Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 August 2022) | Viewed by 15490

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Analytical Chemistry Department (IVAGRO), Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
Interests: enological products; chromatography techniques; polyphenols; volatile compounds; chromatography; food analysis; food quality; sensory analysis; extraction; food composition; food science and technology
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Dear Colleagues,

The perception of enological product flavor and aroma is the result of complex interactions between a large number (> 1,000) of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Several factors affect the chemical profile of enological products, including grape cultivars, cultivation conditions, the fermentation processes (alcoholic fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; malolactic microbial fermentation, and acetic fermentation in the case of vinegars), distillation for spirits, aging and maturation.  Various chemical classes of volatile and non-volatile compounds (alcohols, phenolics, esters, aldehydes, ketones, acids, and sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds) constitute the aroma and flavor profile, which allow establishing the fingerprint of these products. Many analytical techniques have been proposed to determine these compounds, emphasizing the gas and liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer between others. Application of multivariate analysis to the numerous data obtained to characterize these products is a useful tool to obtain a more simplified view and get a better interpretation from them. Besides, the analytical results have been compared and correlated with results of wine tasting.

Prof. Dr. Remedios Castro-Mejías
Prof. Dr. Enrique Durán-Guerrero
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • enological product profile and tasting
  • volatile and non-volatile compounds
  • factors influencing enological product composition
  • chromatographic methods
  • multivariate analysis and correlations

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 1341 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Influence of the Use of Sulphur Dioxide, the Distillation System and the Aging Conditions on the Final Sensory Characteristics of Brandy
by María Guerrero-Chanivet, Manuel J. Valcárcel-Muñoz, Dominico Antonio Guillén-Sánchez, Remedios Castro-Mejías, Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero and María de Valme García-Moreno
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213540 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Brandy is a unique alcoholic beverage obtained from wine distillates. Numerous studies have been published on its physicochemical traits and the effect of certain elaboration variables on them, but not many studies have been carried out from a sensory point of view or [...] Read more.
Brandy is a unique alcoholic beverage obtained from wine distillates. Numerous studies have been published on its physicochemical traits and the effect of certain elaboration variables on them, but not many studies have been carried out from a sensory point of view or that have followed standardized methods applicable to this discipline. This study intends to determine the effect that certain production variables have on the sensory characteristics of brandy. These variables are the following: The use of sulphur dioxide during the fermentation of the base wine, the subsequent distillation system, the alcohol content during aging, the botanical origin of the aging casks, and their toasting degree. For this purpose, the guidelines provided by the ISO standards for sensory analysis have been followed, and chromatic parameters have also been determined. Heavy extractions from Quercus petraea casks resulted in brandies with widely varying colors, although these were hard to distinguish using the olfactory and gustatory properties associated with the factors under study. Conversely, those brandies aged in Quercus alba casks presented very consistent greenish shades that are not traditionally associated with aged brandy. This lower extraction could explain why the aromatic traits that are found in the fresh spirit are better preserved when this type of oak is used. The spirit obtained through the distillation of SO2-free wines aged in Quercus robur presented average sensory characteristics: Good color, smooth in the mouth, and medium-intensity oak notes. The distillates that were aged at 55% ABV were later perceived as more aromatically intense with a greater oak note on the palate. On the other hand, the brandies obtained from wines without SO2 added were perceived as less alcoholic, sweeter, and more balanced, with a softer oak note. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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24 pages, 4371 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Nine Different Grape Varieties Wine by Headspace Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS), Odor Activity Values (OAV) and Sensory Analysis
by Weiyu Cao, Nan Shu, Jinli Wen, Yiming Yang, Yuning Jin and Wenpeng Lu
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182767 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3963
Abstract
During this study, the physicochemical properties, color, and volatile aroma compounds of the original wines produced from the grape varieties ‘Hassan’, ‘Zuoshaner’, ‘Beibinghong’, ‘Zuoyouhong’, ‘Beta’, ‘Shuanghong’, ‘Zijingganlu’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, and ‘Syrah’ were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. Results indicated that ‘Hassan’ contained [...] Read more.
During this study, the physicochemical properties, color, and volatile aroma compounds of the original wines produced from the grape varieties ‘Hassan’, ‘Zuoshaner’, ‘Beibinghong’, ‘Zuoyouhong’, ‘Beta’, ‘Shuanghong’, ‘Zijingganlu’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, and ‘Syrah’ were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. Results indicated that ‘Hassan’ contained the most solids, ‘Zuoshaner’ produced the most total acid, residual sugar, total anthocyanin, and total phenol, and ‘Shuanghong’ produced the most tannin. Calculation of the chroma and hue of the wines according to the CIEL*a*b* parameters revealed that the ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ wines were the brightest of the nine varieties and that the ‘Zuoshaner’ wines had the greatest red hue and yellow hue and the greatest saturation’. A total of 52 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in nine wine samples by HS-GC-IMS analysis, with the most significant number of species detected being 20 esters, followed by 16 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, four ketones, one terpene, and one furan, with the highest total volatile compound content being ‘Beta’. A total of 14 volatile components with OAV (odor activity value) >1 were calculated using the odor activity value (OAV) of the threshold of the aromatic compound, and the OPLS-DA analysis was performed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) using the OAV values of the compounds with OAV values >1 as the Y variable. The VIP (Variable Importance in Projection) values of six compounds, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl hexanoate-D, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate-D, and Isoamyl acetate-D, were calculated to be higher than one between groups, indicating that these six compounds may influence aroma differences. It is essential to recognize that the results of this study have implications for understanding the quality differences between different varieties of wines and for developing wines that have the characteristics of those varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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14 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Volatile Aroma Compounds and Amino Acids in Cabernet Gernischt Grape Berries (Vitis vinifera L.): Comparison of Different Training Systems for Mechanical Soil Burial
by Kangqi Geng, Dongmei Li, Jing Zhang, Yanxia Zhang, Zhennan Zhan and Zhenping Wang
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111568 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Soil burial is a survival strategy for grapevines that can safely overwinter in north-western regions of China. A suitable training system was beneficial for soil burial to provide winter protection. Moreover, the training system can also significantly affect fruit quality during the development [...] Read more.
Soil burial is a survival strategy for grapevines that can safely overwinter in north-western regions of China. A suitable training system was beneficial for soil burial to provide winter protection. Moreover, the training system can also significantly affect fruit quality during the development of grape berries, such as primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, four-year-old Cabernet Gernischt grapevines were used as experimental material and exposed to four training systems, including the Ningxia traditional vertical trunk (control, CK); the gobelet (T1); single guyot (T2); slant trunk with vertical shoot positioning (STVSP) (T3). The results showed that total soluble solid total phenol content was 12.69%, 57% higher under T3 training systems than in the control, and T3 alleviated the canopy density, leading to improving the leaf photosynthetic efficiency gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay used to detect the aroma compounds. The results indicated that the T3 training system enhanced the accumulation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, C6/C9 and esters, which account for the largest proportion of volatile compounds, and the qRT-PCR reveals that VvEcar, Vvter, VvCCD1, and VvLis were raised under T3 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, T3 contributes to most free amino acid synthesis. Additionally, the PCA reveals the correlation of free amino acids under four training systems, which reflected the mostly amino acid related to T3, and thus, we could speculate that T3 enhances the overall aroma. These results may lead to new strategies to select a new, short trunk training system to achieve mechanized buried soil, to prevent cold and produce high-quality wine in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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9 pages, 841 KiB  
Article
Volatile Composition of Sparkling Wines of cv. Chardonnay Cultivated under Different Training Systems in Serra da Mantiqueira (Brazil)
by Naíssa Prévide Bernardo, Aline de Oliveira, Renata Vieira da Mota, Francisco Mickael de Medeiros Câmara, Isabela Peregrino, Murillo de Albuquerque Regina and Eduardo Purgatto
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111529 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
The grapevine is a climbing plant and allows for the manipulation of vegetative canopies to change the microclimate and exposure of leaves and clusters to solar radiation, affecting the primary and secondary metabolisms of plants. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate how the [...] Read more.
The grapevine is a climbing plant and allows for the manipulation of vegetative canopies to change the microclimate and exposure of leaves and clusters to solar radiation, affecting the primary and secondary metabolisms of plants. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate how the lyre and Geneva double-curtain (GDC) training systems could contribute to the volatile composition of sparkling wines in replicates of vinifications carried out in the Serra da Mantiqueira (Brazil) in two consecutive summer harvests (2017 and 2018). Fifty-four free volatile compounds were identified by HS-SPME/GC-MS in the wines in both systems and vintages. Multivariate analysis differentiated the vintages in component 1 (22.7%) and the training systems in component 2 (7.1%). The crops were differentiated by aldehydes in 2017 and in 2018 by isoamyl acetate ester, probably derived from the amino acid leucine, the season having been more humid, with lower temperatures and less radiation. For the training systems, besides the alcohol compounds, the GDC was differentiated by the terpenoid compounds geranylacetone and β-damascenone, which may contribute more pleasant aromas to sparkling wines. This work promotes additional research and enables winegrowers, through the management of their vineyards, to achieve sparkling wines with different volatile compositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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12 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
Effect of Climate on Volatile Metabolism in ‘Red Globe’ Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) during Fruit Development
by Nan Xiang, Hui Xie, Liuwei Qin, Min Wang, Xinbo Guo and Wen Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101435 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
With unique flavor and nutritional value, grapes are popular for eating and for the byproducts obtained in their processing. This study cultivated a popular grape variety, ‘Red Globe’, in two regions with different climates to investigate the discrepancies in their volatiles in response [...] Read more.
With unique flavor and nutritional value, grapes are popular for eating and for the byproducts obtained in their processing. This study cultivated a popular grape variety, ‘Red Globe’, in two regions with different climates to investigate the discrepancies in their volatiles in response to climate. Saccharides, organic acids and transcriptomic and volatile metabolic analyses were studied separately via GC-FID, RNA sequencing and GC-MS/MS methods during the development of grape berries. In total, 83 volatiles were determined in samples, with (E)-2-hexenal the most abundant. Fatty acid derivatives and terpenoids in grapes showed discrepancies in different climates, and some of them were correlated to specific transcription factors. VvWRKY22 was influenced by climate conditions and was relative to saccharide accumulation. MYB-related transcription factors (TFs) were highly correlated with volatiles that accumulated during fruit ripening, especially decanal. Terpenoids showed correlations with a gene module that contained ERFs and HSFs. The findings support the hypothesis that fruit maturity and volatile formations vary in grape berries under different climates. Moreover, specific TFs could participate in volatile accumulations. The given results not only serve to enrich theoretical knowledge on the regulatory mechanism of volatiles in grapes, but also provide guidance for enhancing grape flavor and aroma by modulating cultivational conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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18 pages, 2369 KiB  
Article
Maturation of Moristel in Different Vineyards: Amino Acid and Aroma Composition of Mistelles and Wines with Particular Emphasis in Strecker Aldehydes
by Ignacio Arias-Pérez, Ignacio Ontañón, Vicente Ferreira and Ana Escudero
Foods 2022, 11(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070958 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The aim of this article was to assess the influence of the harvest date on the composition of amino acids and derived aromatic compounds in grape-mistelle and wine of the Moristel variety, in different vineyards. Two vineyards were sampled in 2016 and [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to assess the influence of the harvest date on the composition of amino acids and derived aromatic compounds in grape-mistelle and wine of the Moristel variety, in different vineyards. Two vineyards were sampled in 2016 and another one in 2017. At each sampling point, grapes were collected, destemmed, crushed and divided into four aliquots. The first three were fermented, and the latter was treated with ethanol, to produce 1-week macerates containing 15% ethanol (v/v)-mistelles. Overall, 10 mistelles and 33 wines were produced. Amino acids, Strecker aldehydes and aroma compounds were analysed. Amino acid profiles are characteristic of the vineyard and level of ripeness, converging with maturation. In fermentation, major amino acids, except proline, are consumed at a relatively fixed and specific tax, while consumption of 13 amino acids is determined by the ratios of alanine, glutamic acid, serine and threonine, with γ-aminobutyric acid. After fermentation, amino acid precursors to Strecker aldehydes are maxima in unripe and overripe samples, while Strecker aldehydes are maxima in unripe wines. No direct correlations between precursor amino acids in mistelle and aromatic compounds in wine have been found. Nevertheless, must amino acid profiles could determine wine aroma composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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13 pages, 1237 KiB  
Article
An Index for Wine Acetaldehyde Reactive Potential (ARP) and Some Derived Remarks about the Accumulation of Acetaldehyde during Wine Oxidation
by Almudena Marrufo-Curtido, Vicente Ferreira and Ana Escudero
Foods 2022, 11(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030476 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
The amount of acetaldehyde accumulated during wine oxidation was very small, far less than expected. The existence of polyphenols specifically reactive to acetaldehyde was postuled. In order to assess the acetaldehyde reactive potential (ARP) of wines, different reactive conditions have been studied: acetaldehyde [...] Read more.
The amount of acetaldehyde accumulated during wine oxidation was very small, far less than expected. The existence of polyphenols specifically reactive to acetaldehyde was postuled. In order to assess the acetaldehyde reactive potential (ARP) of wines, different reactive conditions have been studied: acetaldehyde concentration, temperature and pH. The evaluation/validation of developed ARP assay was made with 12 wines. Results have shown that high temperatures cannot be used to estimate wine ARP. In fact, at 70 °C acetaldehyde reacts strictly proportionally to wine total polyphenols. A reproducible index by letting wine at pH 2 react with 35 mgL−1 of acetaldehyde for 7 days was obtained and applied to 12 wines. Rosés did not consume any, whites consumed 8% and reds between 18 and 38% of their total acetaldehyde content. After pH correction, whites ARP can be similar to low ARP reds. Basic kinetic considerations derived from the measurement of ARP were applied to interpret observed acetaldehyde accumulation and consumption during the forced oxidation of the 12 wines. It is concluded that wine ARPs cannot explain the huge fraction of acetaldehyde presumably consumed by wine and the fraction of H2O2 produced during oxidation and not consumed by SO2 has to oxidize majorly wine components other than ethanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Grape Derived Product Aroma and Flavour Chemistry)
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