juodeikiene, Karolina Trakselyte-Rupsiene, Karolina Reikertaite, Elizabet Janic Hajnal, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Valentas Gruzauskas, Mantas Švazas, Romas Gruzauskas, Antonello Santini, João Miguel Rocha and Elena Bartkiene
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051050 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Crop contamination with mycotoxins is a global problem with a negative impact on human and animal health as well as causing economical losses in food and feed chains. This study was focused on the evaluation of the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) [...] Read more.
Crop contamination with mycotoxins is a global problem with a negative impact on human and animal health as well as causing economical losses in food and feed chains. This study was focused on the evaluation of the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain (Levilactobacillus brevis-LUHS173, Liquorilactobacillus uvarum-LUHS245, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-LUHS135, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei-LUHS244 and Lacticaseibacillus casei-LUHS210) fermentation on the changes in the level of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugates in Fusarium spp.-contaminated barley wholemeal (BWP). Samples, with different contamination of DON and its conjugates, were treated separately (for 48 h). In addition to mycotoxin content, enzymatic activities (amylolytic, xylanolytic, and proteolytic) of BWP (before and after fermentation) were evaluated. It was established that the effect of decontamination depends on the LAB strain used, and a significant reduction in DON and the concentration of its conjugates in Lc. casei fermented samples was achieved: the amount of DON decreased on average by 47%, and the amount of D3G, 15-ADON and 3-ADON decreased by 82.4, 46.1, and 55.0%, respectively. Lc. casei also showed viability in the contaminated fermentation medium and an effective production of organic acids was obtained. Additionally, it was found that enzymes are involved to the detoxification mechanism of DON and its conjugates in BWP. These findings indicate that fermentation with selected LAB strains could be applied for contaminated barley treatment in order to significantly reduce Fusarium spp. mycotoxin levels in BWP and improve the sustainability of grain production. Full article
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13 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Microbial Community Diversity on the Epidermis of Wine Grapes in Manasi’s Vineyard, Xinjiang
by Xiaoyu Xu, Yuanyuan Miao, Huan Wang, Juan Du, Chenqiang Wang, Xuewei Shi and Bin Wang
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3174; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203174 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Epiphytic microbial communities significantly impact the health and quality of grape berries. This study utilized high-performance liquid chromatography and high-throughput sequencing to explore the epiphytic microbial diversity and physicochemical indicators in nine different wine grape varieties. In total, 1,056,651 high-quality bacterial 16S rDNA [...] Read more.
Epiphytic microbial communities significantly impact the health and quality of grape berries. This study utilized high-performance liquid chromatography and high-throughput sequencing to explore the epiphytic microbial diversity and physicochemical indicators in nine different wine grape varieties. In total, 1,056,651 high-quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences and 1,101,314 fungal ITS reads were used for taxonomic categorization. Among the bacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla, and Massilia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Anaerococcus, and Acinetobacter were the dominant genera. Among the fungi, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant phyla, and Alternaria, Filobasidium, Erysiphe, Naganishia, and Aureobasidium were the dominant genera. Notably, Matheran (MSL) and Riesling (RS) exhibited the highest microbial diversity among the nine grape varieties. Moreover, pronounced differences in epiphytic microorganisms in red and white grapes suggested that the grape variety significantly influences the structure of surface microbial communities. Understanding the composition of epiphytic microorganisms on the grape skin can provide a direct guide to winemaking. Full article
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20 pages, 1546 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Yeast Strains on Biogenic Amines, Volatile Compounds and Sensory Profile of Beer
by Mazvydas Matukas, Vytaute Starkute, Egle Zokaityte, Gintare Zokaityte, Dovile Klupsaite, Ernestas Mockus, João Miguel Rocha, Romas Ruibys and Elena Bartkiene
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152317 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Nowadays, there are many sorts of beer, however, some of them, despite the good sensory and other quality indicators, could contain high concentrations of undesirable compounds, such biogenic amines (BA). The yeast strain (YS), used for fermentation, can cause desirable as well as [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there are many sorts of beer, however, some of them, despite the good sensory and other quality indicators, could contain high concentrations of undesirable compounds, such biogenic amines (BA). The yeast strain (YS), used for fermentation, can cause desirable as well as undesirable changes in beer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of different YS (A-Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus, B-Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus, C-Brettanomyces claussenii) on the main quality parameters of beer. In addition, the BA concentration and the volatile compounds (VC, measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) and their relation with beer overall acceptability (OA, evaluated by 20 trained judges) and emotions induced for consumers were analysed. The YS was a significant factor on alcohol formation in beer (p = 0.0001). The highest colour intensity was shown by C beer (10.2 EBC), and the latter beer showed the lowest OA. All of the beer samples induced the highest intensity of the emotion “neutral”, and the main VC of the beer were 3-methyl-1-butanol; L-α-terpineol; hexanoic acid 3-methylbutyl ester; and n-capric acid isobutyl ester. The highest total BAs content was found in beer fermented with C. Finally, all of the tested YS are suitable for beer production, however, taking into consideration the safety aspect of the beer, it should be mentioned that the highest concentration of BAs was found in beer fermented with C strain. Full article
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15 pages, 7715 KiB  
Article
Bioprocessing of Wheat and Amaranth Bran for the Reduction of Fructan Levels and Application in 3D-Printed Snacks
by Matea Habuš, Svitlana Mykolenko, Sofija Iveković, Kristian Pastor, Jovana Kojić, Saša Drakula, Duška Ćurić and Dubravka Novotni
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111649 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2874
Abstract
Bran can enrich snacks with dietary fibre but contains fructans that trigger symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the bioprocessing of wheat and amaranth bran for degrading fructans and its application (at 20% flour-based) in 3D-printed [...] Read more.
Bran can enrich snacks with dietary fibre but contains fructans that trigger symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the bioprocessing of wheat and amaranth bran for degrading fructans and its application (at 20% flour-based) in 3D-printed snacks. Bran was bioprocessed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone or combined with inulinase, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, or commercial starter LV1 for 24 h. Fructans, fructose, glucose, and mannitol in the bran were analysed enzymatically. Dough rheology, snack printing precision, shrinkage in baking, texture, colour, and sensory attributes were determined. The fructan content of wheat bran was 2.64% dry weight, and in amaranth bran, it was 0.96% dry weight. Bioprocessing reduced fructan content (up to 93%) depending on the bran type and bioprocessing agent, while fructose and mannitol remained below the cut-off value for IBS patients. Bran bioprocessing increased the complex viscosity and yield stress of dough (by up to 43 and 183%, respectively) in addition to printing precision (by up to 13%), while it lessened shrinkage in baking (by 20–69%) and the hardness of the snacks (by 20%). The intensity of snack sensory attributes depended on the bran type and bioprocessing agent, but the liking (“neither like nor dislike”) was similar between samples. In conclusion, snacks can be enriched with fibre while remaining low in fructans by applying bioprocessed wheat or amaranth bran and 3D printing. Full article
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13 pages, 1198 KiB  
Article
Evolution in Composition of Kombucha Consortia over Three Consecutive Years in Production Context
by Perrine Mas, Thierry Tran, François Verdier, Antoine Martin, Hervé Alexandre, Cosette Grandvalet and Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal
Foods 2022, 11(4), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040614 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Kombucha is a traditional drink obtained from sugared tea that is transformed by a community of yeasts and bacteria. Its production has become industrialized, and the study of the microbial community’s evolution is needed to improve control over the process. This study followed [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a traditional drink obtained from sugared tea that is transformed by a community of yeasts and bacteria. Its production has become industrialized, and the study of the microbial community’s evolution is needed to improve control over the process. This study followed the microbial composition of black and green kombucha tea over three consecutive years in a production facility using a culture-dependent method. Microorganisms were isolated and cultivated using selective agar media. The DNA of isolates was extracted, amplified using 26S and 16S PCR, and sequenced. Identities were obtained after a comparison to the NCBI database. Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora valbyensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the major yeast species, and the major bacterial genera were Acetobacter and Liquorilactobacillus. Results highlight the persistence of yeast species such as B. bruxellensis detected in 2019. Some yeasts species appeared to be sensitive towards stressful events, such as a hot period in 2019. However, they were resilient and isolated again in 2021, as was the case for H. valbyensis. Dominance of B. bruxellensis was clear in green and black tea kombucha, but proportions in yeasts varied depending on tea type and phase (liquid or biofilm). Composition in acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria showed a higher variability than yeasts with many changes in species over time. Full article
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Review

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29 pages, 798 KiB  
Review
Postbiotics: Current Trends in Food and Pharmaceutical Industry
by Priyamvada Thorakkattu, Anandu Chandra Khanashyam, Kartik Shah, Karthik Sajith Babu, Anjaly Shanker Mundanat, Aiswariya Deliephan, Gitanjali S. Deokar, Chalat Santivarangkna and Nilesh Prakash Nirmal
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3094; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193094 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 15815
Abstract
Postbiotics are non-viable bacterial products or metabolic byproducts produced by probiotic microorganisms that have biologic activity in the host. Postbiotics are functional bioactive compounds, generated in a matrix during anaerobic fermentation of organic nutrients like prebiotics, for the generation of energy in the [...] Read more.
Postbiotics are non-viable bacterial products or metabolic byproducts produced by probiotic microorganisms that have biologic activity in the host. Postbiotics are functional bioactive compounds, generated in a matrix during anaerobic fermentation of organic nutrients like prebiotics, for the generation of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. The byproducts of this metabolic sequence are called postbiotics, these are low molecular weight soluble compounds either secreted by live microflora or released after microbial cell lysis. A few examples of widely studied postbiotics are short-chain fatty acids, microbial cell fragments, extracellular polysaccharides, cell lysates, teichoic acid, vitamins, etc. Presently, prebiotics and probiotics are the products on the market; however, postbiotics are also gaining a great deal of attention. The numerous health advantages of postbiotic components may soon lead to an increase in consumer demand for postbiotic supplements. The most recent research aspects of postbiotics in the food and pharmaceutical industries are included in this review. The review encompasses a brief introduction, classification, production technologies, characterization, biological activities, and potential applications of postbiotics. Full article
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20 pages, 2528 KiB  
Review
Bread Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria—Technological, Antimicrobial, Toxin-Degrading, Immune System-, and Faecal Microbiota-Modelling Biological Agents for the Preparation of Food, Nutraceuticals and Feed
by Elena Bartkiene, Fatih Özogul and João Miguel Rocha
Foods 2022, 11(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030452 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4213
Abstract
This review intends to highlight the fact that bread sourdough is a very promising source of technological, antimicrobial, toxin-degrading, immune system-, and faecal microbiota-modelling biological agents for the preparation of food, nutraceuticals, and feed, which has great potential at industrial biotechnology scale. There [...] Read more.
This review intends to highlight the fact that bread sourdough is a very promising source of technological, antimicrobial, toxin-degrading, immune system-, and faecal microbiota-modelling biological agents for the preparation of food, nutraceuticals, and feed, which has great potential at industrial biotechnology scale. There are many applications of sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are the main microorganisms in spontaneous sourdough. In addition to their application as pure technological strains in the food and feed industries, taking into consideration the specific properties of these microorganisms (antimicrobial, antifungal, immuno-, and microbiota-modulating, etc.), they are used as valuable ingredients in higher-value food as well as nutraceutical formulations. Additionally, a very promising application of LAB is their use in combination with plant- and/or animal-based ingredients to increase the functional properties of the whole combination due to different mechanisms of action, as well as desirable symbiotic activity. In addition to traditional foods prepared using sourdough microorganisms (bread, biscuits, meat products, dairy, beverages, etc.), they could find application in the preparation of added-value ingredients for the food, nutraceutical, and feed industries. Finally, this mini-review gives a brief introduction to the possible applications of sourdough LAB in the food, feed, and nutraceutical industries. Full article
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