Novel Analysis on Aroma Compounds of Wine, Vinegar and Derived Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2021) | Viewed by 45068

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences-IVAGRO, University of Cádiz, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), Post Office Box 40, Pol. Río San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain
Interests: wine; vinegar; oenological products; polyphenols; volatile compounds; chromatography; food analysis; food quality; sensory analysis; extraction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Analytical Chemistry Department (IVAGRO), Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
Interests: enological products; chromatography techniques; polyphenols; volatile compounds; chromatography; food analysis; food quality; sensory analysis; extraction; food composition; food science and technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aroma compounds are one of the main responsible for the acceptance of oenological products such as wine, vinegar and derived products. This kind of compounds are produced during the winemaking process and they can be affected by natural, geographical and human factors: raw material, alcoholic and acetic fermentation, ageing, distillation, technological processes, etc. Therefore, it is very important to study and to characterize the aromatic fraction of these oenological beverages, in order to improve the quality of the final product.

This special issue will be focused on the recent researches related to the study of the volatile composition of wine, vinegar and derived products, from many different fields of science: Oenology, Chemistry, Food Science and Technology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Engineering, Sensory Analysis, etc.

Prof. Enrique Durán-Guerrero
Prof. Remedios Castro-Mejías
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wine
  • Vinegar
  • Distillates
  • New Products
  • Chromatography
  • Volatile Compounds
  • Characterization
  • Extraction

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Novel Analysis on Aroma Compounds of Wine, Vinegar and Derived Products
by Enrique Durán-Guerrero and Remedios Castro
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061245 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Aroma is one of the main responsible for the acceptance of oenological products such as wine, vinegar and derived products [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

11 pages, 1271 KiB  
Article
Oral Release Behavior of Wine Aroma Compounds by Using In-Mouth Headspace Sorptive Extraction (HSSE) Method
by María Pérez-Jiménez, Carolina Muñoz-González and María Angeles Pozo-Bayón
Foods 2021, 10(2), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020415 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
The oral release behavior of wine aroma compounds was determined by using an in-mouth headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) procedure. For this, 32 volunteers rinsed their mouths with a red wine. Aroma release was monitored at three time points (immediately, 60 s, and 120 [...] Read more.
The oral release behavior of wine aroma compounds was determined by using an in-mouth headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) procedure. For this, 32 volunteers rinsed their mouths with a red wine. Aroma release was monitored at three time points (immediately, 60 s, and 120 s) after wine expectoration. Twenty-two aroma compounds belonging to different chemical classes were identified in the mouth. Despite the large inter-individual differences, some interesting trends in oral release behavior were observed depending on the chemical family. In general, esters and linear alcohols showed rapid losses in the mouth over the three sampling times and therefore showed a low oral aroma persistence. On the contrary, terpenes, lactones, and C13 norisoprenoids showed lower variations in oral aroma release over time, thus showing a higher oral aroma persistence. Additionally, and despite their low polarity, furanic acids and guaiacol showed the highest oral aroma persistence. This work represents the first large study regarding in-mouth aroma release behavior after wine tasting, using real wines, and it confirmed that oral release behavior does not only depend on the physicochemical properties of aroma compounds but also on other features, such as the molecular structure and probably, on the characteristics and composition of the oral environment. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 4096 KiB  
Article
Chemical, Physical, and Sensory Effects of the Use of Bentonite at Different Stages of the Production of Traditional Sparkling Wines
by Cristina Ubeda, María Ignacia Lambert-Royo, Mariona Gil i Cortiella, Rubén Del Barrio-Galán and Álvaro Peña-Neira
Foods 2021, 10(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020390 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
The addition of bentonite to wine to eliminate unstable haze-forming proteins and as a riddling adjuvant in the remuage is not selective, and other important molecules are lost in this process. The moment of the addition of bentonite is a key factor. Volatile [...] Read more.
The addition of bentonite to wine to eliminate unstable haze-forming proteins and as a riddling adjuvant in the remuage is not selective, and other important molecules are lost in this process. The moment of the addition of bentonite is a key factor. Volatile profile (SPME-GC-MS), foam characteristics (Mosalux method), and sensory analyses were performed to study the effect of the distribution of the dosage of bentonite for stabilization of the wine among the addition on the base wine before the tirage (50%, 75%, and 100% bentonite dosage) and during the tirage (addition of the remaining dosage for each case). Results showed that the addition of 50% of the bentonite to the base wine (before the tirage) resulted in sparkling wines with the lowest quantity of volatile compounds, mainly esters and norisoprenoids. No significant differences were found among the sparkling wines after 9 months of aging in relation to foam properties measured by Mosalux, although higher foamability and crown’s persistence were perceived in the sparkling wines with the addition of 75% and 100% of the bentonite dosage in sensory trials. The results of this study suggested that the amount of bentonite added as a fining agent in the tirage had greater effects than during the addition of this agent in the base wine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1983 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of a Grape Seed Tannin Extract on Wine Ester Release and Perception Using In Vitro and In Vivo Instrumental and Sensory Approaches
by Carolina Muñoz-González, Celia Criado, María Pérez-Jiménez and María Ángeles Pozo-Bayón
Foods 2021, 10(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010093 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of a commercial grape seed tannin extract (GSE) fully characterized (53% monomers, 47% procyanidins) on wine ester release and perception using a global approach. The behavior of two esters (ethyl hexanoate, ethyl decanoate) was studied [...] Read more.
This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of a commercial grape seed tannin extract (GSE) fully characterized (53% monomers, 47% procyanidins) on wine ester release and perception using a global approach. The behavior of two esters (ethyl hexanoate, ethyl decanoate) was studied in a control wine or in the same wine supplemented with the GSE in preconsumption (in vitro headspace-stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SBSE-GC/MS) and orthonasal perception) and consumption (intraoral-HS-SBSE-GC/MS and dynamic retronasal perception) conditions. For the compound ethyl hexanoate, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among wines were observed in the in vitro analyses while they were observed in the three in vivo experiments (p < 0.05). Thus, the wine supplemented with the GSE showed lower (35%) in vivo release and ortho (36%) and retronasal (16%) perception scores than the control wine. Overall, this suggests that components of the GSE could interact with this compound, directly and/or through complexes with oral components, affecting its release and conditioning its perception. However, perceptual interactions and effects of polyphenols on oral esterases cannot be discarded. On the contrary, the compound ethyl decanoate was not significantly affected by the addition of GSE. In conclusion, the addition of tannin extracts to wines can modulate aroma perception in a compound-dependent manner. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3377 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Aromatic and Phenolic Profile of Five Different Wood Chips Used for Ageing Spirits and Wines
by María Guerrero-Chanivet, Manuel J. Valcárcel-Muñoz, M. Valme García-Moreno and Dominico A. Guillén-Sánchez
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111613 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
Wooden barrels and wood chips are usually used in the ageing of spirits and wines to improve their sensorial profile. Oak wood is the most popular material used in cooperage, but there are other interesting woods, such as cherry or chestnut, that could [...] Read more.
Wooden barrels and wood chips are usually used in the ageing of spirits and wines to improve their sensorial profile. Oak wood is the most popular material used in cooperage, but there are other interesting woods, such as cherry or chestnut, that could be considered for this purpose. In this study, a novel method for the determination of the aromatic profile of wood powder by Direct Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (DTD-GC-MS) was optimized by experimental design. The volatile composition of five different types of wood chips was determined by direct analysis of wood powder by DTD-GC-MS method developed. Thirty-one compounds from wood were identified through this analysis, allowing the differentiation between woods. The aromatic and phenolic compound profile of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of each type of wood studied was analyzed by Stir-bar Sorptive Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS) and Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) to determine which wood compounds are transferred to spirits and wine after ageing. Different phenolic profiles were found by UHPLC in each wood extract, allowing their differentiation. However, results obtained by SBSE-GC-MS did not allow distinguishing between wood extracts. The analysis of wood in solid state, without any type of previous treatment except grinding, by DTD-GC-MS does not imply any loss of information of the aromatic compounds present in wood as other techniques. This is a potential method to identify aromas in wood that, in addition, allows different types of wood to be differentiated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Influence of Two Different Cryoextraction Procedures on the Quality of Wine Produced from Muscat Grapes
by Ana Ruiz-Rodríguez, Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Ramón Natera, Miguel Palma and Carmelo G. Barroso
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111529 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Freezing grapes is a winemaking technique known as cryoextraction that intends to modify the composition of the final wines. The changes that take place in the frozen grapes facilitate the transfer of certain compounds from the grape skins into the musts because of [...] Read more.
Freezing grapes is a winemaking technique known as cryoextraction that intends to modify the composition of the final wines. The changes that take place in the frozen grapes facilitate the transfer of certain compounds from the grape skins into the musts because of the grape’s unstructured tissues. For this study, the white grape variety Muscat of Alexandria was selected. Two different cryoextraction procedures have been analyzed as follows: (i) Ultrafast freezing, and (ii) liquid nitrogen freezing. The wines obtained using liquid nitrogen freezing exhibited higher levels of terpenoids, as well as higher levels of hydroxylic compounds and fatty acids than both the wines obtained through traditional methods and ultrafast freezing wines. In any case, both freezing techniques produced wines of a more intense aroma compared with those wines obtained by traditional methods. In fact, liquid nitrogen freezing produced the wines with the most intense aroma and were the best valued by the tasting panel. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 786 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Aroma of Treixadura Wines during Bottle Aging
by Iván Vázquez-Pateiro, Uxía Arias-González, José Manuel Mirás-Avalos and Elena Falqué
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101419 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
Aroma is a crucial attribute for wine quality, particularly in white wines. Traditionally, the consumption of young white wines is recommended over the year following grape harvest due to potential aroma losses that would worsen wine quality. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Aroma is a crucial attribute for wine quality, particularly in white wines. Traditionally, the consumption of young white wines is recommended over the year following grape harvest due to potential aroma losses that would worsen wine quality. This study aimed to investigate the evolution of volatile compounds, odor activity value-based aroma notes, and sensory perception in Treixadura (Vitis vinifera L.) dry white wines during a 24-month bottle-aging period. Volatile composition was determined by gas chromatography, and wine sensory evaluation was performed by experts. Wine samples had similar volatile compositions at the time of bottling. The volatile contents of the wines were respectively 322.9, 302.7, 323.0, and 280.9 mg L−1 after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of bottle storage. Most of the volatiles tended to maintain constant concentrations, or with slight increases in all families of volatiles except for acetates and carbonyl compounds, until two years after harvest (18 months of bottle storage) and, then, concentrations reduced sharply. After 24 months of storage in the bottle, the concentrations of terpenes, C6 compounds, higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, acetates, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were reduced by 32%, 47%, 11%, 39%, 50%, 74%, 41%, and 54%, respectively. The 18-month bottle-aged wines showed the highest concentrations of volatiles, as well as the best performance in the sensory evaluation, suggesting that a good balance of the aroma attributes was achieved on this date. In conclusion, the current study suggests that Treixadura wines expressed their maximum aroma potential two years after grape harvest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Chitosan in Sparkling Wines Produced by the Traditional Method: Influence of Its Presence during the Secondary Fermentation
by Antonio Castro Marín, Claudio Riponi and Fabio Chinnici
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091174 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3192
Abstract
Chitosan is a polysaccharide admitted in winemaking as clarifying, antimicrobial and chelating agent. In addition, evidence about its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities have been recently reported in wine conditions. As an insoluble adjuvant, chitosan efficacy also depends on the duration of its [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a polysaccharide admitted in winemaking as clarifying, antimicrobial and chelating agent. In addition, evidence about its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities have been recently reported in wine conditions. As an insoluble adjuvant, chitosan efficacy also depends on the duration of its contact with the matrix. In the case of sparkling wines obtained following the traditional method, for instance, the addition of chitosan before the secondary fermentation would permit a prolonged contact of the polymer with wine and yeast lees. However, information on the effects of this practice on final products is totally unknown. In this work, the addition of chitosan during the secondary fermentation of a traditional sparkling wine production method has been investigated for its effects on both the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the resulting wine. After 12 months of “sur lie” maturation, chitosan was found to increase the protein and amino acid content of wines up to about 50% and 9%, respectively, with limited change of phenolics and organic acids. Volatile compounds, particularly esters, were increased as well, which was reflected by higher values for fruity character and aroma intensity after sensory tests. Foaming features, evaluated by sensory and physical measurements, were also positively affected. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
Bee Pollen Role in Red Winemaking: Volatile Compounds and Sensory Characteristics of Tintilla de Rota Warm Climate Red Wines
by Antonio Amores-Arrocha, Pau Sancho-Galán, Ana Jiménez-Cantizano and Víctor Palacios
Foods 2020, 9(8), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9080981 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
One of the main aspects that define wine quality is its aromatic profile. Nutritional deficiencies in musts can lead to olfactory defects and a decline in quality. Commercial activators and nutrients are usually added to the must in these cases. The natural composition [...] Read more.
One of the main aspects that define wine quality is its aromatic profile. Nutritional deficiencies in musts can lead to olfactory defects and a decline in quality. Commercial activators and nutrients are usually added to the must in these cases. The natural composition of bee pollen can provide all the necessary nutrients for yeasts. This investigation aims to analyze the impact of pollen addition on the profile of volatile and sensory compounds in Tintilla de Rota warm climate red wines. Volatile compounds were measured by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Odorant Activity Values analysis to find out each compound’s fragrant participation, and sensorial analysis was conducted for a qualified panel of wine-tasters. As a result of the chromatographic analysis, 80 volatile compounds of different chemical families were identified and quantified. Bee pollen increased mainly isoamyl alcohol, esters, and terpenes compounds families in wines. Odorant Activity Values analysis showed an increase in fruity odorant series mainly, followed by floral, for all wines with pollen addition. The sensory analysis showed that low pollen doses (0.1 g/L and 0.25 g/L) increased tasting notes of fruit and floral attributes and fruit and floral odorant series as well, highlighting an increase in red and black fruit notes mainly. On the other hand, high doses deviated the sensory profile towards fleshy stone fruit, and raisin fruit, mostly. In addition, high bee pollen doses produce an increase in the odorant category responsible for the chemical, fatty, and grassy aromas mainly, and high and intermediate dose (1 g/L) an increase in the earthy notes in the aromas. Therefore, low bee pollen doses (0.1 and 0.25 g/L) can improve both the aromatic compound profile, as well as the Odorant Activity Values levels and the sensory profile in Tintilla de Rota red wines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) Sensory Thresholds in Riesling Wine
by Andrii Tarasov, Nicoló Giuliani, Alexey Dobrydnev, Christoph Schuessler, Yulian Volovenko, Doris Rauhut and Rainer Jung
Foods 2020, 9(5), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050606 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6320
Abstract
1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) is an aroma compound responsible for the kerosene/petrol notes in Riesling wines. In the current article, three sensory thresholds for TDN were determined in young Riesling wine: detection threshold (about 4 µg/L), recognition threshold (10–12 µg/L), and rejection threshold (71–82 µg/L). [...] Read more.
1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) is an aroma compound responsible for the kerosene/petrol notes in Riesling wines. In the current article, three sensory thresholds for TDN were determined in young Riesling wine: detection threshold (about 4 µg/L), recognition threshold (10–12 µg/L), and rejection threshold (71–82 µg/L). It was demonstrated that an elevated content of free SO2 in wine may have a certain masking effect on the TDN aroma perception. In addition, the influence of wine serving temperature on the recognition of kerosene/petrol notes was studied. It was found, that a lower wine serving temperature (about 11 °C) facilitated identification of the TDN aroma compared to the same wine samples at room temperature. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1231 KiB  
Article
Use of Sensory Analysis to Investigate the Influence of Climate Chambers and Other Process Variables in the Production of Sweet Wines
by M. Jesús Ruiz-Bejarano, Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Remedios Castro, Carmelo G. Barroso and M. Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero
Foods 2020, 9(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040424 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
In this study, a climate chamber, as an alternative method, has been used to dry raisins and the sensory profiles of the sweet sherry wines obtained have been evaluated. Other important factors, namely grape variety, vintage, vinification conditions, as well as the ageing [...] Read more.
In this study, a climate chamber, as an alternative method, has been used to dry raisins and the sensory profiles of the sweet sherry wines obtained have been evaluated. Other important factors, namely grape variety, vintage, vinification conditions, as well as the ageing method and its length of time, have also been considered. When heavy rainfall had been registered, the musts extracted from grapes dried under controlled conditions in a climate chamber showed a lower intensity of the musty off-odor compared to those elaborated with sun-dried grapes. The wine fermented at low temperature with Saccharomyces bayanus scored the highest in citric and floral notes, and this was preferred over all the other wines that were evaluated. The wines aged in oak barrels were preferred to both, wines aged in the presence of oak chips as well as those aged without any wood contact. The use of climate chambers to dry the grapes that are going to be used for the elaboration of sweet wines appears to be an advantageous alternative to the traditional method, since it allows a more precise control of the process and highly valued sweet wines from a sensory point of view are obtained thereby. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

33 pages, 2518 KiB  
Review
Aroma of Sherry Products: A Review
by Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Remedios Castro, María de Valme García-Moreno, María del Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero, Mónica Schwarz and Dominico Guillén-Sánchez
Foods 2021, 10(4), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040753 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3377
Abstract
Jerez (Sherry) is a well-known wine-producing region located in southern Spain, where world-renowned oenological products such as wines, vinegars, and brandies are produced. There are several factors that provide characteristic physical, chemical, and sensory properties to the oenological products obtained in this Sherry [...] Read more.
Jerez (Sherry) is a well-known wine-producing region located in southern Spain, where world-renowned oenological products such as wines, vinegars, and brandies are produced. There are several factors that provide characteristic physical, chemical, and sensory properties to the oenological products obtained in this Sherry region: the climate in the area with hot summers, mild winters, and with limited rainfall; the raw material used consisting on Palomino Fino, Moscatel, and Pedro Ximénez white grape varieties; the special vinification with fortified wines; and aging techniques such as a dynamic system of biological or oxidative aging. These special organoleptic characteristics are responsible for, among others, the aromatic profile of the wines, vinegars and brandies from the area, which explains why this is a subject that has been extensively researched over the years. This bibliographic review aims to compile the different scientific contributions that have been found to date, in relation with the aroma of the oenological products from the Sherry area (dry wines, sweet wines, vinegars, and brandies). We have mainly focused on the different analytical methodologies used and on the main analytes of interest. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 1556 KiB  
Review
Secondary Aroma: Influence of Wine Microorganisms in Their Aroma Profile
by Maria Carpena, Maria Fraga-Corral, Paz Otero, Raquel A. Nogueira, Paula Garcia-Oliveira, Miguel A. Prieto and Jesus Simal-Gandara
Foods 2021, 10(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010051 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 8131
Abstract
Aroma profile is one of the main features for the acceptance of wine. Yeasts and bacteria are the responsible organisms to carry out both, alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is in turn, responsible for transforming grape juice into wine and providing secondary [...] Read more.
Aroma profile is one of the main features for the acceptance of wine. Yeasts and bacteria are the responsible organisms to carry out both, alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is in turn, responsible for transforming grape juice into wine and providing secondary aromas. Secondary aroma can be influenced by different factors; however, the influence of the microorganisms is one of the main agents affecting final wine aroma profile. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has historically been the most used yeast for winemaking process for its specific characteristics: high fermentative metabolism and kinetics, low acetic acid production, resistance to high levels of sugar, ethanol, sulfur dioxide and also, the production of pleasant aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, in the last years, the use of non-saccharomyces yeasts has been progressively growing according to their capacity to enhance aroma complexity and interact with S. cerevisiae, especially in mixed cultures. Hence, this review article is aimed at associating the main secondary aroma compounds present in wine with the microorganisms involved in the spontaneous and guided fermentations, as well as an approach to the strain variability of species, the genetic modifications that can occur and their relevance to wine aroma construction. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop