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Energies, Volume 17, Issue 9 (May-1 2024) – 254 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The reduction of CO2 by carbon-based fuels through the Boudouard reaction is a promising approach to facilitating the large-scale utilization of CO2 when integrated with the coal gasification industry. The carbon structure of char plays a crucial role in the reduction of CO2 due to the stable chemical properties of CO2. Therefore, the solid carbon-based fuels are first activated to improve the reactivity, and then the Boudouard reaction is enhanced at high temperatures to strengthen the CO2 reduction. This study is dedicated to proposing a technology combining solid carbon activation and high-temperature CO2 reduction and establishing a bench-scale platform. Experimental studies were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the activation process and obtain the CO2 reduction effects of the process with different solid carbon-based fuels. View this paper
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18 pages, 4692 KiB  
Article
Effects of Removing Energy Subsidies and Implementing Carbon Taxes on Urban, Rural and Gender Welfare: Evidence from Mexico
by Jorge Alberto Rosas Flores, David Morillón Gálvez and Rodolfo Silva
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092237 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The demand for different energy goods and services is a fundamental component in a country’s economic structure for development. Understanding it is vital in designing economic policies, such as taxes, that can improve the welfare of the population. A comprehension of the distributional [...] Read more.
The demand for different energy goods and services is a fundamental component in a country’s economic structure for development. Understanding it is vital in designing economic policies, such as taxes, that can improve the welfare of the population. A comprehension of the distributional effects of elasticities and the application of them to simulate household responses to price changes, as well as a calculation of the welfare impacts on poor and rich households in Mexico, should inform policy design. This paper uses the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH) from 1996 to 2018 to estimate the demand of Mexican households for fuels, specifically electricity, liquefied petroleum gas, and gasoline. A Quasi Ideal Quadratic Demand System (QUAIDS) is employed to analyse the effects of removing energy subsidies and introducing a carbon tax. The results indicate that welfare losses would be regressive concerning electricity price increases, while changes in gasoline prices would be progressive. Redistributing the tax revenues accrued by removing energy subsidies and imposing the carbon tax would have more progressive effects on the economy of Mexican households, with welfare gains of up to 350% for the poorest households in the case of electricity consumption taxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Analysis and Policies in the Energy Sector)
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15 pages, 6032 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of a Two-Phase Ejector Operation Taking into Account Steam Condensation with the Presence of CO2
by Tomasz Kuś and Paweł Madejski
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092236 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The application of a two-phase ejector allows for the mixing of liquid and gas and provides effective heat transfer between phases. The aim of the study is a numerical investigation of the performance of a water-driven, condensing two-phase ejector. The research was performed [...] Read more.
The application of a two-phase ejector allows for the mixing of liquid and gas and provides effective heat transfer between phases. The aim of the study is a numerical investigation of the performance of a water-driven, condensing two-phase ejector. The research was performed using CFD methods, which can provide an opportunity to analyze this complex phenomenon in 2D or 3D. The 2D axisymmetric model was developed using CFD software Siemens StarCCM+ 2022.1.1. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach with the Realisable k-ε turbulence model was applied. The multiphase flow was calculated using the mixture model. The boiling/condensation model, where the condensation rate is limited by thermal diffusion, was applied to take into account direct contact condensation. Based on the mass balance calculations and developed pressure and steam volume fraction distributions, the ejector performance was analyzed for various boundary conditions. The influence of the suction pressure (range between 0.812 and 0.90) and the steam mass flow rate (range between 10 g/s and 25 g/s) is presented to investigate the steam condensation phenomenon inside the ejector condenser. The provided mixture of inert gas (CO2) with steam (H2O) in the ejector condenser was investigated also. The weakening of the steam condensation process by adding CO2 gas was observed, but it is still possible to achieve effective condensation despite the presence of inert gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Modeling of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer)
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18 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Dynamic Interaction Studies in Inverter-Penetrated Power Systems
by Fujian Li and Jin Ma
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092235 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
In a renewable-energy-penetrated power system (RPPS), inverter-based resources (IBRs) pose serious challenges to power system stability due to their completely different dynamic characteristics compared with conventional generators; thus, it is necessary to study the dynamic interactions between IBRs and power systems. Although many [...] Read more.
In a renewable-energy-penetrated power system (RPPS), inverter-based resources (IBRs) pose serious challenges to power system stability due to their completely different dynamic characteristics compared with conventional generators; thus, it is necessary to study the dynamic interactions between IBRs and power systems. Although many research efforts have been dedicated to this topic from both power electronics and power system researchers, some research from the power electronics field treats the external power system as a voltage source with an impedance, therefore ignoring the dynamic characteristics of a power system, while most of the research from the power system field applies simulation-based methods, for which it is difficult to directly interpret the interaction mechanism of IBRs and external system dynamics. Thus, none of these studies can explore the accurate dynamic interaction mechanism between IBRs and power systems, leading to performance degradation of IBR-integrated power systems. Our study takes into account the dynamic characteristics of both IBRs and the external power system, resulting in the development of a new open-loop transfer function for RPPSs. Based on this formulation, it is observed that under certain operating conditions, the dynamic interactions between the inverter and the power system help enhance IBR-penetrated power system stability compared with the case for which the external power system is controlled as a voltage source. The study also reveals how the inverter (phase-locked loop, control parameters, etc.), external power system (network strength) and penetration ratio in an IBR-penetrated power system affect the dynamic interactions between IBRs and the external power system using the proposed quantified interaction indices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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17 pages, 2611 KiB  
Article
Optimal Scheduling Strategy for Distribution Network with Mobile Energy Storage System and Offline Control PVs to Minimize the Solar Energy Curtailment
by San Kim and Jinyeong Lee
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092234 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
As offline control photovoltaic (PV) plants are not equipped with online communication and remote control systems, they cannot adjust their power in real-time. Therefore, in a distribution network saturated with offline control PVs, the distribution system operator (DSO) should schedule the distributed energy [...] Read more.
As offline control photovoltaic (PV) plants are not equipped with online communication and remote control systems, they cannot adjust their power in real-time. Therefore, in a distribution network saturated with offline control PVs, the distribution system operator (DSO) should schedule the distributed energy resources (DERs) considering the uncertainty of renewable energy to prevent curtailment due to overvoltage. This paper presents a day-ahead network operation strategy using a mobile energy storage system (MESS) and offline control PVs to minimize power curtailment. The MESS model efficiently considers the transportation time and power loss of the MESS, and models various operating modes, such as the charging, discharging, idle, and moving modes. The optimization problem is formulated based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) considering the spatial and temporal operation constraints of MESSs and is performed using chanced constrained optimal power flow (CC-OPF). The upper limits for offline control PVs are set based on the probabilistic approach, thus mitigating overvoltage due to forecasting errors. The proposed operation strategy was tested in the IEEE 33-node distribution system coupled with a 15-node transportation system. The test results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for minimizing curtailment in offline control PVs. Full article
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28 pages, 4708 KiB  
Article
Neural Network Approximation of Helicopter Turboshaft Engine Parameters for Improved Efficiency
by Serhii Vladov, Ruslan Yakovliev, Maryna Bulakh and Victoria Vysotska
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092233 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The work is devoted to the development of a method for neural network approximation of helicopter turboshaft engine parameters, which is the basis for researching engine energy characteristics to improve efficiency, reliability, and flight safety. It is proposed to use a three-layer direct [...] Read more.
The work is devoted to the development of a method for neural network approximation of helicopter turboshaft engine parameters, which is the basis for researching engine energy characteristics to improve efficiency, reliability, and flight safety. It is proposed to use a three-layer direct propagation neural network with linear neurons in the output layer for training in which the scale conjugate gradient algorithm is modified by introducing a moment coefficient into the analytical expression. This modification helps in calculating new model parameters to avoid falling into a local minimum. The dependence of the energy released during helicopter turboshaft engine compressor rotation on the gas-generator rotor r.p.m. was obtained. This enables the determination of the optimal gas-generator rotor r.p.m. region for a specific type of helicopter turboshaft engine. The optimal ratio of energy consumption and compressor operating efficiency is achieved, thereby ensuring helicopter turboshaft engines’ optimal performance and reliability. Experimental data support the high efficiency of using a three-layer feed-forward neural network with linear neurons in the output layer, trained using a modified scale conjugate gradient algorithm, for approximating parameters of helicopter turboshaft engines compared to the analogues. Specifically, this method better predicts the relations between the energy release during compressor rotation and gas-generator rotor r.p.m. The efficiency coefficient of the proposed method was 0.994, which exceeded that of the closest analogue (0.914) by 1.09 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section I2: Energy and Combustion Science)
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21 pages, 8130 KiB  
Article
Ventilation Methods for Improving the Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency of Multi-Family Buildings in Central Europe
by Joanna Ferdyn-Grygierek and Krzysztof Grygierek
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092232 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
In Poland and other countries in Central Europe, residential buildings from the second half of the 20th century dominate, which have recently undergone deep thermomodernisation. Research on the retrofitting of residential buildings has focused mainly on energy efficiency, with only a few studies [...] Read more.
In Poland and other countries in Central Europe, residential buildings from the second half of the 20th century dominate, which have recently undergone deep thermomodernisation. Research on the retrofitting of residential buildings has focused mainly on energy efficiency, with only a few studies on indoor air quality. The aim of this study was to present a comparative analysis of the impact of five ventilation scenarios (three natural and two mechanical) on CO2 concentration and energy demand for heating and ventilation in residential spaces of a multi-family building located in Poland. The analyses were based on the results of building performance co-simulation using the EnergyPlus and CONTAM programs carried out under dynamic conditions with a 5 min time step for the entire heating season. The calculations took into account the instantaneous occupancy variability of twenty apartments. In the buildings equipped with new tight windows, the natural ventilation system provided extremely low air exchange (on average 0.1 h−1) and poor indoor air quality (average CO2 concentration at the level of 2500 ppm). Opening windows to ventilate the rooms generated a multiple increase (up to 8 times) in heating demand during these periods, but average CO2 concentration was on the level of 930 ppm. The use of mechanical ventilation was profitable both in terms of energy savings (at the level of 50%) and improvement in the indoor air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Comfort, Environment Quality and Energy Consumption)
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15 pages, 2864 KiB  
Article
Minimum Carbon Credit Cost Estimation for Carbon Geological Storage in the Mae Moh Basin, Thailand
by Chanapol Charoentanaworakun, Komsoon Somprasong, Anusak Duongkaew, Panita Wongchai, Ploypailin Katunyoo and Purin Thanaphanyakhun
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092231 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Carbon geological storage (CGS) is one of the key processes in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, which are used to reduce CO2 emissions and achieve carbon-neutrality and net-zero emissions in developing countries. In Thailand, the Mae Moh basin is a potential [...] Read more.
Carbon geological storage (CGS) is one of the key processes in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, which are used to reduce CO2 emissions and achieve carbon-neutrality and net-zero emissions in developing countries. In Thailand, the Mae Moh basin is a potential site for implementing CGS due to the presence of a structural trap that can seal the CO2 storage formation. However, the cost of CGS projects needs to be subsidized by selling carbon credits in order to reach the project breakeven. Therefore, this paper estimates the economic components of a CGS project in the Mae Moh basin by designing the well completion and operating parameters for CO2 injection. The capital costs and operating costs of the process components were calculated, and the minimum carbon credit cost required to cover the total costs of the CGS project was determined. The results indicate that the designed system proposes an operating gas injection rate of 1.454 MMscf/day, which is equivalent to 29,530 tCO2e per year per well. Additionally, the minimum carbon credit cost was estimated to be USD 70.77 per tCO2e in order to achieve breakeven for the best case CGS project, which was found to be much higher than the current market price of carbon credit in Thailand, at around USD 3.5 per tCO2e. To enhance the economic prospects of this area, it is imperative to promote a policy of improving the cost of carbon credit for CGS projects in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volume II: Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage)
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14 pages, 2687 KiB  
Article
Solidification and Release Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Gypsum from Coal-Fired Power Plants
by Dongxu Wang, Shuzhou Wei, Dawei Zhao, Yongzheng Gu and Jiawei Wang
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092230 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Heavy metals in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from coal-fired power plants are at risk of releaching during the processes of stockpiling and resource utilization. In this study, the effects of organosulfur chelators dithiocarbamate (DTC) and trisodium trithiocyanate-15 (TMT-15) on the solidification characteristics [...] Read more.
Heavy metals in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from coal-fired power plants are at risk of releaching during the processes of stockpiling and resource utilization. In this study, the effects of organosulfur chelators dithiocarbamate (DTC) and trisodium trithiocyanate-15 (TMT-15) on the solidification characteristics of heavy metals in desulphurized gypsum under different mass fractions, pH values, water contents and reaction times were investigated. The chemical composition and morphology were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experiments showed that both DTC and TMT-15 were effective at stabilizing the heavy metals in the FGD gypsum, with more than a 50% curing effect for all the heavy metals except Pb. DTC showed a better stabilization for Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Cr, and TMT-15 showed a better curing effect for Cd. The solidified gypsum had good heavy metal stability in low-water-content environments. Increasing the mass fraction, reaction time, and pH decreased the heavy metal leaching, and the mass fraction had the greatest effect on the total heavy metal leaching concentration, followed by the reaction time and pH value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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15 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Pre-Treatment of Spent Coffee Grounds Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation
by Aleksandra Szaja, Agnieszka Montusiewicz, Sylwia Pasieczna-Patkowska, Elżbieta Grządka, Jerzy Montusiewicz and Magdalena Lebiocka
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092229 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) constitute the main solid residue of the coffee brewing process. SCGs are generated in significant amounts daily, worldwide. The effective management of this waste through biological processes is still an unresolved problem. In this study, the application of hydrodynamic [...] Read more.
Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) constitute the main solid residue of the coffee brewing process. SCGs are generated in significant amounts daily, worldwide. The effective management of this waste through biological processes is still an unresolved problem. In this study, the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) as a pre-treatment method for improving the biodegradability of SCGs suspended in municipal wastewater was proposed. An orifice plate with a conical concentric hole having inlet/outlet diameter of 3/10 mm was applied as the cavitation inducer. Three inlet pressures were chosen: 3, 5 and 7 bar. The effects in time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min were evaluated. The application of HC led to enhanced biodegradability for each case. The results of multi-criteria decision indicated that the most efficient combination in terms of biodegradability and energy usage was obtained at the pressure of 5 bar and duration of 20 or 30 min, depending on the adopted weights. The improvements of DOC/TOC (dissolved organic carbon/total organic carbon) ratio were 57% and 71%, as compared to the untreated samples. The release of caffeine was found at pressures of 5 and 7 bar. However, at 5 bar, this effect was noticed for the longest times, 30 and 45 min, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater for Renewable Energy Production)
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15 pages, 4247 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Direct Model for the Sky Temperature Evaluation in the Mediterranean Area: A Preliminary Investigation
by Edoardo De Cristo, Luca Evangelisti, Claudia Guattari and Roberto De Lieto Vollaro
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092228 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Since the beginning of the 20th century, many studies have focused on the possibility of considering the sky as a body characterized by an apparent temperature, and several correlations to quantify the apparent sky temperature have been proposed. However, the different models were [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, many studies have focused on the possibility of considering the sky as a body characterized by an apparent temperature, and several correlations to quantify the apparent sky temperature have been proposed. However, the different models were obtained for specific meteorological conditions and through measurements at specific sites. The available models do not cover all locations in the world, although the evaluation of the sky temperature is fundamental for estimating the net radiative heat transfer between surfaces and the sky. Here, experimental data logged from a regional micrometeorological network (in Italy, within the Lazio region) were processed and used to identify an empirical model for the estimation of the sky temperature in the Mediterranean area. Data relating to atmospheric infrared radiation were used to compute the sky temperature, aiming at identifying a direct correlation with the ambient temperature. Climatic data acquired during 2022 were processed. The proposed correlations were compared with other models available in the literature, including the standard ISO 13790. This study proposes an annual-based direct correlation in its initial phase, demonstrating a superior fit to the measured data compared to well-known direct empirical models from the literature. Subsequently, quarterly-based correlations are introduced further in a secondary phase of the work to improve the model’s adaptation to experimental observations. The results reveal that quarterly-based correlations improve goodness-of-fit indexes compared to annual-based and well-known direct empirical correlations. Finally, a detached building was modeled via a dynamic code to highlight the influence of different correlations on annual energy needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Trends of Thermal Comfort and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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25 pages, 16543 KiB  
Article
Numerical Studies of the Influence of Flue Gas Recirculation into Primary Air on NOx Formation, CO Emission, and Low-NOx Waterwall Corrosion in the OP 650 Boiler
by Bartłomiej Hernik, Piotr Brudziana, Radosław Klon and Marek Pronobis
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092227 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Numerical calculations of the innovative flue gas recirculation (FGR) system through an inactive coal pulverizer for a 40% load of the OP 650 boiler at the Jaworzno III Power Plant were carried out. The research was conducted to determine the effect of FGR [...] Read more.
Numerical calculations of the innovative flue gas recirculation (FGR) system through an inactive coal pulverizer for a 40% load of the OP 650 boiler at the Jaworzno III Power Plant were carried out. The research was conducted to determine the effect of FGR on the formation of NOx, CO emissions, and low-NOx waterwall corrosion. Using numerical modelling, the influence of the place of injection of recirculated flue gas on the formation of NOx was also investigated. The tests were carried out based on data from the boiler monitoring system and calculation results using a 0-dimensional model. Modelling of the FGR was performed for five variants. FGR equalized the temperature in the furnace, eliminating temperature peaks in the burner belt. Moreover, FGR did not increase the CO content in the flue gas and reduced the O2 concentration in the area zone of pulverized coal combustion. For FGR systems, the emission of NOx below 200 mg/m3n for 6% O2 in dry flue gas was kept. This proves that the recirculation helps to meet the BAT (best available techniques) requirements for NOx emissions. It has also been shown that FGR does not pose a risk of low-NOx corrosion in the next 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Analysis of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer)
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25 pages, 12299 KiB  
Article
DEM-CFD Simulation Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics for Hydrogen Flow in Randomly Packed Beds
by Quanchen Zhang, Yongfang Xia, Zude Cheng and Xin Quan
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092226 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
In this study, three randomly packed beds with varying tube-to-particle diameter ratios (D/d) are constructed using the discrete element method (DEM) and simulated via CFD under low pore Reynolds numbers (Rep < 100). An innovation of this research lies in the [...] Read more.
In this study, three randomly packed beds with varying tube-to-particle diameter ratios (D/d) are constructed using the discrete element method (DEM) and simulated via CFD under low pore Reynolds numbers (Rep < 100). An innovation of this research lies in the application of hydrogen in randomly packed beds, coupled with the consideration of its temperature-dependent thermal properties. The axial analysis of the heat transfer characteristics shows that PB−5 and PB−6 achieve thermal equilibrium 44% and 58% faster than PB−4, respectively, demonstrating enhanced heat transfer efficiency. However, at higher flow rates (0.8 m/s), the large-sized fluid channels in PB−6 severely impact the heat transfer efficiency, slightly reducing it compared to PB−5. Additionally, this study introduces a localized segmentation method for calculating the axial local Nusselt number, showing that the axial local Nusselt number (Nu) not only exhibits an inverse relationship with the axial porosity distribution, but also matches its amplitude fluctuations. The wall effect significantly impacts the flow and temperature distribution in the packed bed, causing notable velocity and temperature oscillations in the near-wall region. In the near-wall region, the average temperature is lower than in the core region, and the axial temperature profile exhibits more intense oscillations. These findings may provide insights into the use of hydrogen in randomly packed beds, which are vital for enhancing industrial applications such as hydrogen storage and utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogen Production and Hydrogen Storage)
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22 pages, 2585 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Energy and Power Characteristics of Various Matrix Multiplication Algorithms
by Salem Alsari and Muhammad Al-Hashimi
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092225 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
This work studied the energy behavior of six matrix multiplication algorithms with various physical asset usage patterns. Two were variants of the straight inner product of rows and columns. The rest were variants of Strassen’s divide-and-conquer. Cases varied in ways that were expected [...] Read more.
This work studied the energy behavior of six matrix multiplication algorithms with various physical asset usage patterns. Two were variants of the straight inner product of rows and columns. The rest were variants of Strassen’s divide-and-conquer. Cases varied in ways that were expected to affect energy behavior. The study collected data for square matrix dimensions up to 4000. The research used reliable on-chip integrated voltage regulators embedded in a recent HPC-class AMD CPU for power measurements. Inner product methods used much less energy than the others for small to moderately large matrices. The advantage diminished for sufficiently large dimensions. The power draw of the inner product methods was less for small dimensions. After a point, the power advantage shifted significantly in favor of the divide-and-conquer group (average of 24% better), with the more block-optimized versions showing increased power efficiency (at least 8.3% better than the base method). The study explored the interplay between algorithm design, power efficiency, and computational resources. It aims to help advance the cause of power efficiency in HPC and other scenarios that rely on this vital computation. Full article
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26 pages, 12365 KiB  
Article
Improving the Fuel Economy and Energy Efficiency of Train Cab Climate Systems, Considering Air Recirculation Modes
by Ivan Panfilov, Alexey N. Beskopylny and Besarion Meskhi
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092224 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Current developments in vehicles have generated great interest in the research and optimization of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as a factor to reduce fuel consumption. One of the key trends for finding solutions is the intensive development of electric transport [...] Read more.
Current developments in vehicles have generated great interest in the research and optimization of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as a factor to reduce fuel consumption. One of the key trends for finding solutions is the intensive development of electric transport and, consequently, additional requirements for reducing energy consumption and modifying climate systems. Of particular interest is the optimal functioning of comfort and life support systems during air recirculation, i.e., when there is a complete or partial absence of outside air supply, in particular to reduce energy consumption or when the environment is polluted. This work examines numerical models of airfields (temperature, speed, and humidity) and also focuses on the concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the cabin, which is a critical factor for ensuring the health of the driver and passengers. To build a mathematical model, the Navier–Stokes equations with energy, continuity, and diffusion equations are used to simulate the diffusion of gases and air humidity. In the Ansys Fluent finite volume analysis package, the model is solved numerically using averaged RANS equations and k-ω turbulence models. The cabin of a mainline locomotive with two drivers, taking into account their breathing, is used as a transport model. The problem was solved in a nonstationary formulation for the design scenario of summer and winter, the time of stabilization of the fields was found, and graphs were constructed for different points in time. A comparative analysis of the uniformity of fields along the height of the cabin was carried out with different locations of deflectors, and optimal configurations were found. Energy efficiency values of the climate system operation in recirculation operating modes were obtained. A qualitative assessment of the driver’s blowing directions under different circulation and recirculation modes is given from the point of view of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the breathing area. The proposed solution makes it possible to reduce electricity consumption from 3.1 kW to 0.6 kW and in winter mode from 11.6 kW to 3.9 kW and save up to 1.5 L/h of fuel. The conducted research can be used to develop modern energy-efficient and safe systems for providing comfortable climate conditions for drivers and passengers of various types of transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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24 pages, 16256 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Study on the Effects of Street Geometries and Tree Configurations on the Outdoor Thermal Environment
by Jindong Wu, Yu Wang, Shuhua Li, Qitao Wu, Taecheol Lee and Seonghwan Yoon
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092223 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Global warming and the urban heat island effect has aroused the attention of research on the outdoor thermal environment. As outdoor spaces often used by citizens, streets play an important role in improving the thermal environment. In this study, six factors relating to [...] Read more.
Global warming and the urban heat island effect has aroused the attention of research on the outdoor thermal environment. As outdoor spaces often used by citizens, streets play an important role in improving the thermal environment. In this study, six factors relating to street geometries and tree configurations in Busan are measured and quantified to form 32 typical scenarios. The degree of importance of these six factors is evaluated based on ENVI-met simulation results, and GeoDetector is introduced to evaluate the interactions between the factors and their impacts on the outdoor thermal environment. This study confirms the significantly higher impact of street geometry factors on the air temperature and physiological equivalent temperature compared to tree configuration factors. Particularly, Hb/Ws shows the most significant impact during the research period. The impact of interactions between any two factors of street geometry is much higher than that of interactions between the geometry and tree configuration factors and that of interactions between the tree configuration factors. We recommend dynamically adjusting the relationship between street geometry and tree configurations in different situations to improve the outdoor thermal environment, especially at noon and in the afternoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J: Thermal Management)
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14 pages, 448 KiB  
Review
Towards an ITU Standard for DLT Energy Consumption
by Ioannis Nikolaou and Leonidas Anthopoulos
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092222 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
The emergence of Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) in the past decade has challenged our imagination to discover new, innovative and disruptive solutions to problems in domains ranging from finance and healthcare to supply chain and Smart Cities. However, the enormous energy consumption that [...] Read more.
The emergence of Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) in the past decade has challenged our imagination to discover new, innovative and disruptive solutions to problems in domains ranging from finance and healthcare to supply chain and Smart Cities. However, the enormous energy consumption that has been observed in some of the most successful DLT applications raises the question of their long term sustainability. This article reviews the standardization efforts of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to provide guidelines to regulators and policy makers for making informed decisions on the applicability and sustainability of DLT architectures from the point of view of energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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17 pages, 5518 KiB  
Article
Investigating the CO2 Geological Sequestration Potential of Extralow-Permeability Reservoirs: Insights from the Es1 Member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dawa Oilfield
by Chao Li, Ende Wang, Dawei Wang and Ting Zhang
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092221 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Extralow-permeability reservoirs have emerged as a significant area of focus for CO2 geological sequestration due to their stable subterranean structure and expansive storage capacity, offering substantial potential in addressing global climate change. However, the full extent of CO2 geological sequestration potential [...] Read more.
Extralow-permeability reservoirs have emerged as a significant area of focus for CO2 geological sequestration due to their stable subterranean structure and expansive storage capacity, offering substantial potential in addressing global climate change. However, the full extent of CO2 geological sequestration potential within these extralow-permeability reservoirs remains largely unexplored. To address this gap, this paper utilizes the Shahejie Formation (Es1 member) of the Shuang 229 block in the Liaohe oilfield, Bohai Bay Basin, as a case study. This section is characterized by its abundant oil-gas reserves and serves as an exemplar for conducting experimental research on CO2 storage within extralow-permeability reservoirs. The results demonstrate that the reservoir lithology of the Es1 member is fine sandstone and siltstone, with high compositional and structural maturity. Moreover, the average porosity is 14.8%, the average permeability is 1.48 mD, and the coefficient of variation of the reservoir is approximately 0.5, which indicates a low- to extralow-permeability homogeneous reservoir. In addition, the overburden pressure is >2.0 MPa, the fault can withstand a maximum gas column height of >200 m, and the reservoir exhibits favorable overburden and fault sealing characteristics. Notably, stepwise increasing gas injection in the Shuang 229-36-62 well reveals that the injected liquid CO2 near the wellhead exhibits a relatively high density, close to 1.0 g/cm3, which gradually decreases to approximately 0.78 g/cm3 near a depth of 2000 m underground. The injected fluid changes into a supercritical state upon entering the formation, and the CO2 injection speed is optimal, at 0.08 HCPV/a. According to these findings, it is predicted that the highest burial CO2 volume via the injection of 1.5 HCPVs in the Wa 128 block area is 1.11 × 105 t/year, and the cumulative burial volume reaches approximately 2.16 × 106 t. This shows that the CO2 sequestration potential of extralow-permeability reservoirs is considerable, providing confidence for similar instances worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B3: Carbon Emission and Utilization)
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11 pages, 1955 KiB  
Article
Voltage Control Strategy for Large-Scale Wind Farm with Rapid Wind Speed Fluctuation
by Xi Cai, Zhangbin Yang, Pan Liu, Xueguang Lian, Zhuang Li, Guorong Zhu and Hua Geng
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092220 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
In large-scale wind farms, the voltage fluctuations caused by the uncertainty of wind speed at the turbine terminals pose a pressing challenge. This article presents a localized voltage control strategy tailored toward rapid adjustments in turbine terminal voltage in wind turbine generators. Based [...] Read more.
In large-scale wind farms, the voltage fluctuations caused by the uncertainty of wind speed at the turbine terminals pose a pressing challenge. This article presents a localized voltage control strategy tailored toward rapid adjustments in turbine terminal voltage in wind turbine generators. Based on relative voltage observation, this strategy achieves voltage coordination between the high and low ends of the transformer in wind turbine generators. Firstly, the overall structure of the wind farm and the characteristics of terminal voltage are analyzed. Secondly, the principles and feasibility of the relative voltage control strategy are examined. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is validated through simulation results from a specific wind farm. The results demonstrate its capability to achieve a fast and stable voltage dynamic response within the wind farm based on local information, thus mitigating the risk of voltage out of limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
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18 pages, 1992 KiB  
Article
Internet of Things Application in an Automated Irrigation Prototype Powered by Photovoltaic Energy
by Rafael C. Borges, Carlos H. Beuter, Vitória C. Dourado and Murilo E. C. Bento
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092219 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Small-scale agriculture is important. However, there are still limitations regarding the implementation of technologies in small-scale agriculture due to the high costs accompanying them. Therefore, it is essential to seek viable and low-cost solutions since the insertion of technologies in agriculture, especially irrigated [...] Read more.
Small-scale agriculture is important. However, there are still limitations regarding the implementation of technologies in small-scale agriculture due to the high costs accompanying them. Therefore, it is essential to seek viable and low-cost solutions since the insertion of technologies in agriculture, especially irrigated agriculture, guarantees the sustainable expansion of production capacity. The present work applied the Internet of Things concept to an automated irrigation system powered by photovoltaic panels. The materials used in the prototype consisted of Arduino Uno R3, the ESP8266 development board, a soil moisture sensor, a current sensor, a voltage sensor, a flow sensor, and a humidity and temperature sensor. The prototype was designed to take system readings and send them to the Adafruit platform IO. Furthermore, it was programmed to perform remote irrigation control, enabling this to be activated from distant points through the platform. The medium proved efficient for the monitoring and remote control of the system. This indicates that it is possible to use this medium in small automated irrigation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas II)
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14 pages, 4292 KiB  
Article
A High-Resolution Defect Location Method for Medium-Voltage Cables Based on Gaussian Narrow-Band Envelope Signals and the S-Transform
by Wei Chen, Zhenbao Yang, Jinyang Song, Lifu Zhou, Lingchen Xiang, Xing Wang, Changjin Hao and Xianhao Fan
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092218 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
The time–frequency-domain reflection method (TFDR) based on the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD) is confronted with the problem of cross-term interference in existing methods to locate power cable defects. Therefore, a new method of locating cable defects based on Gaussian narrow-band envelope signals and the [...] Read more.
The time–frequency-domain reflection method (TFDR) based on the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD) is confronted with the problem of cross-term interference in existing methods to locate power cable defects. Therefore, a new method of locating cable defects based on Gaussian narrow-band envelope signals and the S-transform is proposed in this paper. In this method, the wide-band cable transfer function is obtained by adjusting the parameters of the Gaussian narrow-band envelope signal because the Gaussian narrow-band envelope signal has a good frequency-adjusting ability and time–frequency characteristics. Then, the time–frequency of the cable signal is transformed by the generalized S-transform, and the time delay of the modular matrix of the transformation matrix is estimated by the generalized cross-correlation algorithm to complete the accurate detection of the cable defect’s location. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can adaptively adjust the analysis time width according to the frequency change and provide intuitive time–frequency characteristics without cross-term interference. Finally, the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method are verified in MATLAB 2017_a by simulating a 40 m/10 kV medium-voltage power cable and submarine cable with a length of 32 km. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F6: High Voltage)
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23 pages, 10457 KiB  
Article
Small-Scale Battery Energy Storage System for Testing Algorithms Aimed at Peak Power Reduction
by Krzysztof Sozański, Szymon Wermiński and Jacek Kaniewski
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092217 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 636
Abstract
This study describes a laboratory model of a battery energy storage system (BESS) designed for testing algorithms aimed at reducing peak power consumption in railway traction substations. The system comprises a DC/DC converter and battery energy storage. This article details a laboratory model [...] Read more.
This study describes a laboratory model of a battery energy storage system (BESS) designed for testing algorithms aimed at reducing peak power consumption in railway traction substations. The system comprises a DC/DC converter and battery energy storage. This article details a laboratory model of a bidirectional buck-boost DC/DC converter, which is used to transfer energy between the battery energy storage and a DC line. It presents an analysis of DC/DC converter systems along with simulation studies. Furthermore, the results of laboratory tests on the DC/DC converter model are also provided. The control algorithm of the system in the traction substation is focused on reducing peak power, offering benefits such as lower charges for the railway operator due to the possibility of reducing contracted power requirements. From the perspective of the power grid, the reduction in power fluctuations and, consequently, voltage sags, is advantageous. This paper includes a description of a hardware simulator for verifying the system’s control algorithms. The verification of the control algorithms was performed through experimental tests conducted on a laboratory model (a hardware simulator) of the system for dynamic load reduction in traction substations, on a power scale of 1:1000 (5.5 kW). The experimental tests on the laboratory model (hardware simulator) demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in reducing the peak power drawn from the power source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Papers in Electrical Power and Energy System)
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24 pages, 2963 KiB  
Review
Permeability: The Driving Force That Influences the Mechanical Behavior of Polymers Used for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery
by Emanuele Sgambitterra and Leonardo Pagnotta
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092216 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 607
Abstract
This article explores the main mechanisms that can generate damage in polymers and polymer-based materials used for hydrogen storage and distribution infrastructures. All of these mechanisms are driven by the permeability process that is enhanced by the operating temperature and pressure conditions. Hydrogen [...] Read more.
This article explores the main mechanisms that can generate damage in polymers and polymer-based materials used for hydrogen storage and distribution infrastructures. All of these mechanisms are driven by the permeability process that is enhanced by the operating temperature and pressure conditions. Hydrogen storage and delivery systems typically work under high pressure and a relatively wide range of temperatures, especially during the filling and emptying processes. Therefore, it is of great interest to better understand how this phenomenon can influence the integrity of polymer-based hydrogen infrastructures in order to avoid catastrophic events and to better design/investigate new optimized solutions. The first part of this paper discusses the main storage and delivery solutions for gas and liquid hydrogen. Then, the physics of the permeability is investigated with a focus on the effect of pressure and temperature on the integrity of polymers working in a hydrogen environment. Finally, the main mechanisms that mostly induce damage in polymers operating in a hydrogen environment and that influence their mechanical properties are explored and discussed. Particular focus was placed on the rapid gas decompression and aging phenomena. In addition, some of the limits that still exist for a reliable design of polymer-based storage and delivery systems for hydrogen are pointed out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen-Based Energy Systems for Sustainable Transportation)
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17 pages, 3753 KiB  
Article
Research on Fault Identification of Hybrid Multi-Feed High-Voltage Direct Current System Based on Line Commutated Converter and Voltage Source Converter
by Ting Wang, Kun Chen, Long’en Zhang, Xingyang Hu, Hengxuan Li and Pangqi Ye
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092215 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
With the rapid development of voltage source converter (VSC) and line commutated converter (LCC) technology and the relative concentration of power and load, the inverter station of the flexible DC system is fed into the same AC bus with the conventional DC rectifier [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of voltage source converter (VSC) and line commutated converter (LCC) technology and the relative concentration of power and load, the inverter station of the flexible DC system is fed into the same AC bus with the conventional DC rectifier station, and the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) parallel hybrid feed system is formed in structure. As the electrical distance between the converter stations is very close, when a fault occurs in the near area, the current on the AC wiring on the VSC side will fluctuate greatly, resulting in the misoperation of the AC wiring protection. For this reason, this paper proposes a fault identification method based on VSC/LCC hybrid multi-fed HVDC system, which discriminates the fault and outputs the protection signal according to the protection criterion, and logically judges the combination of the output protection signal to identify the fault type. The simulation results show that the method can identify all kinds of faults of hybrid multi-feed DC system and solve the problem of protection misoperation of the hybrid multi-feed DC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F6: High Voltage)
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19 pages, 6658 KiB  
Article
A Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter Based Standalone Wind Energy Conversion System Controlled with a New Simplified Line-to-Line Space Vector Modulation
by Tarak Ghennam, Lakhdar Belhadji, Nassim Rizoug, Bruno Francois and Seddik Bacha
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092214 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Wind power systems, which are currently being constructed for the electricity worldwide market, are mostly based on Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs). To control such systems, multilevel converters are increasingly preferred due to the well-known benefits they provide. This paper deals with the [...] Read more.
Wind power systems, which are currently being constructed for the electricity worldwide market, are mostly based on Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs). To control such systems, multilevel converters are increasingly preferred due to the well-known benefits they provide. This paper deals with the control of a standalone DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) by using a three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) converter. The frequency and magnitude of the stator output voltage of the DFIG are controlled and fixed at nominal values despite the variable rotor speed, ensuring a continuous AC supply for three-phase loads. This task is achieved by controlling the DFIG rotor currents via a PI controller combined with a new Simplified Direct Space Vector Modulation strategy (SDSVM), which is applied to the three-level NPC converter. This strategy is based on the use of a line-to-line three-level converter space vector diagram without using Park transformation and then simplifying it to that of a two-level converter. The performance of the proposed SDSVM technique in terms of controlling the three-level NPC-converter-based standalone WECS is demonstrated through simulation results. The whole WECS control and the SDSVM strategy are implemented on a dSPACE DS 1104 board that drives a DFIG-based wind system test bench. The obtained experimental results confirm the validity and performance in terms of control. Full article
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16 pages, 4241 KiB  
Article
New Uses for Coal Mines as Potential Power Generators and Storage Sites
by Juan Pous de la Flor, Juan Pous Cabello, María de la Cruz Castañeda, Marcelo Fabián Ortega and Pedro Mora
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092213 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
In the context of sustainable development, revitalising the coal sector is a key challenge. This article examines how five innovative technologies can transform abandoned or in-use coal mines into sustainable energy centres. From solar thermal to compressed air energy storage, these solutions offer [...] Read more.
In the context of sustainable development, revitalising the coal sector is a key challenge. This article examines how five innovative technologies can transform abandoned or in-use coal mines into sustainable energy centres. From solar thermal to compressed air energy storage, these solutions offer a path to a more sustainable future while addressing the decline in coal production. This approach not only promotes energy efficiency but also contributes to the mitigation of environmental impacts, thus consolidating the transition to a more responsible energy model. Thus, in this document, the reader can find the explanation of why we have opted for these technologies and not other existing ones. In addition, the economic, environmental and technical feasibility of the different technologies is analysed. Finally, real cases of the successful application of these technologies will be presented once they have gone beyond the project idea phase, and the reasons why we are calling for their transposition to the coal industry in the search for its revitalisation will be explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy from Coal Mining: Technology, Simulations and Experiments)
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23 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Approach for Calculating and Analyzing Carbon Emissions and Sinks of Villages: A Case Study in Northern China
by Tiantian Du, Yan Jiao, Yue Zhang, Ziyu Jia, Jueqi Wang, Jinhao Zhang and Zheng Cheng
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092212 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Despite a gradual decline in rural population due to urbanization, as of 2022, approximately 35% of China’s total population still resides in villages. Over a span of 40 years, carbon emissions from villages have significantly surged, with a sevenfold increase from energy consumption [...] Read more.
Despite a gradual decline in rural population due to urbanization, as of 2022, approximately 35% of China’s total population still resides in villages. Over a span of 40 years, carbon emissions from villages have significantly surged, with a sevenfold increase from energy consumption and a 46% rise from agriculture. Consequentially, the development of low-carbon villages is imperative. A comprehensive understanding of the primary sources of carbon emissions in villages is crucial for implementing practical and effective strategies towards low-carbon development. However, limited research has been conducted on quantifying carbon emissions and sinks for Chinese villages. This study aims to address this gap by proposing a methodology for assessing carbon emissions in villages, including the emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Inspired by the IPCC standard methodology for greenhouse gas emissions at national levels and provincial greenhouse gas inventory guidelines customized for China’s context incorporating localized characteristics, this approach has been applied to seven villages in Northern China based on field investigations. Employing a range of methods including field surveys, questionnaires, statistical records and big-data platforms, we collected the carbon emission activity levels of the seven villages using the most up-to-date carbon emission factors. Subsequently, the collected data and facts are quantitatively processed to generate results that are compared among the seven villages. These findings are also compared with those from other studies. The analysis indicates that the primary industries in these villages significantly influence the total carbon emissions. Moreover, the study reveals that energy consumption in buildings, agriculture, transportation and waste disposal are the most influential emission sources. These findings provide valuable insights into the carbon emission landscape of villages and can serve as a guide for implementing strategies and policies aimed at promoting low-carbon development in the rural areas of Northern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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12 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
Cold Energy Storage via Hydrates Production with Pure CO2 and CO2/N2 (70/30 and 50/50 vol%) Mixtures: Quantification and Comparison between Energy Stored and Energy Spent
by Alberto Maria Gambelli, Federico Rossi and Giovanni Gigliotti
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092211 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Gas hydrates represent an attractive opportunity for gas storage. These ice-like structures can be produced both for the final disposal of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the solid form and for the storage of energy gases, such as methane, propane, and [...] Read more.
Gas hydrates represent an attractive opportunity for gas storage. These ice-like structures can be produced both for the final disposal of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the solid form and for the storage of energy gases, such as methane, propane, and others, with the possibility of reaching energy densities comparable with those of pressurised vessels, but at lower pressures. In addition, gas hydrates can be directly produced for their capability to act as phase change materials at temperatures higher than 0 °C. This research deals with cold energy storage via the production of gas hydrate into a lab-scale apparatus. Hydrates were produced with pure carbon dioxide and with CO2/N2 mixtures (70/30 and 50/50 vol%). For each mixture, the amount of energy spent for hydrates production and cold energy stored were calculated, and the results were compared among each other. The addition of nitrogen to the system allowed us to maximise the energy stored/energy spent ratio, which passed from 78.06% to 109.04%; however, due to its molecular size and the consequent impossibility to stabilise the occupied water cages, nitrogen caused a reduction in the total quantity of hydrates produced, which was obviously proportional to the energy stored. Therefore, the concentration of nitrogen in the mixtures need to be carefully determined in order to optimise the Estored/Espent ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Hydrates: A Future Clean Energy Resource)
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17 pages, 6668 KiB  
Article
The Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Pellets and Briquettes from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
by Kamil Roman and Emilia Grzegorzewska
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092210 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The adaptation of lignocellulosic materials such as Cannabis sativa L. as a new renewable energy source is linked to the fact that the technology must be developed to be able to adapt to local market conditions. Bioenergy consumers are faced with this problem [...] Read more.
The adaptation of lignocellulosic materials such as Cannabis sativa L. as a new renewable energy source is linked to the fact that the technology must be developed to be able to adapt to local market conditions. Bioenergy consumers are faced with this problem because, when it comes to the selection of briquettes and pellets for energy production, there are only individual standards in place. This research is intended to provide a better understanding of hemp product potential as a new material that can be used in the production of pellets and briquettes for biofuel purpose. Nevertheless, the anisotropic raw material interferes with the compaction process and may expose a poor durability of the pellets and briquettes. The research that was conducted evaluated the conditions of the biofuels by measuring the physical and chemical parameters. The ash content, compressive strength, and durability of the samples were examined. The statistical data analysis was performed after the strength tests on the prepared samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biofuels: Production, Characterization and Upgrade)
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39 pages, 7618 KiB  
Article
Multi Criteria Frameworks Using New Meta-Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Solving Multi-Objective Optimal Power Flow Problems
by Murtadha Al-Kaabi, Virgil Dumbrava and Mircea Eremia
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092209 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
This article develops two metaheuristics optimization techniques, Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) and Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO), to handle multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) issues. Multi Objective GWO (MOGWO) and Multi Objective HHO (MOHHO) are the names of the developed techniques. By combining these [...] Read more.
This article develops two metaheuristics optimization techniques, Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) and Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO), to handle multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) issues. Multi Objective GWO (MOGWO) and Multi Objective HHO (MOHHO) are the names of the developed techniques. By combining these optimization techniques with Pareto techniques, the non-dominated solution set can be obtained. These developed approaches are characterized by simplicity and have few control parameters. Fuel cost, emissions, real power losses, and voltage deviation were the four objective functions considered. The theories used to determine the best compromise solution and organize the Pareto front options are the fuzzy membership equation and the crowding distance approach, respectively. To validate and evaluate the performance of the presented techniques, two standard IEEE bus systems—30-bus and 57-bus power systems—were proposed. Bi, Tri, and Quad objective functions with 21 case studies are the types of objective functions and the scenarios that were applied in this paper. As compared to the results of the most recent optimization techniques documented in the literature, the comparative analysis results for the proposed methodologies demonstrated the superiority and robustness of MOGWO and MOHHO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F1: Electrical Power System)
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24 pages, 1568 KiB  
Article
Novel Self-Organizing Probability Maps Applied to Classification of Concurrent Partial Discharges from Online Hydro-Generators
by Rodrigo M. S. de Oliveira, Filipe C. Fernandes and Fabrício J. B. Barros
Energies 2024, 17(9), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17092208 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
In this paper, we present an unprecedented method based on Kohonen networks that is able to automatically recognize partial discharge (PD) classes from phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) diagrams with features of various simultaneous PD patterns. The PRPD diagrams were obtained from the stator [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present an unprecedented method based on Kohonen networks that is able to automatically recognize partial discharge (PD) classes from phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) diagrams with features of various simultaneous PD patterns. The PRPD diagrams were obtained from the stator windings of a real-world hydro-generator rotating machine. The proposed approach integrates classification probabilities into the Kohonen method, producing self-organizing probability maps (SOPMs). For building SOPMs, a group of PRPD diagrams, each containing a single PD pattern for training the Kohonen networks and single- and multiple-class-featured samples for obtaining final SOPMs, is used to calculate the probabilities of each Kohonen neuron to be associated with the various PD classes considered. At the end of this process, a self-organizing probability map is produced. Probabilities are calculated using distances, obtained in the space of features, between neurons and samples. The so-produced SOPM enables the effective classification of PRPD samples and provides the probability that a given PD sample is associated with a PD class. In this work, amplitude histograms are the features extracted from PRPDs maps. Our results demonstrate an average classification accuracy rate of approximately 90% for test samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Electrical and Power Engineering 2024)
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