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Optimizing Renewable-Energy-Driven Systems Using Thermodynamic, Economic, and Environmental Analyses

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B: Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 April 2023) | Viewed by 26222

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Planning, Design, Technology of Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Flaminia 72, 00196 Rome, Italy
Interests: energy systems; multi-objective optimization; desalination; solar photovoltaics (pv); net-zero energy buildings; energy and environment assessments; computational fluid dynamics; heat transfer; thermal energy; renewable energy; nanotechnology; smart windows
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, the world warmly embraces new ideas and ambitious efforts for devising and implementing efficient, low-carbon, and low-cost technologies for our everyday life. Renewable energy sources are increasingly gaining attention for being zero/low carbon and being replenished easily. However, many endeavors still need to be undertaken to integrate these green energies with existing and future systems in order to put them into their optimal operation regarding thermodynamic, economic, and environmental perspectives. In this regard, we invite you to submit your research into this Special Issue that converges on optimizing renewable-energy-driven systems applying thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses in industrial and buildings with concerning global warming.

In the 2020s, improvements in renewable energy will play an essential task in reducing CO2 emissions. For this to take place, however, approaches and progression in energy systems generation and utilization in buildings are critical factors. Hence, authors are welcome to submit their innovative findings related to techno-enviro-economic assessment for renewable energy optimization for this Special Issue.

We also encourage papers with innovation capability in the building-integrated renewable energy system, which is investigated economically and environmentally. This will also help to mitigate the hazards of postponing the net-zero decrease in industrial emissions. In certain cases, the economic cost of developing low-carbon, high-efficiency renewable energy systems, for example, might be more than the current carbon-intensive production methods. Authors are welcome to submit their innovative optimization to address thermodynamic (4E) analysis, such as energy, exergy, economic, exergoeconomic, and indeed heat transfer issues.

This Special Issue also welcomes scholars to submit manuscripts about renewable energy technology and its application capability systems to analyze thermodynamic, environmental, and economic performance stability.

Dr. Siamak Hoseinzadeh
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable-energy-driven systems
  • energy performance of buildings
  • multiobjective optimization
  • life cycle assessment
  • sustainability
  • cost analysis
  • desalination
  • economic analysis
  • environmental analysis
  • energy efficiency
  • exergoeconomic analysis
  • exergoenvironmental analysis
  • hybrid renewable energy systems
  • heat transfer
  • renewable energy
  • solar energy
  • wind energy
  • zero-energy building

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3131 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems for Sustainable Development of Remote Areas
by Armin Razmjoo, Arezoo Ghazanfari, Poul Alberg Østergaard and Sepideh Abedi
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3181; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073181 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
This study analyses the expansion of solar energy in Iran, considering political, economic, social, and technological factors. Due to the prolonged sanctions on Iran, the development of clean energy power plants has been either halted or significantly reduced. Hence, this study aims to [...] Read more.
This study analyses the expansion of solar energy in Iran, considering political, economic, social, and technological factors. Due to the prolonged sanctions on Iran, the development of clean energy power plants has been either halted or significantly reduced. Hence, this study aims to identify barriers to the expansion of solar energy power plants and simulate solar power plants using PVsyst (Photovoltaic system) software. The study is unique in its approach of combining technical analysis with social sciences to facilitate the implementation of solar energy expansion in remote areas. This study focuses on two specific areas with high solar radiation, namely Darab and Meybod, which are located in Fars and Yazd provinces, respectively. Solar energy can be generated in these two areas due to their unique location with high levels of solar irritation. To achieve this goal, the technical analyses focuson simulating the performance of a 9 kWp (kilowatt ‘peak’ power output of a system) grid-connected polysilicon(poly-Si) photovoltaic plant for Darab and a 9.90 kWp plant for Meybod. The simulation is carried out to obtain maximum electricity production and evaluate parameters such as incident radiation, performance ratio, energy into the grid, energy output at the array, and losses. The produced energy for Darab was 20.40 MWh/year, with specific production of 2061 kWh/kWp/year, and the performance ratio (PR) was 81.26%. For Meybod, production was 20.70 MWh/year, with specific production of 2091 kWh/kWp/year, and the performance ratio (PR) was 80.88%. Through the PEST analysis, it is evident that strategic planning and appropriate actions are crucial at the provincial, national, and local levels for energy systems’ development. This indicates that both governments and citizens should play an active role in supporting the expansion of energy systems by planning and creating awareness among the public to embrace and adopt energy systems. Full article
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19 pages, 8416 KiB  
Article
On the Hydrothermal Behavior of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Helical Double-Tube Heat Exchanger with Curved Swirl Generator; Impacts of Length and Position
by Seyed Soheil Mousavi Ajarostaghi, Seyed Hossein Hashemi Karouei, Mehdi Alinia-kolaei, Alireza Ahmadnejad Karimi, Morteza Mohammad Zadeh and Kurosh Sedighi
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041801 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
The hydrothermal behavior in a helical double-tube heat exchanger is numerically estimated. A new type of swirl generator with two sections, including; outer curved blades and a semi-conical section with two holes in the inner section, is employed. Two geometrical factors, containing the [...] Read more.
The hydrothermal behavior in a helical double-tube heat exchanger is numerically estimated. A new type of swirl generator with two sections, including; outer curved blades and a semi-conical section with two holes in the inner section, is employed. Two geometrical factors, containing the length (L1) and the position of the swirl generator (S), are used for investigation. The calculations were performed by a commercial FVM code, ANSYS FLUENT 18.2. The numerical outcomes show that a shorter length of the swirl generator leads to a better hydrothermal behavior. Accordingly, the model with L1 = 100 mm at m˙ = 0.008 kg/s achieves the maximum thermal performance by about 17.65, 53.85, and 100% enhancement compared to the models L1 = 200, 300 mm, and without swirl generator. Among the different studied positions of the swirl generator, the maximum heat transfer coefficient and average Nusselt number in entire mass flow rates belong to the case with position S = 0.3π mm. Moreover, the thermal performance of the case with S = 0.3π mm is higher than cases with S = 0.1π mm, S = 0.5π mm, and without swirl generator by about 11.11, 53.84, and 100%, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 1078 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Urban-Scale Sustainable Energy Strategies to Improve Citizens’ Health
by Mohammad Anvar Adibhesami, Hirou Karimi, Ayyoob Sharifi, Borhan Sepehri, Hassan Bazazzadeh and Umberto Berardi
Energies 2023, 16(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010119 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
Sustainable energy strategies have been a critical subject for sustainable development, especially in cities. Citizens, as an integral part of the urban environment, play a significant role in urban spaces, as does their health. An accurate understanding of citizens’ mental, social, and physical [...] Read more.
Sustainable energy strategies have been a critical subject for sustainable development, especially in cities. Citizens, as an integral part of the urban environment, play a significant role in urban spaces, as does their health. An accurate understanding of citizens’ mental, social, and physical health in urban settings is required to design and plan better cities. This study aims to assess the level of alignment with health factors in Mahabad, a major medium-sized city in Iran. Previous studies indicate that the built environment can influence health dimensions. Health factors depend to a great extent on how well the environment is formed and how it is put together. This research is a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study that analyzes the environment’s psychological elements and physical and mental health factors of Mahabad’s citizens. According to the Cochran model, 384 questionnaires were distributed among households. For data analysis, SPSS 12 and Arc GIS software were used. The main results of this research show that five factors, “Environmental quality”, “Identity and social relationships”, and “Readability”, have the most impact on the physical and mental health of citizens (respondents). These issues are much more pronounced in the downtown neighborhoods. This study showed that urban experts can understand different levels of public health by knowing the historical, social, cultural, and economic factors and characteristics. The result will help decision makers, city authorities, designers, and urban planners to be more informed about citizens’ health and the ways to improve it. Full article
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14 pages, 4351 KiB  
Article
The PRISMI Plus Toolkit Application to a Grid-Connected Mediterranean Island
by Siamak Hoseinzadeh, Daniele Groppi, Adriana Scarlet Sferra, Umberto Di Matteo and Davide Astiaso Garcia
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8652; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228652 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Islands are a constrained environment due to their geographical peculiarities and their land use accounting for, especially in the touristic locations, strong variability during the year. Consequently, the variation of energy demand to be met by variable renewable energy leads to a complex [...] Read more.
Islands are a constrained environment due to their geographical peculiarities and their land use accounting for, especially in the touristic locations, strong variability during the year. Consequently, the variation of energy demand to be met by variable renewable energy leads to a complex issue. This study aims at investigating the PRISMI Plus approach applied to the Island of Procida to drive the transition towards low-carbon and high-renewable energy system. The toolkit involves the analysis of local renewable energy potential, their potential matching of the energy demand, and the prioritization of the technological solutions to achieve the decarbonization targets set by the energy planning strategies. Three scenarios are designed for 2030 considering low, middle, and high penetration of renewable energy in the systems, results indicate that the amount of power production in low, middle, and high penetration of renewable energy scenarios are 0.18, 14.5, 34.57 GWh/year, respectively. The environmental and landscape constraints lead to a restricted set of available solutions. The decarbonization of the electricity supply is foreseen thanks to the available local solar resources plus the electrification of other sectors, i.e. heating by using Heat Pumps and transport by using Electric Vehicles. Full article
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18 pages, 4616 KiB  
Article
Energy, Exergy, Environmental and Economic Analysis (4e) of a Solar Thermal System for Process Heating in Jamshoro, Pakistan
by Junaid Ahmed, Laveet Kumar, Abdul Fatah Abbasi and Mamdouh El Haj Assad
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8617; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228617 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
With an expected annual increase of 1.2%, the industrial sector already consumes over 54% of all the energy generated globally. The majority of industrial sectors presently relies on fossil fuels to fulfil their needs for heat energy, but renewable sources, especially solar energy, [...] Read more.
With an expected annual increase of 1.2%, the industrial sector already consumes over 54% of all the energy generated globally. The majority of industrial sectors presently relies on fossil fuels to fulfil their needs for heat energy, but renewable sources, especially solar energy, can be substituted for them. For an underdeveloped country such as Pakistan, its industrial sector is important for the country’s economic development and long-term growth. The use of solar thermal energy potentially offers a significant and cheap alternative to fossil fuels. The current study focuses on a process heating system based on flat-plate solar collectors, developed to provide low to moderate temperature process heat. The innovative model’s thermal efficiency and economic feasibility have undergone a thorough investigation and analysis through TRNSYS simulations. The system portrayed a 79% thermal energy efficiency and 4.31% exergy efficiency during peak hours. The optimized system for three different temperatures of 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C was designed and evaluated. The system presented a total of 82 tons of CO2 prevention annually. The economic analysis consisting of three parameters, NPV, IRR and PBP, also deemed the FPC-based solar thermal system economically profitable. Full article
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14 pages, 2516 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation and Optimization of a Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) System according to Climatic Conditions
by Ehsanolah Assareh, Masoud Jafarian, Mojtaba Nedaei, Mohammad Firoozzadeh and Moonyong Lee
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7489; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207489 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Population and economic growth, industrial activities, development of technology, and depletion of fossil fuels have all led to increasing energy demand. As a result, there is an increasing ambition towards implementation of sustainable energy sources. In this study, first, a review of the [...] Read more.
Population and economic growth, industrial activities, development of technology, and depletion of fossil fuels have all led to increasing energy demand. As a result, there is an increasing ambition towards implementation of sustainable energy sources. In this study, first, a review of the literature is conducted to learn about various methods and objectives for optimization of photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) systems. Then, a case study is considered, and the seasonal and hourly solar radiation are studied. Further, two methods of multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) are compared. On this basis, the energy and exergy efficiencies are analyzed for a proposed PV/T system. The outcomes are validated by taking into account the previous studies, and a sufficient agreement is found indicating the validity and accuracy of the results. It is also found that the efficiency rates for both energy and exergy soar with a rise in the ambient temperature. Additionally, a growth in the warm water flow rate from 0.4 to 1 kg/s increases the exergy efficiency by 0.6%. It is concluded that the MOEA/D method outperforms the MOPSO in terms of the optimization of the proposed PV/T system. Full article
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17 pages, 13839 KiB  
Article
The 3E Optimal Location Assessment of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors for Domestic Applications in Iran
by Sina Jafari, Ali Sohani, Siamak Hoseinzadeh and Fathollah Pourfayaz
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3589; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103589 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was utilized to determine the optimal location on which to install flat-plate solar thermal collectors for residential buildings in a number of cities in Iran under diverse climatic conditions. The payback period of investment (IPBP) was chosen as [...] Read more.
The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was utilized to determine the optimal location on which to install flat-plate solar thermal collectors for residential buildings in a number of cities in Iran under diverse climatic conditions. The payback period of investment (IPBP) was chosen as one of the decision criteria, while payback periods of energy and greenhouse gas emissions (EPBP and GGEPBP), being two recently introduced concepts, were also taken into account to provide a broader insight from the energy, economic, and environmental (3E) benefits of the system. The novelty of this work is proposing a method to find places with the greatest potential to install flat-plate solar collectors. It was performed using AHP as a systematic decision-making tool, and based on energy, environmental, and economic criteria, which are the key aspects of an energy system. Codes developed in the MATLAB software were employed to determine the values for different investigated cities. According to the results, Yazd, located in the center of the country, was found to be the best place to install the system. This city enjoys EPBP, IPBP, and GGEPBP scores of 2.47, 3.37, and 0.71 years, respectively. The collector area for this city was also found to be 109.8 m2. Yazd gained a score of 26.5 out of 100. With scores of 24.4, 18.6, 15.9, and 14.6 out of 100, Tehran, Bandar Abbas, Rasht, and Tabriz were found to be the second, third, fourth, and fifth priorities for utilizing the system, respectively. Full article
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18 pages, 4097 KiB  
Article
Energy Performance of a Novel Hybrid Air Conditioning System Built on Gravity-Assisted Heat Pipe-Based Indirect Evaporative Cooler
by Krzysztof Rajski, Ali Sohani, Sina Jafari, Jan Danielewicz and Marderos Ara Sayegh
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072613 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
A hybrid air conditioning system, which is composed of a novel gravity-assisted heat pipe (GAHP)-based indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) and direct expansion (DX) cooling coil, is proposed and investigated here. After developing a mathematical model to describe the performance of the GAHP-based IEC, [...] Read more.
A hybrid air conditioning system, which is composed of a novel gravity-assisted heat pipe (GAHP)-based indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) and direct expansion (DX) cooling coil, is proposed and investigated here. After developing a mathematical model to describe the performance of the GAHP-based IEC, the hybrid system is evaluated during the cooling design day for providing thermal comfort for an office building in Poland. The results are obtained and compared with the combination of a rotary heat exchanger (RHE) and DX cooling coil as the conventional hybrid system. The comparison is performed by analyzing cooling capacity, electricity consumption, and coefficient of performance profiles, which describe the technical, energy, and efficiency aspects, respectively. The results show that the GAHP-based IEC hybrid system is able to enhance the energy performance significantly compared to the conventional one. The proposed hybrid HVAC system improves COP by 39.2% and reduces electricity consumption by 45.0%, according to the design-day of 24 August and the outdoor temperature of 30 °C. As a result, the total operating cost for the assumed cooling season is reduced by 51.7%. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1298 KiB  
Review
Green Buildings: Human-Centered and Energy Efficiency Optimization Strategies
by Hirou Karimi, Mohammad Anvar Adibhesami, Hassan Bazazzadeh and Sahar Movafagh
Energies 2023, 16(9), 3681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16093681 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4039
Abstract
The rapid growth of the global population and urbanization has led to environmental degradation, resulting in a worldwide energy crisis. In response, the quality of architecture has evolved to prioritize energy efficiency, impacting indoor human health in the process. Green buildings have emerged [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of the global population and urbanization has led to environmental degradation, resulting in a worldwide energy crisis. In response, the quality of architecture has evolved to prioritize energy efficiency, impacting indoor human health in the process. Green buildings have emerged as a solution to this problem, aiming to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and human well-being while minimizing negative environmental impacts. This comprehensive review focuses on the role of green buildings in enhancing indoor human health and energy efficiency. It examines the published research on the effects of green buildings on IEQ and occupant health, highlighting sustainable architectural practices that promote good health. The study concludes that green buildings provide healthier environments for their occupants by creating healthy indoor environments, and minimizing negative environmental impacts. The study also explores the link between sustainable architecture and health promotion, with a focus on IEQ. It presents evidence-based and biophilic design strategies that can impact treatments and health promotion in the built environment. Overall, this review emphasizes the critical role that green buildings can play in addressing the global energy crisis while promoting the health and well-being of building occupants. Full article
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16 pages, 1490 KiB  
Review
Review of Energy and Climate Plans of Baltic States: The Contribution of Renewables for Energy Production in Households
by Dalia Streimikiene, Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos and Gintare Stankuniene
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7728; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207728 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
The European Commission introduced a package of measures to accelerate the shift to low-carbon energy transition in Europe. In 2014, EU member states agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The binding greenhouse gas [...] Read more.
The European Commission introduced a package of measures to accelerate the shift to low-carbon energy transition in Europe. In 2014, EU member states agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The binding greenhouse gas emission targets for Member States from 2021 to 2030 for the transport, buildings, agriculture, waste, and land-use and forestry sectors were established. EU Member States should decide on their own how to meet the agreed upon 2030 target and implement climate-change-mitigation measures. All EU MSs have committed to prepare national energy and climate plans based on regulation on the governance of the energy union and climate action (EU)2018/1999, agreed as part of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package approved in 2019. The national plans outline how the EU Member States intend to implement the GHG reduction target by increasing their in energy efficiency, use of renewables, greenhouse-gas-emission reductions, interconnections, and research and innovation. This paper analyzes the energy and climate plans of the Baltic States and systematizes the main climate-change-mitigation policies in the energy sector targeting the household sector. The background of energy and climate planning is provided from a theoretical point of view, encompassing regional, local, and national energy and climate plans. The diffusion levels of renewables in the Baltic States were determined and the energy-climatic-friendly policies followed, by them, they were identified. Full article
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15 pages, 589 KiB  
Review
Industrial CHP with Steam Systems: A Review of Recent Case Studies, Trends and Relevance to Malaysian Industry
by Shankar Ganesh Pariasamy, Vinod Kumar Venkiteswaran, Jeyanandan Kumar and Mohamed M. Awad
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7491; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207491 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Malaysia’s energy intensity (GWh/GDP) shows an increasing trend since the 1990s, leading to the government’s efforts to promote energy efficiency via policies such as the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP), which includes the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) initiative. This paper reviews recent [...] Read more.
Malaysia’s energy intensity (GWh/GDP) shows an increasing trend since the 1990s, leading to the government’s efforts to promote energy efficiency via policies such as the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP), which includes the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) initiative. This paper reviews recent publications in industrial Combined Heat and Power (CHP) with a focus on international case studies relevant to Malaysian industries that use industrial steam and highlights trends within the research area. It also provides the basis for more case studies to be performed in the Malaysian industry to improve energy efficiency while also supporting further academic research in the area. Additionally, the paper documents the importance of data collection and analysis as well as demand forecasting, not only for a better understanding of industrial energy systems but also to increase profitability since system loads may vary throughout a typical year. A multi-criteria and comprehensive approach is recommended in future case studies to ensure energy efficiency, economic returns and environmental impact are considered to ensure long-term sustainability. A summary of barriers to CHP implementation in the industry is also included to provide a broad understanding of industrial CHP. Full article
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13 pages, 1541 KiB  
Review
Bibliometric Analysis of Solar Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy and CFD Modelled
by Chandrakant R. Sonawane, Hitesh N. Panchal, Siamak Hoseinzadeh, Mohammad Hadi Ghasemi, Ali Jawad Alrubaie and Ali Sohani
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145279 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Solar desalination is a sustainable approach to producing fresh water from saline water. Researchers have tried modifications to solar desalination systems to enhance the distillate output. This survey aims to recognize the characteristics of research work for investigating solar desalination systems. The essential [...] Read more.
Solar desalination is a sustainable approach to producing fresh water from saline water. Researchers have tried modifications to solar desalination systems to enhance the distillate output. This survey aims to recognize the characteristics of research work for investigating solar desalination systems. The essential terms to be focused on are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and solar radiation consideration for the investigation. The data for this bibliometric study was taken from Scopus, with 1932 publications. The characteristics of the research work were analyzed by identifying the research publications, research subject areas, journals, most contributed countries, and data from the authors. The research trend was investigated utilizing yearly research growth, geographical contributions, source quality of publications, and participation of various institutions. VOSviewer software was used for network analysis of essential keywords used in relevant research works and to understand collaborations between the authors and co-authors. About 76% of the total publications belong to the document type articles. It illuminates research tendencies related to the topic under consideration. Results show that desalination research work concerned with CFD or solar radiation was mainly investigated in Engineering and Environmental Science, with their share of more than 50% of the total publications. Further study of relevant research works was assessed using network analysis that helped to link different keywords and authors’ collaborations. This survey helps to spot the increasing research trends and the necessity of further research. Full article
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