Advances in Wine Physicochemical Properties, Sensory Attributes, and Health Benefits

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Drinks and Liquid Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 6373

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia
Interests: wine; food chemistry; viticulture; enology; wine chemistry; sensory analysis; anthocyanins; sensory evaluation; winemaking; vitis; grape and wine aroma; grape polyphenols; wine polyphenols; wine quality
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: applied modeling and optimization in food science and food technology; measurements and data analysis; NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are happy to invite you to submit a paper to the journal Foods for a Special Issue titled "Advances in Wine Physicochemical Properties, Sensory Attributes, and Health Benefits".

Both research and review papers are welcome for possible publication in this Special Issue.

We are addressing you due to your exceptional knowledge of the topic, and your shared knowledge in the form of professional and/or review papers will certainly contribute to the development of this area.

Summary:

Wine has been a part of the traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle for centuries. The latest research on the health-beneficial properties of wine is mostly focused on polyphenols as well-known compounds responsible for their bioactive properties against cardiovascular and neurological illness and cancer. However, a small amount of these compounds derived from grape fruit show beneficial health effects in the human body. The bioavailability of polyphenols may be the result of the food matrix, food processing, and gut microbiota. Aside from polyphenols, other compounds found in grapes, such as terpenoids, carbohydrates, and macro and micro elements beyond their nutritional value, also contribute to the fruit's physicochemical properties. This Special Issue will focus on the latest findings of grape wine composition, using non-destructive spectroscopy techniques and other techniques, with the aim of discovering compounds that are responsible for the physicochemical properties, sensory attributes, and beneficial health effects demonstrating wines to be a good source of functional food. Special attention will be devoted to processing techniques, as well as microorganisms that are used to improve wine quality.

Dr. Irena Budić-Leto
Prof. Dr. Gajdoš Kljusurić Jasenka
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • wine quality
  • wine technology
  • wine yeasts
  • wine aging
  • sensorial properties
  • physical/chemical properties
  • health benefits

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
Winemaking Technologies for the Production of Cabernet Sauvignon and Feteasca Neagra Wines Enriched with Antioxidant Active Principles Due to the Addition of Melatonin
by Sandra A. V. Eremia, Camelia Albu, Gabriel-Lucian Radu, Andreia Alecu, Alice G. Stoica and Elena Brinduse
Foods 2024, 13(6), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13060884 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
In recent years, various studies have been carried out to increase the concentration of antioxidant active principles in red wines as a consequence of the effects of winemaking techniques on the polyphenols content. In this study, in order to obtain the most optimal [...] Read more.
In recent years, various studies have been carried out to increase the concentration of antioxidant active principles in red wines as a consequence of the effects of winemaking techniques on the polyphenols content. In this study, in order to obtain the most optimal wine in terms of content and efficiency of antioxidant activity, various winemaking technologies (punching-down and pumping-over maceration) were tried with diverse gradations (Feteasca Neagra and Cabernet Sauvignon wines) and the addition of different concentrations of melatonin in must. Suitable HPLC and spectrophotometric methods were used to follow the evolution of the antioxidant compounds from wines during aging (for 12 months). After comparing the acquired results, an increase was observed in the antioxidant compound concentrations, particularly in resveratrol (85%), peonidin-3-glucoside (100%) or cyanidin-3-glucoside (100%), and antioxidant activity (10–40%). The most enriched wine was obtained in the case of Feteasca Neagra by the addition of 0.5 mg of melatonin per 1 kg of must using the punch-down technology and, in the case of Cabernet Sauvignon, by the addition of 0.05 mg of melatonin per 1 kg of must using the pumping-over technique. This study can provide winemakers with an approach to enhance red wines with antioxidant compounds. Full article
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17 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Yeast Starter Culture Identification to Produce of Red Wines with Enhanced Antioxidant Content
by Giuseppe Romano, Marco Taurino, Carmela Gerardi, Maria Tufariello, Marcello Lenucci and Francesco Grieco
Foods 2024, 13(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020312 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Grape variety, quality, geographic origins and phytopathology can influence the amount of polyphenols that accumulate in grape tissues. Polyphenols in wine not only shape their organoleptic characteristics but also significantly contribute to the positive impact that this beverage has on human health. However, [...] Read more.
Grape variety, quality, geographic origins and phytopathology can influence the amount of polyphenols that accumulate in grape tissues. Polyphenols in wine not only shape their organoleptic characteristics but also significantly contribute to the positive impact that this beverage has on human health. However, during the winemaking process, the total polyphenol content is substantially reduced due to the adsorption onto yeast wall polymers and subsequent lees separation. Despite this, limited information is available regarding the influence of the yeast starter strain on the polyphenolic profile of wine. To address this issue, a population consisting of 136 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was analyzed to identify those with a diminished ability to adsorb polyphenols. Firstly, the reduction in concentration of polyphenolic compounds associated to each strain was studied by assaying Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) in the wines produced by micro-scale must fermentation. A total of 29 strains exhibiting a TPC and TEAC reduction ≤ 50%, when compared to that detected in the utilized grape must were identified and the nine most-promising strains were further validated by larger-scale vinification. Physico-chemical analyses of the resulting wines led to the identification of four strains, namely ITEM6920, ITEM9500, ITEM9507 and ITEM9508 which showed, compared to the control wine, a TPC and TEAC reduction ≤ 20 in the produced wines. They were denoted by a significant (p < 0.05) increased amount of anthocyanin, quercetin and trans-coutaric acid, minimal volatile acidity (<0.2 g/L), absence of undesirable metabolites and a well-balanced volatile profile. As far as we know, this investigation represents the first clonal selection of yeast strains aimed at the identifying “functional” fermentation starters, thereby enabling the production of regional wines with enriched polyphenolic content. Full article
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23 pages, 1415 KiB  
Article
Applying Different Vinification Techniques in Teran Red Wine Production: Impact on Bioactive Compounds and Sensory Attributes
by Fumica Orbanić, Sara Rossi, Ena Bestulić, Irena Budić-Leto, Karin Kovačević Ganić, Ivana Horvat, Tomislav Plavša, Marijan Bubola, Igor Lukić, Ana Jeromel and Sanja Radeka
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3838; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203838 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Six different vinification treatments, including a control treatment (7-day standard maceration) (K7), were performed to study the effects of non-standard techniques on bioactive compounds and sensory attributes of Teran red wine. Pre-fermentative mash cooling (8 °C; 48 h) and heating (50 °C; 48 [...] Read more.
Six different vinification treatments, including a control treatment (7-day standard maceration) (K7), were performed to study the effects of non-standard techniques on bioactive compounds and sensory attributes of Teran red wine. Pre-fermentative mash cooling (8 °C; 48 h) and heating (50 °C; 48 h) followed by prolonged post-fermentative maceration of 13 days (C15;H15) or 28 days (C30;H30) were applied. In another treatment, after cooling, saignée was performed followed by 13-day prolonged maceration (CS15). Wine phenols and vitamins were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-FLD, minerals by ICP-OES, and sensory analysis was performed using the QDA and 100-point O.I.V./U.I.O.E. methods. Obtained results showed total phenolic concentration was the highest in the H30 treatment. The concentration of anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids was significantly higher in wines of all vinification techniques compared to the control. Stilbene content was highly affected by pre-fermentative heating. Treatments CS15, H15, C30 and H30 resulted in the highest scores by both the QDA and 100-point sensory methods. The obtained results suggest that advanced non-standard vinification techniques have a significant impact on Teran wine by enhancing its composition of bioactive compounds and improving its sensory profile, which gives it an additional market value. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of such techniques applied simultaneously in one study is of substantial importance for additional research in wine production. Full article
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15 pages, 474 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Long-Lasting Flavour Perception after the Consumption of Wines Treated with Different Types of Oenological Additives Considering Individual 6-n-Propylthiouracil Taster Status
by Rafael I. Velázquez-Martínez, Celia Criado, Carolina Muñoz-González, Julia Crespo and María Ángeles Pozo-Bayón
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152835 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Due to the limited scientific knowledge on the impact of commercial oenological additives on flavour perception, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different types of oenological additives on the long-lasting flavour perception (flavour persistence) during wine tasting, also [...] Read more.
Due to the limited scientific knowledge on the impact of commercial oenological additives on flavour perception, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different types of oenological additives on the long-lasting flavour perception (flavour persistence) during wine tasting, also considering the effect of the individual PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil) taster status (PTS). To do so, white and red wines with two oenotannins (ellagitannin and gallotannin) and a commercial yeast mannoprotein were prepared. A control wine of each type was also made without additives. All the wines were spiked with a mixture of aromatic compounds responsible for the “fruity” and “woody” notes. Retronasal aroma and astringency were evaluated at the same time using time–intensity (TI) methodology and a trained panel (n = 40), including PROP non-tasters (NTs) and tasters (Ts). The results showed a significant effect of PTS on the long-lasting perception of astringency, being Ts who showed higher values than NTs for most TI parameters. However, PTS did not affect aroma persistence. In addition, the three oenological additives had an effect on astringency and retronasal aroma perception. They significantly increased the long-lasting perception of astringency compared to the control, while gallotannin also increased the persistence of the woody aroma. Full article
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22 pages, 5161 KiB  
Article
Differences in Aroma Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines from Four Plots in Jieshi Mountain Region of Eastern China
by Zhuo Chen, Yang-Peng Wu, Yi-Bin Lan, Yan-Zhi Cui, Tong-Hua Shi, Yu-Bo Hua, Chang-Qing Duan and Qiu-Hong Pan
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142668 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The Bohai Bay region is a famous wine-growing area in China, where the rainfall is concentrated in the summer due to the influence of the temperate semi-humid monsoon climate. As such, the vineyard terrain has a significant impact on the flavor quality of [...] Read more.
The Bohai Bay region is a famous wine-growing area in China, where the rainfall is concentrated in the summer due to the influence of the temperate semi-humid monsoon climate. As such, the vineyard terrain has a significant impact on the flavor quality of the grapes and the resulting wines. To explore the relationship between the ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ wine style and terrain, this study takes four different plots in the Jieshi Mountain region to investigate the differences in the aroma profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines of two consecutive vintages. Based on two-way ANOVA, there were 25 free and 8 glycosylated aroma compounds in the grapes and 21 and 10 aroma compounds with an odor activity value greater than 0.1 in the wines at the end of alcohol fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF), respectively, that varied among the four plots. Wines from the four plots showed a significant difference in floral and fruity aroma attributes, which were mainly related to esters with high odor activity values. The difference in concentration of these compounds between plots was more pronounced in 2021 than in 2020, and a similar result was shown on the Shannon–Wiener index, which represents wine aroma diversity. It has been suggested that high rainfall makes the plot effect more pronounced. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that concentrations of (E)-3-hexen-1-ol in grapes and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate, isopentanoic acid, and phenethyl acetate in wines were strongly positively correlated with the concentrations of N, P, K, Fe, and electrical conductivity in soil but negatively correlated with soil pH. This study laid a theoretical foundation for further improving the level of vineyard management and grape and wine quality in the Jieshi Mountain region. Full article
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15 pages, 2360 KiB  
Article
Flavor Profile Evaluation of Soaked Greengage Wine with Different Base Liquor Treatments Using Principal Component Analysis and Heatmap Analysis
by Peipei Zhao, Chang Liu, Shuang Qiu, Kai Chen, Yingxiang Wang, Caiyun Hou, Rui Huang and Jingming Li
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102016 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The selection of base liquor plays a crucial role in the flavor of soaked greengage wine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different base liquor treatments on the physicochemical characteristics and aroma composition of greengage wine. We carried out a comprehensive [...] Read more.
The selection of base liquor plays a crucial role in the flavor of soaked greengage wine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different base liquor treatments on the physicochemical characteristics and aroma composition of greengage wine. We carried out a comprehensive analysis using HPLC for the determination of organic acids and GC-MS for the determination of volatile aroma compounds, combined with sensory evaluation. The results showed that the red and yellow colors were the darkest in the high-alcohol group, while the citric acid content was the highest in the sake group (21.95 ± 2.19 g/L). In addition, the greengage wine steeped in 50% edible alcohol had more terpenes, a significantly higher concentration of acid–lipid compounds, and a more intense aroma compared to that of the low-alcohol group, whose typical aroma compounds were greatly reduced. The sensory results showed that the greengage wine treated with baijiu had a distinct alcoholic flavor, while almond flavors were more intense in the greengage wine treated with 15% edible alcohol. In this study, base liquor was used as the main influencing factor to provide new research ideas for the flavor optimization of soaked greengage wine. Full article
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