Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 22536

Special Issue Editors

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 210031, China
Interests: ultrasound; physics; polysaccharide
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
Interests: screening and modification of extreme microorganisms and enzymes; structure and function of enzyme; controlled enzymolysis technology; fermentation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since China unveiled the goal to attain peak carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, a growing number of companies have become dedicated to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and carbon footprints in their production processes. Eco-friendly and sustainable food entrepreneurs are actively seeking solutions to cut carbon dioxide emissions.

In such circumstances, novel food processing, instead of the traditional way, is developing in a “green” and “efficient” direction. One kind of physical processing is ultrasonic technology, having green and efficient characteristics. Hence, we are pleased to invite you to submit your suggestions and research concerning the “Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing”. The scope of this Special Issue may include (but is not limited to) the following:

  • Processing of food using ultrasound;
  • Effects of ultrasound on the composition, quality, and safety of foods, other bio-based materials, by-products, and processing wastes;
  • Ultrasonic modification of functional properties of food systems;
  • Ultrasonic extraction of functional (g., polyphenols and antioxidants) ingredients;
  • Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of oil, bioactive compounds, natural products, antioxidant compounds, etc.;
  • Ultrasonics/ultrasonic-assisted degradation in the food area;
  • Ultrasonic/sonochemical/ultrasound-assisted synthesis of food and related materials;
  • Ultrasonic activation/deactivation of enzymes in food systems;
  • Ultrasonic deactivation of pathogens in food systems;
  • Agricultural product washing using ultrasound;
  • Large-scale ultrasonic reactors for food processing applications;
  • Ultrasonic preparation of food emulsions.

Dr. Lei Zhang
Dr. Xianli Gao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ultrasonics
  • ultrasound
  • sonication
  • food processing
  • extraction
  • washing
  • degradation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1681 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Application of Ultrasound to Homogenize Milk and the Subsequent Pasteurization by Pulsed Electric Field, High Hydrostatic Pressure, and Microwaves
by Leire Astráin-Redín, Dagbjørn Skipnes, Guillermo Cebrián, Ignacio Álvarez-Lanzarote and Tone Mari Rode
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071457 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The efficacy of applying ultrasound (US) as a system to homogenize emulsions has been widely demonstrated. However, research has not yet shown whether the effect achieved by homogenizing milk with US is modified by subsequent pasteurization treatments that use new processing technologies such [...] Read more.
The efficacy of applying ultrasound (US) as a system to homogenize emulsions has been widely demonstrated. However, research has not yet shown whether the effect achieved by homogenizing milk with US is modified by subsequent pasteurization treatments that use new processing technologies such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), microwaves (MW), and high hydrostatic pressure (HPP). The aim of this study was, therefore, to optimize the application of US for milk homogenization and to evaluate the effect of PEF, HPP, and MW pasteurization treatments on the sensorial, rheological, and microbiological properties of milk throughout its shelf life. To homogenize whole milk, a continuous US system (20 kHz, 0.204 kJ/mL, 100%, 40 °C) was used, and different ultrasonic intensities (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 kJ/mL) were evaluated. The optimal ultrasonic treatment was selected on the basis of fat globule size distribution and pasteurization treatments by MW (5800 W, 1.8 L/min), PEF (120 kJ/kg, 20 kV/cm) and HPP (600 MPa, 2 min, 10 °C) was applied. The ultrasound intensity that achieved the highest reduction in fat globule size (0.22 ± 0.02 µm) and the most homogeneous distribution was 1.0 kJ/mL. Fat globule size was smaller than in commercial milk (82% of volume < 0.5 µm for US milk versus 97% of volume < 1.2 µm for commercial milk). That size was maintained after the application of the different pasteurization treatments, and the resulting milk had better emulsion stability than commercial milk. After 28 days of storage, no differences in viscosity (4.4–4.9 mPa s) were observed. HPP pasteurization had the greatest impact on color, leading to higher yellowness values than commercial milk. Microbial counts did not vary significantly after 28 days of storage, with counts below 102 CFU/mL for samples incubated at 15 °C and at 37 °C. In summary, the homogenization of milk obtained by US was not affected by subsequent pasteurization processes, regardless of the technology applied (MW, PEF, or HPP). Further research is needed to evaluate these procedures’ effect on milk’s nutritional and functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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14 pages, 11935 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Treatment Enhances the Antioxidant and Immune-Stimulatory Properties of the Polysaccharide from Sinopodophyllum hexandrum Fruit
by Ziwei Liu, Hangyu Li, Qianqian Liu, Yangyang Feng, Daiyan Wu, Xinnan Zhang, Linzi Zhang, Sheng Li, Feng Tang, Qun Liu, Xiaonong Yang and Haibo Feng
Foods 2023, 12(5), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12050910 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
We aimed to assess the potential of ultrasonic treatment on the processing of polysaccharides as functional foods or food additives. The polysaccharide from Sinopodophyllum hexandrum fruit (SHP, 52.46 kDa, 1.91 nm) was isolated and purified. SHP was treated with various levels of ultrasound [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the potential of ultrasonic treatment on the processing of polysaccharides as functional foods or food additives. The polysaccharide from Sinopodophyllum hexandrum fruit (SHP, 52.46 kDa, 1.91 nm) was isolated and purified. SHP was treated with various levels of ultrasound (250 W and 500 W), resulting in the formation of two polysaccharides, SHP1 (29.37 kD, 1.40 nm) and SHP2 (36.91 kDa, 0.987 nm). Ultrasonic treatment was found to reduce the surface roughness and molecular weight of the polysaccharides, leading to thinning and fracturing. The effect of ultrasonic treatment on polysaccharide activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo experiments showed that ultrasonic treatment improved the organ index. Simultaneously, it enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and decreased the content of malondialdehyde in the liver. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment also promoted proliferation, nitric oxide secretion, phagocytic efficiency, costimulatory factors (CD80+, CD86+) expression, and cytokine(IL-6, IL-1β) production of RAW264.7 macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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14 pages, 3254 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ultrasound Combined with Glycerol-Mediated Low-Sodium Curing on the Quality and Protein Structure of Pork Tenderloin
by Sha Gu, Qiujin Zhu, Ying Zhou, Jing Wan, Linggao Liu, Yeling Zhou, Dan Chen, Yanpei Huang, Li Chen and Xiaolin Zhong
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3798; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233798 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Considering the hazards of high salt intake and the current status of research on low-sodium meat products, this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasound combined with glycerol-mediated low-sodium salt curing on the quality of pork tenderloin by analyzing the salt content, [...] Read more.
Considering the hazards of high salt intake and the current status of research on low-sodium meat products, this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasound combined with glycerol-mediated low-sodium salt curing on the quality of pork tenderloin by analyzing the salt content, water activity (aw), cooking loss, and texture. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet fluorescence, and surface hydrophobicity were proposed to reveal the mechanism of the effect of combined ultrasound and glycerol-mediated low sodium salt curing on the quality characteristics of pork tenderloin. The results showed that the co-mediated curing could reduce salt content, aw, and cooking loss (p < 0.05), improve texture and enhance product quality. Compared with the control group, the co-mediated curing increased the solubility of the myofibrillar protein, improved the surface hydrophobicity of the protein, increased the content of reactive sulfhydryl groups (p < 0.05), and changed the protein structure. The SEM results showed that the products treated using a co-mediated curing process had a more detailed and uniform pore distribution. These findings provide new insights into the quality of ultrasonic-treated and glycerol-mediated low-salt cured meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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16 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Influence of Low-Intensity Ultrasound on ε-Polylysine Production: Intracellular ATP and Key Biosynthesis Enzymes during Streptomyces albulus Fermentation
by Jiahui Xiang, Mokhtar Dabbour, Xianli Gao, Benjamin Kumah Mintah, Yao Yang, Wenbin Ren, Ronghai He, Chunhua Dai and Haile Ma
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3525; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213525 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
The effect of low-intensity sonication treatment on cell growth, ε-polylysine (ε-PL) yield and its biological mechanism were investigated, using a 3-L-jar fermenter coupled with an in situ ultrasonic slot with a Streptomyces albulus strain SAR 14-116. Under ultrasonic conditions (28 [...] Read more.
The effect of low-intensity sonication treatment on cell growth, ε-polylysine (ε-PL) yield and its biological mechanism were investigated, using a 3-L-jar fermenter coupled with an in situ ultrasonic slot with a Streptomyces albulus strain SAR 14-116. Under ultrasonic conditions (28 kHz, 0.37 W cm−2, 60 min), a high biomass of SAR 14-116 and concentration of ε-PL were realized (i.e., they increased by 14.92% and 28.45%, respectively) when compared with a control. Besides this, ultrasonication increased the mycelia viability and intracellular ATP as well as activities of key enzymes involved in the ε-PL biosynthesis pathway, resulting in an improvement in the production of ε-PL. Data on qRT-PCR revealed that ultrasonication also affected the gene expression of key enzymes in the ε-PL biosynthesis pathway, including ε-PL synthetase (PLS). These outcomes provided the basis for understanding the effects of ultrasound-assisted fermentation on the stimulation of metabolite production and fermentation procedure in a fermenter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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16 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
High-Intensity Ultrasound Processing Enhances the Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity and Microbiological Quality of Melon (Cucumis melo) Juice
by Daniel Rodríguez-Rico, María de los Ángeles Sáenz-Esqueda, Jorge Armando Meza-Velázquez, Juan José Martínez-García, Jesús Josafath Quezada-Rivera, Mónica M. Umaña and Rafael Minjares-Fuentes
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172648 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
The bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity and microbiological quality of melon juice processed by high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) were studied. Melon juice was processed at two ultrasound intensities (27 and 52 W/cm2) for two different processing times (10 and 30 min) using two [...] Read more.
The bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity and microbiological quality of melon juice processed by high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) were studied. Melon juice was processed at two ultrasound intensities (27 and 52 W/cm2) for two different processing times (10 and 30 min) using two duty cycles (30 and 75%). Unprocessed juice was taken as a control. Total carotenoids and total phenolic compounds (TPC) were the bioactive compounds analyzed while the antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. The microbiological quality was tested by counting the aerobic and coliforms count as well as molds and yeasts. Total carotenoids increased by up to 42% while TPC decreased by 33% as a consequence of HIUS processing regarding control juice (carotenoids: 23 μg/g, TPC: 1.1 mg GAE/g), gallic acid and syringic acid being the only phenolic compounds identified. The antioxidant capacity of melon juice was enhanced by HIUS, achieving values of 45% and 20% of DPPH and ABTS inhibition, respectively, while >120 mg TE/100 g was determined by FRAP assay. Further, the microbial load of melon juice was significantly reduced by HIUS processing, coliforms and molds being the most sensitive. Thus, the HIUS could be an excellent alternative supportive the deep-processing of melon products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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26 pages, 9888 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ultrasound Modification with Different Frequency Modes on the Structure, Chain Conformation, and Immune Activity of Polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes
by Yu Hua, Haihui Zhang, Qian Fu, Yuqin Feng, Yuqing Duan and Haile Ma
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162470 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound with different frequency modes on the chemical structure, chain conformation, and immune activity of lentinan from Lentinus edodes; the structure–activity relationship of lentinan was also discussed. The results showed that, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound with different frequency modes on the chemical structure, chain conformation, and immune activity of lentinan from Lentinus edodes; the structure–activity relationship of lentinan was also discussed. The results showed that, compared with original lentinan (extracted using hot water), although ultrasonic treatment did not change the monosaccharide composition and main functional groups of lentinan, it significantly changed its chain conformation. Especially at 60, 40/60, and 20/40/60 kHz, according to atomic force microscopy and solution chain conformation parameters, lentinan transformed from a rigid triple-helix chain to a flexible single-helix chain, and the side-chain was severely broken. Under this condition, lentinan had the worst immune activity. However, at 20/40 and 20/60 kHz, the rigid triple-helix chain transformed into a loose and flexible triple-helix chain, showing the strongest immune activity. These results indicated that dual-frequency ultrasound had significant effects on the conformation of lentinan, and the conformation characteristics of polysaccharide chain such as spiral number, stiffness and flexibility, and side-chain played an important role in immune activity. This study shows the great potential of ultrasound with different frequency modes in carbohydrate food processing, which may have important reference value and practical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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16 pages, 3249 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum) Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology
by Carolina Medina-Jaramillo, Edward Gomez-Delgado and Alex López-Córdoba
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162425 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) leaves contain several bioactive compounds that can be extracted and used to develop new value-added products (e.g., functional foods and dietary supplements). In the current work, optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to obtain extracts with high polyphenols [...] Read more.
Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) leaves contain several bioactive compounds that can be extracted and used to develop new value-added products (e.g., functional foods and dietary supplements). In the current work, optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to obtain extracts with high polyphenols content and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) scavenging activity were identified using response surface methodology. A complete 3k factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different variables of the UAE (extraction temperature, time, and ethanol concentration) on the polyphenols content and the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts. The best conditions for UAE to reach both the highest values of total polyphenols content (51.78 mg GAE/100 g) and DPPH scavenging activity (34.07 mg Trolox equivalents/100 g) were an extraction temperature of 60 °C, time of 10 min, and ethanol concentration of 70% v/v. The antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at the optimal conditions was also evaluated by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays obtaining values of 155.51 ± 2.80 μM Trolox/100 g and 1300.21 ± 65.55 μM Trolox/100 g, respectively. Moreover, these extracts were characterized by UHPLC-ESI+-Orbitrap-MS analysis finding that cyanidin (6.0 mg/kg) was the phenolic compound found in the highest amount followed by quercetin-3-glucoside (4.4 mg/kg). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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18 pages, 3142 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Potentially Food-Grade Nano-Zinc Oxide in Ionic Liquids: A Safe, Green, Efficient Approach and Its Acoustics Mechanism
by Lei Zhang, Yang Hu, Xue Wang, Ao Zhang, Xianli Gao, Abu El-Gasim A. Yagoub, Haile Ma and Cunshan Zhou
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111656 - 04 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
In food application, nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is a very important nano metal material; thus, it is necessary to prepare potentially food-grade nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO synthesized by the ultrasound-assisted method can reach a safe level because of its import physical processing characteristics. Firstly, the micromorphology [...] Read more.
In food application, nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is a very important nano metal material; thus, it is necessary to prepare potentially food-grade nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO synthesized by the ultrasound-assisted method can reach a safe level because of its import physical processing characteristics. Firstly, the micromorphology and microstructure of nano-ZnO synthesized by the ultrasonic method were compared with that by the mechanical stirring method through atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared. Secondly, the on-line monitoring of different ultrasonic fields in real-time was studied during the whole synthesis process of nano-ZnO by polyvinylidene fluoride sensor, and two control groups (water medium) were set. The results showed that nano-ZnO obtained by the ultrasonic method were smaller in size and had less surface roughness compared with the mechanical stirring method. The nucleation and crystallization process of nano-ZnO was controlled by the ultrasonic method with sharp diffraction peaks of higher intensities. Moreover, for the ultrasonic mechanism, it was found that the oscillation behavior of bubbles varied from liquid to liquid, and variation was also found in the same liquid under different restraint of interfaces. Based on voltage waveforms monitored in the three liquid media, differences in the life cycle of cavitation bubble oscillation, cycle of collapse stage, maximum voltage amplitude, and acoustic intensity were observed. The physical mechanism of ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-ZnO was revealed through voltage fluctuations of the acoustics signal, which can lay a theoretical foundation for the controllability of food ultrasonic physical processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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13 pages, 19901 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ultrasound Irradiation on the Co-Pigmentation of the Added Caffeic Acid and the Coloration of the Cabernet Sauvignon Wine during Storage
by Zhendan Xue, Tingting Wang and Qing’an Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091206 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ultrasound irradiation on the co-pigmentation of caffeic acid added in wine and the coloration of wine during storage. The wine color, chroma, level of the monomeric, combined and polymerized anthocyanins and the [...] Read more.
In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ultrasound irradiation on the co-pigmentation of caffeic acid added in wine and the coloration of wine during storage. The wine color, chroma, level of the monomeric, combined and polymerized anthocyanins and the concentrations of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and syringic acid in wines were determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicate that ultrasound irradiation could definitely affect the color characteristic of wine to a certain extent. Compared with the wine without addition of caffeic acid, the co-pigmentation effects of wine added with caffeic acid could be significantly promoted by ultrasound irradiation, such as the wine color, color density and the polymerized anthocyanins. Furthermore, ultrasound irradiation had a continuous effect on the co-pigmentation of caffeic acid and wine coloration with the extended storage time. In summary, ultrasound could significantly modify the color properties of wine by enhancing the co-pigmentation between caffeic acid and monomeric anthocyanins in the wine, resulting in the improvement of wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 5644 KiB  
Review
Use of Ultrasonic Cleaning Technology in the Whole Process of Fruit and Vegetable Processing
by Wenhao Zhou, Frederick Sarpong and Cunshan Zhou
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182874 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5268
Abstract
In an era of rapid technological development, ultrasound technology is being used in a wide range of industries. The use of ultrasound technology in fruit and vegetable processing to improve production efficiency and product quality has been an important research topic. The cleaning [...] Read more.
In an era of rapid technological development, ultrasound technology is being used in a wide range of industries. The use of ultrasound technology in fruit and vegetable processing to improve production efficiency and product quality has been an important research topic. The cleaning of whole fresh fruits and vegetables is an important part of fruit and vegetable processing. This paper discusses the development process of components of the ultrasonic equipment, the application of ultrasonic technology in fruit and vegetable cleaning, and the research advances in ultrasonic cleaning technology. Moreover, the feasibility of ultrasonication of fruits and vegetables for cleaning from the perspectives of microbial inactivation, commodity storage, and sensory analysis were discussed. Finally, the paper identified the inevitable disadvantages of cavitation noise, erosion, and tissue damage in fruit and vegetable processing and points out the future directions of ultrasonic fruit and vegetable cleaning technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Food Processing)
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