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Energies, Volume 17, Issue 8 (April-2 2024) – 194 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In Europe, the societal and policy drive for decarbonization calls for a higher share of renewable energy integration with well-developed cross-border markets. To achieve long-term, cross-border market development in Europe, this research advocates the co-development of cross-border PPAs and forward market coupling. The JETRA model developed by O’Neill et al. is proposed as the pivotal mechanism in long-term markets because it supports both market forms. This paper delves into institutional functions, grid modeling, and market rules currently implemented in Europe and uncovers their impact on JETRA’s effectiveness. The findings hold valuable policy implications, advocating for a shift from zonal to nodal pricing and resetting of the relationship between market outcomes across different timeframes. View this paper
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18 pages, 4110 KiB  
Article
Effect of Entrainment on the Liquid Film Behavior in Pipe Elbows
by Zhenqiang Xie and Xuewen Cao
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081983 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Multiphase flow entrainment in natural gas engineering significantly influences the safety and efficiency of oil companies since it affects both the flow and the heat transfer process, but its mechanisms are not fully understood. Additionally, current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies seldom consider [...] Read more.
Multiphase flow entrainment in natural gas engineering significantly influences the safety and efficiency of oil companies since it affects both the flow and the heat transfer process, but its mechanisms are not fully understood. Additionally, current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies seldom consider entrainment behavioral changes in pipe elbows. In this article, a verified CFD method is used to study the entrainment behavior, mechanism, and changes in an elbow. The results show that droplet diameter in a developed annular flow follows a negative skewness distribution; as the radial distance (from the wall) increases, the fluctuation in the droplets becomes stronger, and the velocity difference between the gas and the droplets increases linearly. Turbulence bursts and vortices sucking near the wall jointly contribute to droplet entrainment. As the annular flow enters the elbow, the secondary flow promotes the film expansion to the upper and lower parts of the pipe. Droplets re-occur near the elbow exit intrados, and their size is much smaller than those in the upstream pipe. Vortices sucking under low gas velocity play an important role in this process. These findings provide guidelines for safety and flow assurance issues in natural gas production and transportation and bridge the gap between multiphase flow theory and natural gas engineering. Full article
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27 pages, 2381 KiB  
Review
A Targeted Review on Revisiting and Augmenting the Framework for Technology Acceptance in the Renewable Energy Context
by Tanvi Bhatia, Gnana Bharathy and Mukesh Prasad
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081982 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Given that the implementation of renewable technologies has some key bottlenecks in adoption, this topic has been explored. Particularly, we are reviewing existing theories and models to understand their fit for changing social structures and evolving world contexts. This review begins with an [...] Read more.
Given that the implementation of renewable technologies has some key bottlenecks in adoption, this topic has been explored. Particularly, we are reviewing existing theories and models to understand their fit for changing social structures and evolving world contexts. This review begins with an introduction followed by a background study on renewable energy technology (RET). We have employed a mixed-approach methodology to synthesize the relevant literature. The review comprises a summary and comparison of some existing theories and models such as TAM, TRA, and UTAUT, elucidating factors influencing technology adoption processes. Additionally, the review discusses the scope for future research, emphasizing the need for more nuanced frameworks that account for contextual intricacies and emerging trends in renewable energy adoption. Ultimately, the review concludes with insights into the ongoing discourse surrounding energy technology acceptance and recommendations on the inclusion of current world views in the scope for future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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31 pages, 10941 KiB  
Article
Experimental Performance Comparison of High-Glide Hydrocarbon and Synthetic Refrigerant Mixtures in a High-Temperature Heat Pump
by Leon P. M. Brendel, Silvan N. Bernal, Cordin Arpagaus, Dennis Roskosch, André Bardow and Stefan S. Bertsch
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081981 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Several theoretical studies have predicted that refrigerant mixtures with glides of more than 20 K can yield COP improvements in heat pumps for operating conditions where the temperature difference between the heat source and heat sink is large, but experimental validations and quantifications [...] Read more.
Several theoretical studies have predicted that refrigerant mixtures with glides of more than 20 K can yield COP improvements in heat pumps for operating conditions where the temperature difference between the heat source and heat sink is large, but experimental validations and quantifications are scarce. The application of high-glide mixtures (>20 K) in industrial heat pumps in the field is, therefore, still hampered by concerns about the behavior and handling of the mixtures. This study experimentally investigates hydrocarbon (HC) mixtures R-290/600 (propane/butane) and R-290/601 (propane/pentane) and compares them to previously tested mixtures of synthetic refrigerants. Comprehensive evaluations are presented regarding COP, compressor performance, pressure drop, heat transfer, and the possibility of inline composition determination. The mixtures were tested over a range of compositions at a source inlet temperature of 60 °C and a sink outlet temperature of 100 °C, with the heat sink and heat source temperature differences controlled to 35 K. R-290/601 at a mass composition of 70%/30% was found as the best mixture with a COP improvement of 19% over R-600 as the best pure fluid. The overall isentropic compressor efficiency was similar for HC and synthetic refrigerants, given equal suction and discharge pressures. Pressure drops in heat exchangers and connecting lines were equal for synthetic and HC mixtures at equal mass flow rates. This allows higher heating capacities of HC mixtures at a given pressure drop (mass flow rate) due to their wider vapor dome. A previously developed evaporator heat transfer correlation for synthetic refrigerant mixtures was applicable to the HC mixtures. A condenser heat transfer correlation previously fitted for synthetic refrigerants performed significantly worse for HC mixtures. Composition determination during operation and without sampling was possible with a deviation of at most 0.05 mass fraction using simple temperature and pressure measurements and REFPROP for thermodynamic property calculations. Overall, high-glide HC mixtures, just like mixtures of synthetic refrigerants, showed significant COP improvements for specific operating conditions despite a decreased heat transfer coefficient. Potential problems like composition shift or poor compressor performance were not encountered. As a next step, testing high-glide mixtures in pilot-plant installations is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Heat Exchanger Design and Heat Pump Efficiency)
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12 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Study of Energy Flow Mechanisms in High Power Device Converters
by Zheyuan Zhao, Qianzheng Jin, Yingjie Wu, Gen Li and Tiange Xiang
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081980 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The work in this paper is applied to the Zhangbei Power grid. In the flexible direct current (DC) power system, the fault current rises extremely fast when a DC fault occurs. The requirements for the peak of breaking current and fault energy absorption [...] Read more.
The work in this paper is applied to the Zhangbei Power grid. In the flexible direct current (DC) power system, the fault current rises extremely fast when a DC fault occurs. The requirements for the peak of breaking current and fault energy absorption of DC circuit breakers (DCCBs) increase linearly, which significantly increases the cost of the equipment. Therefore, in order to reduce the design difficulty of DCCBs, this paper proposes a strategy to control energy after the fault occurs. Firstly, the energy dimension is added on the basis of the traditional vector control of MMC, which constitutes a three-dimensional energy direct control. Subsequently, the architectures of energy fluctuation control and feedforward control are proposed. The influencing mechanisms for the peak fault current, peak fault voltage and energy dissipation are analyzed. Finally, the simulation of energy fluctuation control and feedforward control is constructed on PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show that the energy fluctuation control is obviously better than the conventional three-dimensional energy control, and the feedforward energy control is further improved on this basis. Compared with the conventional vector control, the peak energy is reduced by 45.43% and the peak current is reduced by 25.39%, which helps to simplify the equipment design and reduce the equipment cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F1: Electrical Power System)
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27 pages, 11380 KiB  
Article
Wind Turbine Tower State Reconstruction Method Based on the Corner Cut Recursion Algorithm
by Hongyue Liu and Yuxiang Bai
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081979 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 304
Abstract
This study introduces an innovative approach for the reconstruction of wind turbine tower states using a tangential recursion algorithm. The primary objective is to enable real-time monitoring of the operational condition of wind turbine towers. The proposed method is rooted in strain–load theory, [...] Read more.
This study introduces an innovative approach for the reconstruction of wind turbine tower states using a tangential recursion algorithm. The primary objective is to enable real-time monitoring of the operational condition of wind turbine towers. The proposed method is rooted in strain–load theory, which enables the accurate identification of tower load states. The tangential recursion algorithm is utilized to translate the strain data acquired from strategically placed sensors into reconstructed point positions. The subsequent refinement of these positions incorporates considerations of torsional loads and geometric deformations, culminating in the comprehensive and precise reconstruction of the tower’s deformation behavior. Through the use of the OpenFAST V8 simulation software, a thorough analysis is conducted to investigate the load and deformation characteristics of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine tower across diverse operational scenarios. Furthermore, the load conditions corresponding to rated operating circumstances are applied to a finite element model constructed with the lumped mass method. The identification of tower load states and the comprehensive reconstruction of deformation patterns are realized through the extraction of strain data from critical points in the finite element model. The credibility and accuracy of the proposed method are rigorously evaluated by juxtaposing the identification and reconstruction outcomes with the results derived from the OpenFAST simulations and finite element analyses. Notably, the proposed method circumvents the requirement for external auxiliary calibration equipment for the tower, rendering it adaptable to a broader spectrum of operational contexts and making it consistent with unfolding trajectories in wind power advancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
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27 pages, 12524 KiB  
Article
The Study of Multi-Terminal DC Systems in an Offshore Wind Environment: A Focus on Cable Ripple Analysis
by Xiaoyun Rong, Jonathan K. H. Shek, D. Ewen Macpherson and Phil Mawby
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081978 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
This paper studies the THD and AC losses on the DC cables of offshore wind farm-based multi-terminal HVDC systems when they extract and deliver power from and to more than one connection point. In the paper, the study of a full system PLECS [...] Read more.
This paper studies the THD and AC losses on the DC cables of offshore wind farm-based multi-terminal HVDC systems when they extract and deliver power from and to more than one connection point. In the paper, the study of a full system PLECS + Simulink model with two branches, including a wind resource, a wind turbine, a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG), a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) rectifier, a Single Active Bridge (SAB) DC–DC converter, an Input Parallel Output Series (IPOS) DC–DC converter, HVDC cables, and a simplified onshore system, is presented. It focuses on the investigation of the output ripple content of multiple DC–DC converters on DC cables under different wind conditions with different voltage and power ratings. The importance of the study is providing a general understanding of the operation of the innovative offshore wind farm-based DC system, as well as the interaction between different DC–DC converters and their influence on cable ripple content under different situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Women's Research in Wind and Ocean Energy)
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19 pages, 6057 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Direct Shear Properties of Anisotropic Reservoir Shale
by Bowen Zheng, Shengwen Qi, Songfeng Guo, Ning Liang, Guangming Luo, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Lu, Chao Jin, Yongchao Li, Xin Yu, Zifang Zhu and Jianing Cong
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081977 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Understanding the shear mechanical properties of shale reservoirs is of great significance in the study of the formation stability around horizontal shale wells and the propagation and evolution of fractures for shale fracturing. However, the existing direct shear test results are limited due [...] Read more.
Understanding the shear mechanical properties of shale reservoirs is of great significance in the study of the formation stability around horizontal shale wells and the propagation and evolution of fractures for shale fracturing. However, the existing direct shear test results are limited due to small sample sizes and low shear rates. Based on previous experimental research results, the mechanical properties of anisotropic reservoir shale in direct shear tests with different experimental conditions were explored in this study. It was found that the shear mode, shear strain rate, and normal stress have a significant impact on the deformation and failure characteristics of shale. The peak shear displacement, peak shear strength, and shear stiffness of shale present an increasing trend of fluctuation, with an increase in the bedding angle. The peak shear strength of shale decreases with an increase in the shear strain rate, and this decrease trend descends with an increase in the shear strain rate. The shape of the shear fracture zone and the shear fracture mode of shale exhibit bedding effect characteristics. The fractal dimension of the shale shear fracture surface morphology shows a trend of fluctuation with the variation in the bedding angle. Further, the shear strain rate was found to play a dominant role in the fractal dimension of the shear fracture surface. The larger shear strain rate strengthens the bedding effect of the roughness for the shear fracture surface morphology. The results of this study provide a theoretical reference for determining the engineering geomechanics characteristics of shale reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Unconventional Oil and Gas Reservoirs)
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16 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
Two-Stage Solar–NaOH Thermochemical Heat Pump Heating System for Building Heating: Operations Strategies and Theoretical Performance
by Yujie Su, Yi Yang, Guoqing He, Renhua Liu and De Ding
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081976 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Heating buildings with solar energy is challenged by the seasonal mismatch between solar availability and heating demand. Thermochemical energy storage is a promising technology to overcome this challenge because of its high energy density. In building applications, space requirement is also an important [...] Read more.
Heating buildings with solar energy is challenged by the seasonal mismatch between solar availability and heating demand. Thermochemical energy storage is a promising technology to overcome this challenge because of its high energy density. In building applications, space requirement is also an important consideration. Therefore, both the storage space and collector areas are important considerations, with only the latter often being neglected in previous studies. This paper proposes a novel two-stage thermochemical heat pump heating system based on the working pair of NaOH/H2O. We demonstrate that this system can work with a concentration difference (70% wt–30% wt) for the climate in hot summer and cold winter regions in China. The energy storage density based on the discharged solution is 363 kWh/m3. With this solar-driven thermochemical heat pump heating system, 35.13 m2 of collectors and 10.48 tons of 70% wt NaOH solution are sufficient to complete a full charge–discharge cycle and meet the heating demand of a single-family house (winter space heating + DHW: 9370 kWh, summer DHW: 2280 kWh). The theoretical maximum storage for solution (discharged + water tank) is 32.47 m3. Compared with the sensible seasonal storage alternative, the collector area is reduced by 12.5% and the storage space is reduced by 59%, with a possible further reduction through optimization. With the potential to be further optimized for space saving, the two-stage solar–NaOH heat pump heating system is an energy-efficient and space-efficient heating system for buildings in the hot summer and cold winter regions of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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18 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Properties of Forest Tree Branches as an Energy Feedstock in North-Eastern Poland
by Mariusz Jerzy Stolarski, Natalia Wojciechowska, Mateusz Seliwiak and Tomasz Krzysztof Dobrzański
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081975 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Tree branches from forest tree harvesting for the timber industry are an important energy feedstock. Solid biofuel in the form of wood chips, produced from branches, is an excellent renewable energy source for generating heat and electricity. However, the properties of wood chips [...] Read more.
Tree branches from forest tree harvesting for the timber industry are an important energy feedstock. Solid biofuel in the form of wood chips, produced from branches, is an excellent renewable energy source for generating heat and electricity. However, the properties of wood chips as a solid biofuel produced from forest tree branches can vary greatly depending on the species from which they have been produced. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the thermophysical properties and elemental composition of fresh branches harvested from nine tree species (pedunculate oak, silver birch, European ash, common aspen, grey alder, Norway maple, Scots pine, European larch and Norway spruce) over three consecutive years (2020–2022). The branches of the tree species most commonly found in Polish forests (Scots pine) were characterized by the highest heating value (an average of 20.74 GJ Mg−1 DM), the highest carbon content (an average of 55.03% DM), the lowest ash (an average of 0.60% DM) and nitrogen contents (an average of 0.32% DM), and low sulfur (an average of 0.017% DM) and chlorine contents (an average of 0.014% DM). A cluster analysis showed that the branches of all three coniferous tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and European larch) formed one common cluster, indicating similar properties. The branches of the European ash were characterized by the lowest wood moisture content (an average of 37.19% DM) and thus the highest lower heating value (an average of 10.50 GJ Mg−1). During the three years of the study, the chlorine and ash contents of the branches of the tree species under study exhibited the highest variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A4: Bio-Energy)
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18 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
Operational Robustness Assessment of the Hydro-Based Hybrid Generation System under Deep Uncertainties
by Jianhua Jiang, Bo Ming, Qiang Huang and Qingjun Bai
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081974 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The renewable-dominant hybrid generation systems (HGSs) are increasingly important to the electric power system worldwide. However, influenced by uncertain meteorological factors, the operational robustness of HGSs must be evaluated to inform the associated decision-making. Additionally, the main factors affecting the HGS’s robustness should [...] Read more.
The renewable-dominant hybrid generation systems (HGSs) are increasingly important to the electric power system worldwide. However, influenced by uncertain meteorological factors, the operational robustness of HGSs must be evaluated to inform the associated decision-making. Additionally, the main factors affecting the HGS’s robustness should be urgently identified under deep uncertainties, as this provides valuable guidance for HGS capacity configuration. In this paper, a multivariate stochastic simulation method is developed and used to generate uncertain resource scenarios of runoff, photovoltaic power, and wind power. Subsequently, a long-term stochastic optimization model of the HGS is employed to derive the optimal operating rules. Finally, these operating rules are used to simulate the long-term operation of an HGS, and the results are used to evaluate the HGS’s robustness and identify its main sensitivities. A clean energy base located in the Upper Yellow River Basin, China, is selected as a case study. The results show that the HGS achieves greater operational robustness than an individual hydropower system, and the robustness becomes weaker as the total capacity of photovoltaic and wind power increases. Additionally, the operational robustness of the HGS is found to be more sensitive to the total capacity than to the capacity ratio between photovoltaic and wind power. Full article
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17 pages, 6479 KiB  
Article
Melting and Solidification Characteristics of PCM in Oscillated Bundled-Tube Thermal Energy Storage System
by Jiangwei Liu, Yuhe Xiao, Dandan Chen, Chong Ye and Changda Nie
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081973 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Phase change material (PCM) based thermal energy storage (TES) is an important solution to the waste of heat and intermittency of new energy sources. However, the thermal conductivity of most PCMs is low, which severely affects the thermal energy storage performance. Oscillation of [...] Read more.
Phase change material (PCM) based thermal energy storage (TES) is an important solution to the waste of heat and intermittency of new energy sources. However, the thermal conductivity of most PCMs is low, which severely affects the thermal energy storage performance. Oscillation of the tube bundles in a TES unit can intensify the convection of liquid PCM and, therefore, enhance heat transfer. However, the energy storage performance of bundled-tube TES systems in response to oscillation at different amplitudes and frequencies has not been well understood yet, and the optimum time to apply the oscillation during phase transition remains unexplored. To address this issue, this present study was carried out. First, the melting behaviour of PCM with oscillation starting at different times was investigated. Then, the influences of oscillation frequency and amplitude on the melting performance were explored. Finally, the solidification behaviour of PCM with oscillation starting at different times was examined. Results show that the oscillation can accelerate the phase transition process by enhancing convective heat transfer. Compared to the case without oscillation, the complete melting and solidification times are reduced by 8.2 and 6.7% for the case with oscillation starting at 200 s, respectively. The effect of oscillation frequency on the melting enhancement is negligible, while the oscillation amplitude has an important effect on the melting enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Materials and Thermal Energy Storage Systems)
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17 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Efficiency and Mergers and Acquisitions of Electric Utility Companies
by Mika Goto, Tadaaki Tomikawa and Toshiyuki Sueyoshi
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081972 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Since the 1990s, market liberalization of the electricity industry has advanced all around the world. To survive in the drastically changing business environment, incumbent electric utility companies have conducted operational reforms, including Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As), to enhance and/or complement existing business capabilities. [...] Read more.
Since the 1990s, market liberalization of the electricity industry has advanced all around the world. To survive in the drastically changing business environment, incumbent electric utility companies have conducted operational reforms, including Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As), to enhance and/or complement existing business capabilities. The purpose of this study was to measure the operational efficiencies of 31 of the world’s largest electric utility companies using data from 2010 to 2020 and examine regional differences in and the impacts of M&As on the efficiencies. For this purpose, we applied a new type of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Tobit model regression. We provide findings from the empirical analyses and discuss the business implications of M&As for electric utility companies. The operational efficiency measures were different among regions, but did not show statistically significant changes over the study period from 2010 to 2020. Furthermore, the results of regression analyses indicate that the increasing number of M&A buying transactions and M&A total transactions has a negative marginal impact on the operational efficiency or leads to a lower operational efficiency for utility companies. Since electricity utility companies have not received gains in operational efficiency from increasing the number of M&A transactions, they need to be more cautious about whether M&A transactions can provide value to the operation and technology management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section C: Energy Economics and Policy)
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20 pages, 4937 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Discontinuous Polymer Flooding Processes for Offshore Oilfields Using a Novel PSO–ICA Algorithm
by Engao Tang, Jian Zhang, Yi Jin, Lezhong Li, Anlong Xia, Bo Zhu and Xiaofei Sun
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081971 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Recently, discontinuous polymer flooding has been proposed and successfully applied in some offshore oilfields. The performance of discontinuous polymer flooding depends on various operational parameters, such as injection timing, polymer concentrations, and crosslinker concentrations of four types of chemical slugs. Because the number [...] Read more.
Recently, discontinuous polymer flooding has been proposed and successfully applied in some offshore oilfields. The performance of discontinuous polymer flooding depends on various operational parameters, such as injection timing, polymer concentrations, and crosslinker concentrations of four types of chemical slugs. Because the number of the operational parameters are large and they are nonlinearly related, the traditional reservoir numerical simulation might not simultaneously obtain the optimal results of these operational parameters. In this study, to simulate the discontinuous polymer flooding processes, a simulation model was built using a commercial reservoir simulator (CMG STARS), in which the mechanisms of the four types of chemical slugs were considered, such as polymer viscosification, adsorption, and degradation. Then, a PSO–ICA algorithm was developed by using the PSO algorithm to improve the exploration ability of the ICA algorithm. The codes were written with MATLAB and linked to CMG STARS to perform optimization processes. Finally, the PSO–ICA algorithm was compared with the ICA and PSO algorithms on benchmark functions to verify its reliability and applied to optimize a discontinuous polymer flooding process in a typical offshore oilfield in Bohai Bay, China. The results showed that the developed PSO–ICA algorithm had lower iteration numbers, higher optimization accuracy, and faster convergence rate than these of PSO and ICA, indicating that it was an effective method for optimizing the operational parameters of discontinuous polymer flooding processes. Compared to the continuous polymer flooding, the discontinuous polymer flooding had a higher oil production rate, a lower water cut, and a lower residual oil saturation. The net present value of the optimal scheme of discontinuous polymer flooding reached 7.49 × 108 $, which is an increase of 6% over that of the scheme of continuous polymer flooding. More research including selecting more reasonable parameters of the PSO–ICA algorithm to increase its optimization accuracy and convergence rate, comparing with other available optimization algorithms, and verifying the performance of the optimal scheme of discontinuous polymer flooding in the practical offshore oilfield will be required in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section H1: Petroleum Engineering)
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21 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Solution for Post-Mining Sites: Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Large-Scale Integrated Energy Storage System
by Jakub Ochmann, Michał Jurczyk, Krzysztof Rusin, Sebastian Rulik, Łukasz Bartela and Wojciech Uchman
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081970 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The intensive development of renewable energy sources and the decreasing efficiency of conventional energy sources are reducing the flexibility of the electric power system. It becomes necessary to develop energy storage systems that allow reducing the differences between generation and energy demand. This [...] Read more.
The intensive development of renewable energy sources and the decreasing efficiency of conventional energy sources are reducing the flexibility of the electric power system. It becomes necessary to develop energy storage systems that allow reducing the differences between generation and energy demand. This article presents a multivariant analysis of an adiabatic compressed air energy storage system. The system uses a post-mining shaft as a reservoir of compressed air and also as a location for the development of a heat storage tank. Consideration was given to the length of the discharge stage, which directly affects the capital expenditure and operating schedule of the system. The basis for the analyses was the in-house numerical model, which takes into account the variability of air parameters during system operation. The numerical model also includes calculations of Thermal Energy Storage’s transient performance. The energy efficiency of the system operating on a daily cycle varies from 67.9% to 70.3%. Various mechanisms for economic support of energy storage systems were analyzed. The levelized cost of storage varies, depending on the variant, from 75.86 EUR/MWh for the most favorable case to 223.24 EUR/MWh for the least favorable case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems)
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15 pages, 3267 KiB  
Article
Distribution Network Reconfiguration Based on an Improved Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm
by Hui Jia, Xueling Zhu and Wensi Cao
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081969 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Aiming to address the defects of the arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA), such as easy fall into local optimums and slow convergence speed during the search process, an improved arithmetic optimization algorithm (IAOA) is proposed and applied to the study of distribution network reconfiguration. [...] Read more.
Aiming to address the defects of the arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA), such as easy fall into local optimums and slow convergence speed during the search process, an improved arithmetic optimization algorithm (IAOA) is proposed and applied to the study of distribution network reconfiguration. Firstly, a reconfiguration model is established to reduce network loss, and a cosine control factor is introduced to reconfigure the math optimization accelerated (MOA) function to coordinate the algorithm’s global exploration and local exploitation capabilities. Subsequently, a reverse differential evolution strategy is introduced to improve the overall diversity of the population and Weibull mutation is performed on the better-adapted individuals generated in each iteration to ensure the quality of the optimal individuals generated in each iteration and strengthen the algorithm’s ability to approach the optimal solution. The performance of the improved algorithm is also tested using eight basis functions. Finally, simulation analysis is carried out by taking the IEEE33 and IEEE69 node systems and a real power distribution system as examples; the results show that the proposed algorithm can help to reconfigure the system quickly, and the system node voltages and network losses were significantly improved after the reconfiguration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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22 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Indoor Parameters of Museum Buildings for Guaranteeing Artworks Preservation and People’s Comfort: Compatibilities, Constraints, and Suggestions
by Laura Cirrincione, Maria La Gennusa, Giorgia Peri, Gianfranco Rizzo and Gianluca Scaccianoce
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081968 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Since people tend to spend more and more time visiting museums, more accurate requirements are needed for the indoor environmental conditions of these confined spaces where two primary requisites coincide in defining their optimal indoor microclimate: the need for the appropriate artwork preservation [...] Read more.
Since people tend to spend more and more time visiting museums, more accurate requirements are needed for the indoor environmental conditions of these confined spaces where two primary requisites coincide in defining their optimal indoor microclimate: the need for the appropriate artwork preservation and suitable levels of indoor comfort conditions for people visiting the exhibition buildings and/or working there. Regrettably, people and artwork requirements are sometimes characterized by different reference limits of the environmental parameters that, not rarely, could potentially conflict. Another important point to consider is that museums hosted by heritage buildings (particularly in Mediterranean climates, as is often the case in Italy) are often not equipped with climatization systems because of difficulty in installing generally bulky equipment such as HVAC systems. This circumstance represents another important limit for achieving suitable conditions for the two requisites. In addition, the recent pandemic-related occurrences are pushing technicians and designers to rethink the criteria for controlling the microclimate of public buildings, and museums among them. In this paper, this issue is addressed by reviewing current regulations, standards, and handbooks (and by means of a real case example related to the Italian context) in order to ascertain whether such documentation could facilitate the development of effective rules/guidelines for proper management of indoor parameters in museums. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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17 pages, 5361 KiB  
Article
Application and Verification of a Leg-Transfer Method for Three-Level Active Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters for Railway Vehicles
by Hyunjae Lee, Gildong Kim and Jingeun Shon
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081967 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 430
Abstract
In this paper, a two-leg-transfer switch structure method that can continuously supply three-phase power even when an accident occurs in a power semiconductor of a three-level active neutral-point-clamped (ANPC) inverter for railway vehicles is presented. The proposed method can minimize the ripple effect [...] Read more.
In this paper, a two-leg-transfer switch structure method that can continuously supply three-phase power even when an accident occurs in a power semiconductor of a three-level active neutral-point-clamped (ANPC) inverter for railway vehicles is presented. The proposed method can minimize the ripple effect caused by power semiconductor faults by separating the faulty leg from the main circuit and connecting the load-side circuit to a neutral point. As a result of simulations, the average values of MAE and RMSE can be reduced by 1.53 [A] and 1.77 [A], respectively, when using the proposed leg-transfer switch structure compared to using the conventional structure. In the IGBT failure experiment, when the proposed method was applied to a three-level ANPC inverter, there was only a 0.21 [%] difference from the THD under normal conditions. As a result, the magnitude, phase, and total harmonic distortion of the three-phase current waveforms measured before and after the fault were identical. Thus, normal three-phase power could be effectively supplied to the load when the proposed leg-transfer switch method was applied after a power semiconductor fault occurred in the three-level ANPC inverter. If this leg-transfer switch method is applied in three-level ANPC inverterd for railway vehicles, track schedule errors can be minimized by continuously supplying three-phase power to the electric motor even when an accident occurs in a power semiconductor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F3: Power Electronics)
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29 pages, 9517 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Electrical and Thermal Storage in a High School Building in Central Greece
by Elias Roumpakias, Olympia Zogou and Antiopi-Malvina Stamatellou
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081966 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Nearly zero-emission buildings (nZEBs) are increasingly being constructed in Europe. There are also incentives to refurbish older buildings and transform them into nZEBs. However, permission is not always granted for their connection to the grid to infuse surplus photovoltaic electricity due to the [...] Read more.
Nearly zero-emission buildings (nZEBs) are increasingly being constructed in Europe. There are also incentives to refurbish older buildings and transform them into nZEBs. However, permission is not always granted for their connection to the grid to infuse surplus photovoltaic electricity due to the grid being overloaded with a large number of renewables. In this study, the case of a refurbished school building in Central Greece is examined. After refurbishing it, a significant amount of photovoltaic electricity surplus is observed during the summer and neutral months, which cannot be exported to the grid. The absence of an adequate battery storage capacity resulted in the rejection of an application for exporting the school’s surplus to the network and the photovoltaic installation staying idle. An alternative approach is proposed in this work, involving a shift in the export of the photovoltaic electricity surplus to the evening hours, in order for the school to be granted permission to export it to the network. To this end, an optimal battery storage size is sought by employing a building energy system simulation. The mode of operation of the battery designed for this application is set to discharge daily, in order to export the electricity surplus in the afternoon hours to the evening hours, when it is favorable for the network. Additionally, the optimal size of the thermal energy storage of the heating system is studied to further improve its energy efficiency. Our battery and storage tank size optimization study shows that a significant battery capacity is required, with 12 kWh/kWp photovoltaic panels being recommended for installation. The ever-decreasing cost of battery installations results in the net present value (NPV) of the additional investment for the battery installation becoming positive. The solution proposed forms an alternative path to further increase the penetration of renewables in saturated networks in Greece by optimizing battery storage capacity. Full article
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34 pages, 24610 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Missing Rate and Early Cyberattack Discrimination Using Optimal Statistical Approach with Machine Learning Techniques in a Smart Grid
by Nakkeeran Murugesan, Anantha Narayanan Velu, Bagavathi Sivakumar Palaniappan, Balamurugan Sukumar and Md. Jahangir Hossain
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081965 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
In the Industry 4.0 era of smart grids, the real-world problem of blackouts and cascading failures due to cyberattacks is a significant concern and highly challenging because the existing Intrusion Detection System (IDS) falls behind in handling missing rates, response times, and detection [...] Read more.
In the Industry 4.0 era of smart grids, the real-world problem of blackouts and cascading failures due to cyberattacks is a significant concern and highly challenging because the existing Intrusion Detection System (IDS) falls behind in handling missing rates, response times, and detection accuracy. Addressing this problem with an early attack detection mechanism with a reduced missing rate and decreased response time is critical. The development of an Intelligent IDS is vital to the mission-critical infrastructure of a smart grid to prevent physical sabotage and processing downtime. This paper aims to develop a robust Anomaly-based IDS using a statistical approach with a machine learning classifier to discriminate cyberattacks from natural faults and man-made events to avoid blackouts and cascading failures. The novel mechanism of a statistical approach with a machine learning (SAML) classifier based on Neighborhood Component Analysis, ExtraTrees, and AdaBoost for feature extraction, bagging, and boosting, respectively, is proposed with optimal hyperparameter tuning for the early discrimination of cyberattacks from natural faults and man-made events. The proposed model is tested using the publicly available Industrial Control Systems Cyber Attack Power System (Triple Class) dataset with a three-bus/two-line transmission system from Mississippi State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the proposed model is evaluated for scalability and generalization using the publicly accessible IEEE 14-bus and 57-bus system datasets of False Data Injection (FDI) attacks. The test results achieved higher detection accuracy, lower missing rates, decreased false alarm rates, and reduced response time compared to the existing approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Security in Microgrids and Smart Grids)
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23 pages, 3761 KiB  
Review
Enhancing Reliability in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines through Digital Twin Technology: A Comprehensive Review
by Bai-Qiao Chen, Kun Liu, Tongqiang Yu and Ruoxuan Li
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081964 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 725
Abstract
This comprehensive review explores the application and impact of digital twin (DT) technology in bolstering the reliability of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWTs) and their supporting platforms. Within the burgeoning domain of offshore wind energy, this study contextualises the need for heightened reliability [...] Read more.
This comprehensive review explores the application and impact of digital twin (DT) technology in bolstering the reliability of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWTs) and their supporting platforms. Within the burgeoning domain of offshore wind energy, this study contextualises the need for heightened reliability measures in FOWTs and elucidates how DT technology serves as a transformative tool to address these concerns. Analysing the existing scholarly literature, the review encompasses insights into the historical reliability landscape, DT deployment methodologies, and their influence on FOWT structures. Findings underscore the pivotal role of DT technology in enhancing FOWT reliability through real-time monitoring and predictive maintenance strategies, resulting in improved operational efficiency and reduced downtime. Highlighting the significance of DT technology as a potent mechanism for fortifying FOWT reliability, the review emphasises its potential to foster a robust operational framework while acknowledging the necessity for continued research to address technical intricacies and regulatory considerations in its integration within offshore wind energy systems. Challenges and opportunities related to the integration of DT technology in FOWTs are thoroughly analysed, providing valuable insights into the role of DTs in optimising FOWT reliability and performance, thereby offering a foundation for future research and industry implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Safety and Reliability of Offshore Energy Assets)
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24 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
optimHome: A Shrinking Horizon Control Architecture for Bidirectional Smart Charging in Home Energy Management Systems
by Corrado Maria Caminiti, Marco Merlo, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi Ghazvini and Jacob Edvinsson
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081963 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
This study aims to develop an adaptable home energy management system capable of integrating the bidirectional smart charging of electric vehicles. The final goal is to achieve a user-defined objectives such as cost minimization or maximizing renewable self-consumption. Industrialwise, the present work yields [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop an adaptable home energy management system capable of integrating the bidirectional smart charging of electric vehicles. The final goal is to achieve a user-defined objectives such as cost minimization or maximizing renewable self-consumption. Industrialwise, the present work yields valuable outcomes in identifying operational frameworks and boundary conditions. Optimal scheduling benefits both users and the electric network, thus enhancing grid utilization and increasing renewable energy integration. By coordinating power interactions with dynamic time-of-use tariffs, the energy management system minimizes user costs and aids the grid by cutting peak hour energy consumption. Charging and discharging operations in electric vehicles comply with energy level constraints outlined by bidirectional charging protocols. The proposed approach ensures the scheduling of cycles that minimize detrimental effects on battery health when evaluating an economically ageing mechanism. Compared to uncontrolled charging, optimal scheduling resulted in a significant reduction in the total operational cost of the dwelling. Trade-off conditions between renewable integration and potential savings are identified and numerically evaluated by means of multiobjective optimization. In contrast to scheduling-based models, the proposed architecture possesses the ability to iteratively adapt decision variables in response to system changes, thus responding effectively to external stochastic uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section K: State-of-the-Art Energy Related Technologies)
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15 pages, 7408 KiB  
Article
Research on Capacity Optimization Configuration of Renewable Energy Off Grid Hydrogen Production System Considering Collaborative Electrolysis
by Zhongjian Kang and Shijie Liu
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081962 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
This study proposes a multitype electrolytic collaborative hydrogen production model for optimizing the capacity configuration of renewable energy off grid hydrogen production systems. The electrolytic hydrogen production process utilizes the synergistic electrolysis of an alkaline electrolyzer (AEL) and proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), [...] Read more.
This study proposes a multitype electrolytic collaborative hydrogen production model for optimizing the capacity configuration of renewable energy off grid hydrogen production systems. The electrolytic hydrogen production process utilizes the synergistic electrolysis of an alkaline electrolyzer (AEL) and proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), fully leveraging the advantages of the low cost of the AEL and strong regulation characteristics of the PEMEL. For the convenience of the optimization solution, the article constructs a mixed linear optimization model that considers the constraints during system operation, with the objective function of minimizing total costs while meeting industrial production requirements. Gurobi is used for the optimal solution to obtain the optimal configuration of a renewable energy off grid hydrogen production system. By comparing and analyzing the optimal configuration under conventional load and high-load conditions, it is concluded that collaborative electrolysis has advantages in improving resource consumption and reducing hydrogen production costs. This is of great significance for optimizing the capacity configuration of off grid hydrogen production systems and improving the overall economic benefits of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
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27 pages, 3647 KiB  
Article
Selected Aspects of Sustainable Construction—Contemporary Opportunities for the Use of Timber in High and High-Rise Buildings
by Hanna Michalak and Karolina Michalak
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081961 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Due to the favourable pro-environmental properties of timber, including the origin of the raw material from renewable sources, ease of reuse, negative carbon footprint, low specific weight, possibility of prefabrication, etc., there is increasing interest in the use of timber in construction. This [...] Read more.
Due to the favourable pro-environmental properties of timber, including the origin of the raw material from renewable sources, ease of reuse, negative carbon footprint, low specific weight, possibility of prefabrication, etc., there is increasing interest in the use of timber in construction. This paper takes a closer look at the new uses of timber as a load-bearing structure for high and high-rise buildings. Cases described in the literature concerning this type of building with residential and public functions erected worldwide were analysed. The first buildings of this type were put into use in 2009. The aim of this paper is to show new possibilities and to extend the use of timber as a load-bearing structure of high and high-rise buildings previously made of reinforced concrete or steel. The scope of the analysis includes two postulates of sustainable construction, directly related to the above-mentioned goals: limiting interference in the natural areas of cities through efficient use of building plots for high or high-rise buildings and the use of renewable materials—timber—for the load-bearing structure of buildings. A research method based on a case study was used. Conclusions were made on the pro-environmental spatial–functional and material–structural design of these high and high-rise buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Low-Carbon Energy Buildings)
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17 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Controllable Meshing of Distribution Grids through a Multi-Leg Smart Charging Infrastructure (MLSCI)
by Fabio Bignucolo and Luca Mantese
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081960 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The paper provides a novel approach for controllably meshing traditional medium-voltage networks by means of a fast-charging parking station with multiple points of delivery connected to different radial feeders. Regulating power flows at each point of delivery while the charging service is being [...] Read more.
The paper provides a novel approach for controllably meshing traditional medium-voltage networks by means of a fast-charging parking station with multiple points of delivery connected to different radial feeders. Regulating power flows at each point of delivery while the charging service is being provided, which means actively controlling power exchanges between radial distribution feeders can significantly increase the hosting capacity of the power system. Remarkable benefits are expected when the distribution networks to which the charging infrastructure is connected differ in terms of main characteristics, e.g., rated voltage level, end-user type and operating profiles, and the number and type of renewable plants. The paper focuses on technical targets, such as loss reduction and power quality in terms of admitted voltage deviation from the rated value. The power exchanges between distribution feeders are made possible by a controlled DC link, where bi-directional DC/DC converters are connected so as to charge or discharge vehicles according to the Vehicle-To-Grid approach. A multiplexer topology in which several vehicles can be alternatively connected to the same DC/DC converter is modeled. The proposed concept can contribute to network flexibility by controllably meshing distribution feeders and, jointly, by modulating charging processes according to assigned charging constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Optimization, and Control in Smart Grids)
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19 pages, 925 KiB  
Review
Building Resilient Cities: A Comprehensive Review of Climate Change Adaptation Indicators for Urban Design
by Carlota García Díaz, David Zambrana-Vasquez and Carmen Bartolomé
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081959 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Urban areas generate more than 70% of the world’s climate change emissions, mainly CO2, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change is increasing cities’ exposure to climate hazards, such as heat waves or floods. Therefore, there is a need [...] Read more.
Urban areas generate more than 70% of the world’s climate change emissions, mainly CO2, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change is increasing cities’ exposure to climate hazards, such as heat waves or floods. Therefore, there is a need to improve risk management with the inclusion of climate resilience in urban policy design. Despite improved urban climate monitoring, there are still relatively few scientific publications on climate change adaptation in urban areas. Adaptation to climate change is not achieved through specific action, but rather through the adoption and continuous implementation of adaptation actions such as housing rehabilitation, green space management and protection measures for vulnerable groups. This variety of actions makes it difficult not only to identify different indicators, but also to use common benchmarks. Considering the role of municipalities in adapting to climate change, it is crucial to identify adaptation indicators that serve as a basis for decision making, as well as evaluation methods that allow the effectiveness of planned and implemented measures in municipalities. It can be used to determine which measures increase the level of adaptation or lead to poor adaptation. Therefore, monitoring indicators makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures, in addition to formulating new ones. This paper includes a literature review of existing index designed to address climate hazards and mitigate their impacts in urban areas. Full article
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22 pages, 6086 KiB  
Article
Towards a Net Zero-Emission Electricity Generation System by Optimizing Renewable Energy Sources and Nuclear Power Plant
by Mujammil Asdhiyoga Rahmanta, Rahmat Adiprasetya Al Hasibi, Handrea Bernando Tambunan, Ruly, Agussalim Syamsuddin, Indra Ardhanayudha Aditya and Benny Susanto
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081958 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2 emissions, are an issue in the energy sector that must be addressed urgently. The energy sector, including electricity, has been given a global aim of net zero emissions (NZE). This article examines three scenarios for reaching net-zero [...] Read more.
Greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2 emissions, are an issue in the energy sector that must be addressed urgently. The energy sector, including electricity, has been given a global aim of net zero emissions (NZE). This article examines three scenarios for reaching net-zero emissions in power supply. These scenarios are baseline, NZE1, and NZE2. The baseline scenario represents power plant capacity planning based on existing regulations in the base year. The net zero emissions consisting of the NZE1 and NZE2 scenarios aim to achieve net zero emissions by 2060. The NZE1 and NZE2 scenarios differ in the usage of nuclear power plant technology. The NZE1 scenario employs advanced costs for small modular reactors and large reactors technology, whilst the NZE2 scenario employs the low cost of small modular reactors and large reactors. The three scenarios were implemented and examined using the low emissions analysis platform software. The analytical results demonstrate that the NZE1 and NZE2 scenarios can meet the net zero emission objective by 2058. The baseline scenario results in power plant capacity planning with an average annual CO2 emission growth rate of 3.58%. On the other hand, the baseline scenario has the lowest investment expenses, at only 44 billion USD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F1: Electrical Power System)
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23 pages, 9737 KiB  
Article
Integrated Study on Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration and Gas Injection Huff-n-Puff to Enhance Shale Oil Recovery
by Lei Wang, Shengyao Cai, Wenli Chen and Gang Lei
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081957 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Multi-stage fractured horizontal well technology is an effective development method for unconventional reservoirs; however, shale oil reservoirs with ultra-low permeability and micro/nanopore sizes are still not ideal for production and development. Injecting CO2 into the reservoir, after hydraulic fracturing, gas injection flooding [...] Read more.
Multi-stage fractured horizontal well technology is an effective development method for unconventional reservoirs; however, shale oil reservoirs with ultra-low permeability and micro/nanopore sizes are still not ideal for production and development. Injecting CO2 into the reservoir, after hydraulic fracturing, gas injection flooding often produces a gas channeling phenomenon, which affects the production of shale oil. In comparison, CO2 huff-n-puff development has become a superior method in the development of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells in shale reservoirs. CO2 huff and injection can not only improve shale oil recovery but also store the CO2 generated in industrial production in shale reservoirs, which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions to a certain extent and achieve carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). In this paper, the critical temperature and critical parameters of fluid in shale reservoirs are corrected by the critical point correction method in this paper, and the influence of reservoir pore radius on fluid phase behavior and shale oil production is analyzed. According to the shale reservoir applied in isolation to the actual state of the reservoir and under the condition of a complex network structure, we described the seepage characteristics of shale oil and gas and CO2 in the reservoir by embedding a discrete fracture technology structure and fracture network, and we established the numerical model of the CO2 huff-n-huff development of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells for shale oil. We used the actual production data of the field for historical fitting to verify the validity of the model. On this basis, CO2 huff-n-puff development under different gas injection rates, huff-n-puff cycles, soaking times, and other factors was simulated; cumulative oil production and CO2 storage were compared; and the influence of each factor on development and storage was analyzed, which provided theoretical basis and specific ideas for the optimization of oilfield development modes and the study of CO2 storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Development of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources)
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26 pages, 4051 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approach of Concentrated Solar Sphere to Generate Electrical Power
by Hassan Abdulmouti
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081956 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Energy sources are crucial for the development and growth of economies and civilizations. Solar energy is an alternative energy to generate electrical power. The challenges of solar photovoltaic panels (PV) are the low output power and efficiency and the huge installation area beside [...] Read more.
Energy sources are crucial for the development and growth of economies and civilizations. Solar energy is an alternative energy to generate electrical power. The challenges of solar photovoltaic panels (PV) are the low output power and efficiency and the huge installation area beside PVs need a tracking system for better efficiency. The motivation of this paper is to design an innovative solar sphere system, which is a new concentrated photovoltaic technology that has better performance (efficiency and output power) than the normal conventional solar panel (PV) with a smaller installation area and without any tracking system. This design consists of an acrylic solar sphere entirely filled with cooking oil (sunflower or corn oil) that captures solar radiation and concentrates it on a focal point. The focal point is adjusted over a multi-junction cell that acts as a collector device (concentrator solar cell). This focused solar energy can generate a massive amount of power, which is used to produce more electricity than normal photovoltaic panels. The experiments were carried out in order to discover the best acrylic models or shape designs, which is the sphere, the best materials or media in the sphere, that is oil, the best sphere’s size and volume, and that is larger, the best sphere thickness, which at first is lower, the best fluid oil type, which is cooking oil, and finally the best fluid amount or volume inside the sphere, and this is the entire volume. Then, these factors mentioned above are compared with normal photovoltaics (PV) that have the same section area as these shapes. The results revealed that these factors have significant effects on the output power value and efficiency. It has been demonstrated that our innovative concentrated solar sphere system can produce nearly four times the output power or electricity greater than that of a conventional solar panel PV with the same cross-sectional area. This specific sort of compression is crucial because it shows that less space is required to establish this system than it would to install conventional solar panels. The performance of the system per unit of the square area it occupies was compared to the latest generation of flat panel PV available at the market performance; hence, the installation space will be decreased by 40% to 60%. Our system has about twice as much efficiency as solar PV and does not require a tracking system and maintenance. Our technology also has the benefit of not being impacted by extreme temperatures, clouds, dust, and humidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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19 pages, 12348 KiB  
Article
A Parameter Optimization Design Method for Single-Phase Dual Active Bridge AC-DC Converter
by Chengyang Yu and Quanming Luo
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081955 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The single-stage dual active bridge (DAB) AC-DC converter has the advantages of high power density, low cost, and simple control; it has a broad potential for application in the field of onboard chargers (OBC). However, the lack of fast and accurate quantitative parameter [...] Read more.
The single-stage dual active bridge (DAB) AC-DC converter has the advantages of high power density, low cost, and simple control; it has a broad potential for application in the field of onboard chargers (OBC). However, the lack of fast and accurate quantitative parameter optimization design methods in single-stage DAB AC-DC converters limits the overall efficiency of the converter. Based on the above problem, in order to improve the overall operating efficiency of the converter by optimizing the parameter transformer ratio and power inductance, this paper proposes a parameter design method considering a multi-timescale strategy by combining the steady-state analysis model of the converter in the line cycle and switching cycle and step-by-step reducing its design space through the constraints on the parameters. The first step is to obtain a safe design space for the parameters under the converter’s transmitted power and current stress constraints. The second step obtains the optimization design space of the parameters under the optimization of conduction loss and switching loss of the converter. Finally, the optimal parameters are determined by the loss analysis model. The proposed parameter optimization method entirely takes into account the steady-state characteristics of the DAB AC-DC converter during the line cycle, and the step-by-step constraints greatly accelerate the parameter design process. In addition, the proposed parameter optimization design method applies to all types of single-stage DAB AC-DC converters, which can be well applied to engineering practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F3: Power Electronics)
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31 pages, 3994 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Optimization Scheduling of Multi-Microgrids Incorporating Hydrogen-Doped Natural Gas and P2G–CCS Coupling under Carbon Trading and Carbon Emission Constraints
by Yuzhe Zhao and Jingwen Chen
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081954 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
In the context of “dual carbon”, restrictions on carbon emissions have attracted widespread attention from researchers. In order to solve the issue of the insufficient exploration of the synergistic emission reduction effects of various low-carbon policies and technologies applied to multiple microgrids, we [...] Read more.
In the context of “dual carbon”, restrictions on carbon emissions have attracted widespread attention from researchers. In order to solve the issue of the insufficient exploration of the synergistic emission reduction effects of various low-carbon policies and technologies applied to multiple microgrids, we propose a multi-microgrid electricity cooperation optimization scheduling strategy based on stepped carbon trading, a hydrogen-doped natural gas system and P2G–CCS coupled operation. Firstly, a multi-energy microgrid model is developed, coupled with hydrogen-doped natural gas system and P2G–CCS, and then carbon trading and a carbon emission restriction mechanism are introduced. Based on this, a model for multi-microgrid electricity cooperation is established. Secondly, design optimization strategies for solving the model are divided into the day-ahead stage and the intraday stage. In the day-ahead stage, an improved alternating direction multiplier method is used to distribute the model to minimize the cooperative costs of multiple microgrids. In the intraday stage, based on the day-ahead scheduling results, an intraday scheduling model is established and a rolling optimization strategy to adjust the output of microgrid equipment and energy purchases is adopted, which reduces the impact of uncertainties in new energy output and load forecasting and improves the economic and low-carbon operation of multiple microgrids. Setting up different scenarios for experimental validation demonstrates the effectiveness of the introduced low-carbon policies and technologies as well as the effectiveness of their synergistic interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Power Science and Technology)
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