Grape Wine: Physicochemical Properties, Sensory Attributes and Health Benefits

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Drinks and Liquid Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (11 November 2022) | Viewed by 19758

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia
Interests: wine; food chemistry; viticulture; enology; wine chemistry; sensory analysis; anthocyanins; sensory evaluation; winemaking; vitis; grape and wine aroma; grape polyphenols; wine polyphenols; wine quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: applied modeling and optimization in food science and food technology; measurements and data analysis; NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are happy to invite you to submit a paper to the journal Foods for a Special Issue titled “Grape Wine: Physicochemical Properties, Sensory Attributes and Health Benefits”.

Both research and review papers are welcome for possible publication in this Special Issue.

We are addressing you due to your exceptional knowledge of the topic, and your shared knowledge in the form of professional and/or review papers certainly contributes to the development of this area.

Grape is one of the most important fruit cultivars in the world. Grape and its product wine have been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle for centuries. The latest research of the health benefit properties of wine is mostly focused on polyphenols as well-known compounds responsible for its bioactive properties against cardiovascular and neurological illness and cancer. However, a small amount of these compounds derived from grape fruit will show health benefit effects in the human body. The bioavailability of polyphenols may be the result of the food matrix, food processing and gut microbiota. Besides polyphenols, other compounds found in grapes like terpenoids, carbohydrates and macro and micro elements beyond their nutritional value also contribute to physicochemical properties. This Special Issue will focus on the latest findings of grape wine composition, using Raman non-destructive spectroscopy techniques and other qualitative and quantitative techniques, aiming to discover compounds responsible for physicochemical properties, sensory attributes and health benefit effects representing grapes as a good source of functional food. Special attention will be devoted to the cultivation site, processing techniques and postharvest effect on grape composition.

Dr. Irena Budić-Leto
Prof. Dr. Gajdoš Kljusurić Jasenka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine
  • wine production
  • sensorial properties
  • physical/chemical properties
  • applied data analysis
  • NIR/FTIR spectroscopy
  • chemometrics
  • terroir

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 1307 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Variability Sources in Grape Ripening Parameters by Using FTIR and Multivariate Modelling
by Daniel Schorn-García, Barbara Giussani, María Jesús García-Casas, Daniel Rico, Ana Belén Martin-Diana, Laura Aceña, Olga Busto, Ricard Boqué and Montserrat Mestres
Foods 2023, 12(5), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12050962 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
The variability in grape ripening is associated with the fact that each grape berry undergoes its own biochemical processes. Traditional viticulture manages this by averaging the physicochemical values of hundreds of grapes to make decisions. However, to obtain accurate results it is necessary [...] Read more.
The variability in grape ripening is associated with the fact that each grape berry undergoes its own biochemical processes. Traditional viticulture manages this by averaging the physicochemical values of hundreds of grapes to make decisions. However, to obtain accurate results it is necessary to evaluate the different sources of variability, so exhaustive sampling is essential. In this article, the factors “grape maturity over time” and “position of the grape” (both in the grapevine and in the bunch/cluster) were considered and studied by analyzing the grapes with a portable ATR-FTIR instrument and evaluating the spectra obtained with ANOVA–simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Ripeness over time was the main factor affecting the characteristics of the grapes. Position in the vine and in the bunch (in that order) were also significantly important, and their effect on the grapes evolves over time. In addition, it was also possible to predict basic oenological parameters (TSS and pH with errors of 0.3 °Brix and 0.7, respectively). Finally, a quality control chart was built based on the spectra obtained in the optimal state of ripening, which could be used to decide which grapes are suitable for harvest. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2045 KiB  
Article
Early Basal Leaf Removal at Different Sides of the Canopy Improves the Quality of Aglianico Wine
by Giuseppe Gambacorta, Michele Faccia, Giuseppe Natrella, Mirella Noviello, Gianvito Masi and Luigi Tarricone
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193140 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
It is well known that the early removal of basal leaves is a viticultural practice adopted to improve the exposure of clusters to direct sunlight and UV radiation and increase the phenolic compounds and anthocyanin concentration in the berries. The aim of this [...] Read more.
It is well known that the early removal of basal leaves is a viticultural practice adopted to improve the exposure of clusters to direct sunlight and UV radiation and increase the phenolic compounds and anthocyanin concentration in the berries. The aim of this work was to study the influence of early basal leaf removal on Aglianico wines produced in the Apulia region (southern Italy) during three consecutive seasons. Three vine treatments were carried out, where 100% of the cluster-zone leaves on the north, south and both sides of the canopy were removed. Undefoliated plants were used as a control. The effect of the treatments on the basic chemical parameters, phenol content and volatile composition of wines was investigated using WineScan FT-MIR, spectrophotometry, HPLC-DAD and SPME-GC/MS. Early defoliation increased the amounts of flavonoids (+35–40%), anthocyanins (+15–18%), total polyphenols (+10%), antioxidant activity (+8–14%) and colour intensity (+10%), especially when leaf removal was applied on the south side. Moreover, leaf removal led to a 40% increase in free anthocyanins when applied on the south side of the canopy, while a 24% increase was observed when applied to the north side and 21% when applied to the north and south sides. A negative effect was observed on volatile compounds, which decreased by about 18, 14 and 13% when the treatment was applied on the north, north-south and south sides of the canopy, respectively. In conclusion, early leaf removal treatments allow for the modulation of the phenolic and volatile concentrations of Aglianico wines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Describing the Sensory Complexity of Italian Wines: Application of the Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) Method
by Noemi Sofia Rabitti, Camilla Cattaneo, Marta Appiani, Cristina Proserpio and Monica Laureati
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162417 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterise a large and heterogeneous Italian wine sample applying the Rate-All-That-Apply method (RATA) with semi-trained judges. Twelve judges evaluated 46 samples including white, red, rosé and sparkling wines in two replicates. Judges were asked to select [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterise a large and heterogeneous Italian wine sample applying the Rate-All-That-Apply method (RATA) with semi-trained judges. Twelve judges evaluated 46 samples including white, red, rosé and sparkling wines in two replicates. Judges were asked to select from a list of descriptors all the sensations that described the samples and to evaluate their intensity. Judges obtained high repeatability index scores. A good panel reliability was also highlighted in terms of the reproducibility of the whole sensory characterisation through a multi-factor analysis (MFA). MFA results also showed a good discriminatory ability of the panel with red wines described by bitterness, astringency, body, alcohol and specific olfactory stimuli such as red fruits, spicy and roasted, while white wines were salty, sour and characterised by citrus, tropical fruits and white flowers odours. The RATA method is a suitable and reliable methodology for the description of a wide variety of wine samples and a valuable alternative approach to conventional descriptive analysis to gather information about the sensory perception of a very complex product even when large panels of consumers are not available. Furthermore, the present results provide useful information for wine producers to characterise their products as well as for the optimisation of production disciplinaries, which currently are not exhaustive in the description and the discrimination among products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Effects of Moderate Consumption of Red Wine on Hepcidin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Jurica Nazlić, Diana Jurić, Ivana Mudnić, Zvonimir Boban, Ana Marija Dželalija, Leida Tandara, Daniela Šupe-Domić, Katarina Gugo and Mladen Boban
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131881 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4818
Abstract
Iron overload is often associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), indicating that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis, might be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. Alcohol consumption may also result in increased body iron stores. However, the moderate consumption of wine with meals [...] Read more.
Iron overload is often associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), indicating that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis, might be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. Alcohol consumption may also result in increased body iron stores. However, the moderate consumption of wine with meals might be beneficial in T2D. This effect has been mainly attributed to both the ethanol and the polyphenolic compounds in wine. Therefore, we examined the effects of red wine on hepcidin in T2D patients and non-diabetic controls. The diabetic patients (n = 18) and age- and BMI-matched apparently healthy controls (n = 13) were men, aged 40–65 years, non-smoking, with BMI < 35 kg/m2. Following a 2-week alcohol-free period, both groups consumed 300 mL of red wine for 3 weeks. The blood samples for the iron status analysis were taken at the end of each period. The red wine intake resulted in a decrease in serum hepcidin in both the diabetic subjects (p = 0.045) and controls (p = 0.001). The levels of serum ferritin also decreased after wine in both groups, reaching statistical significance only in the control subjects (p = 0.017). No significant alterations in serum iron, transferrin saturation, or soluble transferrin receptors were found. The suppression of hepcidin, a crucial iron-regulatory hormone and acute-phase protein, in T2D patients and healthy controls, is a novel biological effect of red wine. This may deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of the cardiometabolic effects of wine in T2D. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Red and White Wines Produced from Autochthonous Croatian Varieties: Effect of Moderate Consumption on Human Health
by Sanja Radeka, Sara Rossi, Ena Bestulić, Irena Budić-Leto, Karin Kovačević Ganić, Ivana Horvat, Igor Lukić, Fumica Orbanić, Teodora Zaninović Jurjević and Štefica Dvornik
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121804 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
Moderate wine consumption is often associated with healthy lifestyle habits. The role of wine as a healthy drink is mainly due to its bioactive compounds, which differ according to various viticultural and enological factors. The aim of the present study was to observe [...] Read more.
Moderate wine consumption is often associated with healthy lifestyle habits. The role of wine as a healthy drink is mainly due to its bioactive compounds, which differ according to various viticultural and enological factors. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in bioactive compounds of white and red autochthonous Croatian wines, differing in terms of the grape variety and production technology. Our further aim was to explore the effect of their moderate consumption (200 mL per day) over the course of six weeks on some aspects of health in sixty-six healthy individuals. Participants were divided into eight groups depending on the wines consumed, while one group formed a non-consuming control group. Medical examination and laboratory tests were performed before the start and at the end of the consumption period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL concentrations decreased. Additionally, an increase in HDL concentrations, and serotonin and dopamine levels, was observed. ALT, ALP, and GGT levels did not significantly increase in consumer groups, although alcohol concentration was relatively high in all the wines. Such results support the beneficial effects of wine-derived bioactive compounds on some health aspects resulting from moderate white and red wine consumption. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1045 KiB  
Article
Impact of Acetaldehyde Addition on the Sensory Perception of Syrah Red Wines
by Luca Garcia, Cédrine Perrin, Valérie Nolleau, Teddy Godet, Vincent Farines, François Garcia, Soline Caillé and Cédric Saucier
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121693 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Two experimental Syrah red wines with different polyphenol contents were used to study the impact of acetaldehyde addition on olfactory perception. Free acetaldehyde levels were measured in red wine by Head Space-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) to determine the acetaldehyde combination levels for those [...] Read more.
Two experimental Syrah red wines with different polyphenol contents were used to study the impact of acetaldehyde addition on olfactory perception. Free acetaldehyde levels were measured in red wine by Head Space-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) to determine the acetaldehyde combination levels for those wines. Significant differences were observed for both sensory threshold and acetaldehyde combination for the wines. A descriptive sensory analysis of the wines was then performed by using a trained panel and a Hierarchical-Check-All-That-Apply (HCATA) analysis of the wines with or without acetaldehyde addition. The results show that classical cited sensory descriptors for acetaldehyde (overripe apple and oxidized apple) varied significantly between the control wines and those with acetaldehyde addition. Non-acetaldehyde related descriptors (fresh vegetable, fresh flowers, cocoa, and meat juice) were also significantly impacted in the samples with increasing acetaldehyde additions. This suggests possible interactions between acetaldehyde and other volatile compounds that can create antagonistic or synergistic effects between the molecules or at the olfactory receptor level. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1926 KiB  
Article
Novel Application of NIR Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Determination of ‘Maraština’ Wine Parameters
by Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić, Ana Boban, Ana Mucalo and Irena Budić-Leto
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081172 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
This study investigates the colour and standard chemical composition of must and wines produced from the grapes from Vitis vinifera L., ‘Maraština’, harvested from 10 vineyards located in two different viticultural subregions of the Adriatic region of Croatia: Northern Dalmatia and Central and [...] Read more.
This study investigates the colour and standard chemical composition of must and wines produced from the grapes from Vitis vinifera L., ‘Maraština’, harvested from 10 vineyards located in two different viticultural subregions of the Adriatic region of Croatia: Northern Dalmatia and Central and Southern Dalmatia. The aim was to explore the use of NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to determine the characteristics of Maraština wines and to develop calibration models relating NIR spectra and physicochemical/colour data. Differences in the colour parameters (L*, a*, hue) of wines related to the subregions were confirmed. Colour difference (ΔE) of must vs. wine significantly differed for the samples from the Maraština grapes grown in both subregions. Principal component regression was used to construct the calibration models based on NIR spectra and standard physicochemical and colour data showing high prediction ability of the 13 studied parameters of must and/or wine (average R2 of 0.98 and RPD value of 6.8). Principal component analysis revealed qualitative differences of must and wines produced from the same grape variety but grown in different subregions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop