Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water-Energy Nexus".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 34975

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Planning, Design, Technology of Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Flaminia 72, 00196 Rome, Italy
Interests: energy systems; multi-objective optimization; desalination; solar photovoltaics (pv); net-zero energy buildings; energy and environment assessments; computational fluid dynamics; heat transfer; thermal energy; renewable energy; nanotechnology; smart windows
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Considering the problem of drinking water scarcity in the world and the problems of ‎fossil energy such as its pollution and non-renewability, as well as the preference for dispersed ‎freshwater production instead of concentrated production, the design of a desalination system ‎that is integrated with renewable energies is critical these days.‎ This type of design can also reduce the production of environmental pollutants due to reduced energy consumption in ‎the production and transfer of freshwater. In this regard, we invite you to submit your research to this Special Issue that converges on renewable energy system flexibility in desalination systems concerning the water–energy nexus and water security.

We also encourage papers with innovation capability in domestic desalination systems integrated with renewable energy systems. As we know, these devices can ‎also be used in residential buildings on the fringes of seas and even in rivers with non-potable fresh‎water.‎ The energy of these systems can be powered by renewable energy such as solar, wind and geothermal energy that can produce freshwater, reduce pollutant production, reduce the cost of freshwater transfer to homes and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.‎ Additionally, the market for these types of domestic desalination systems consists of reverse osmosis (RO) systems.

This Special Issue also welcomes scholars to submit their research on renewable energy-driven systems in power plants using desalination systems that are accessible for freshwater production. Authors are welcome to submit their innovative ideas to address the design of desalination systems with renewable energy by analyzing the ‎systems in terms of energy, exergy, economic and exergoeconomic subjects. ‎

Dr. Siamak Hoseinzadeh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • desalination technology
  • freshwater
  • water–energy nexus
  • low-carbon renewable energy
  • domestic desalination system
  • evaporative vacuum easy desalination
  • solar energy
  • wind energy
  • geothermal energy
  • energy analysis
  • exergy analysis
  • reverse osmosis desalination
  • thermodynamic optimization

Published Papers (15 papers)

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18 pages, 9849 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamic Study of Water Flow and Submerged Depth Effects on a Tidal Turbine Performance
by Erfan Ghamati, Hamed Kariman and Siamak Hoseinzadeh
Water 2023, 15(13), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132312 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
This study involves an experimental and numerical analysis of the Hunter turbine, a vertical axis turbine utilized for tidal energy. A laboratory model of the Hunter turbine, featuring an aspect ratio of 1.2, was designed and tested. Numerical equations, including the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes [...] Read more.
This study involves an experimental and numerical analysis of the Hunter turbine, a vertical axis turbine utilized for tidal energy. A laboratory model of the Hunter turbine, featuring an aspect ratio of 1.2, was designed and tested. Numerical equations, including the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) constant, were analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software using the k-ω turbulence model to forecast turbine performance and other related flow specifications, such as pressure lines, stream velocity, and pressure. This simulation was conducted on the surface of the turbine blade, and the results were obtained accordingly. The experimental data were utilized to verify the numerical results, and the difference between the two was reasonably acceptable. The turbine was studied in six different flow coefficients and four different vertical positions. The results indicated that the power coefficient increased as the submerged depth from a water-free surface increased, and after a specific depth, the output power remained constant. It was also observed that the minimum depth from a water-free surface for maximum power coefficient was three times the diameter of the turbine drum (3D). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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15 pages, 3151 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Analysis of an Integrated, CPVT Membrane Distillation System for Cooling, Heating, Power and Seawater Desalination
by Abeer Abdullah Al Anazi, Mohammed I. Alghamdi, Abdeljelil Chammam, Mustafa Salam Kadhm, Ibrahim H. Al-Kharsan and Reza Alayi
Water 2023, 15(7), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071345 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Compared to a photovoltaic array, a photovoltaic/thermal concentrator module can produce thermal power for various productions in downstream cycles in addition to electrical energy. In this study, the system for the combined production of electricity, heat and cooling based on a photovoltaic/thermal concentrator [...] Read more.
Compared to a photovoltaic array, a photovoltaic/thermal concentrator module can produce thermal power for various productions in downstream cycles in addition to electrical energy. In this study, the system for the combined production of electricity, heat and cooling based on a photovoltaic/thermal concentrator has been evaluated. In this triple production system, a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller with a cooling capacity of 5 kW was used. In the organic Rankine power generation cycle, the annual exergy rate of the incoming stream was almost 48 MWh, the annual production exergy rate was about 54.4 MWh and the annual exergy destruction rate was ~43.1 MWh. According to the results, the freshwater production rate of the desalination plant was approximately 56.7 m3/year; the lowest month was 3.8 m3 in November. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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16 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Impact of Renewable Energy with Combined Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro-Gas Turbine on Poly-Generation Smart-Grids
by Tzu-Chia Chen, T. Ch. Anil Kumar, Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra, Ali Majdi, Abdul Rab Asary, Acim Heri Iswanto, Imran Khan, Dag Øivind Madsen and Reza Alayi
Water 2023, 15(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061069 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
In this study, the thermodynamic performance of a combined gas turbine system equipped with a tubular solid oxide fuel cell and hydrogen fuel was investigated. All components of the system were separately modeled using thermodynamic relations. The simulation results showed that the efficiency [...] Read more.
In this study, the thermodynamic performance of a combined gas turbine system equipped with a tubular solid oxide fuel cell and hydrogen fuel was investigated. All components of the system were separately modeled using thermodynamic relations. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the combined system decreased with an increase in the turbine inlet temperature, whereas the power of the system increased. In addition, increasing the temperature entering the turbine and increasing the pressure ratio increased the production entropy and, as a result, increased the irreversibility of the system. The results of the research at the design point showed that 65% of the irreversibility of the system was caused by the combustion chamber and fuel cell (35% of the amount of entropy produced, the contribution of the combustion chamber, and 30% of the contribution of the solid oxide fuel cell) and 19% was due to the contribution of the heat exchanger. In addition, the combined system has an efficiency of 9.81%, while the system without a fuel cell has an efficiency of 33.4%, which shows the extraordinary performance of the combined system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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17 pages, 5441 KiB  
Article
Environmental Policy to Develop a Conceptual Design for the Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Case Study in Wadi-Dara on the Red Sea Coast, Egypt
by M. A. Abdelzaher, Eman M. Farahat, Hamdy M. Abdel-Ghafar, Basma A. A. Balboul and Mohamed M. Awad
Water 2023, 15(4), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040780 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
In the next twenty years, the scarcity of food shortage and drinking water will appear in Egypt due to the growth of industries and agriculture. This paper develops a conceptual design of the new technologies in the field of water–energy–food in new cities. [...] Read more.
In the next twenty years, the scarcity of food shortage and drinking water will appear in Egypt due to the growth of industries and agriculture. This paper develops a conceptual design of the new technologies in the field of water–energy–food in new cities. Border lines are the internal relationship, external influence, and linkage system evaluation for WEF nexus. The major problems of using fossil energy in desalination are emissions and non-renewability, as well as the preference for dispersed freshwater production instead of concentrated output. The design of a desalination system that is integrated with renewable energies is critical these days. This type of system can also reduce the production of environmental pollutants due to reduced energy consumption and transfer of freshwater. GIS data from the United Nations have confirmed the existence of an underground reservoir in Wadi-Dara that can cultivate 1000 acres using smart farming techniques to reach a circular economy for an integrated solution between the water–energy nexus. The possibility of cultivating a hundred acres in Wadi-Dara on the Red Sea coast exists, through which about one million people could be settled. In this comprehensive review, we conducted a deep study in order to establish a sustainable integrated lifestyle in the Dara Valley region in terms of the availability of potable water, clean energy, and agriculture. Sustainable integrated solutions were conducted for seawater desalination using beach sand filtration wells as a pretreatment for seawater using renewable energy, e.g., wind energy (18% wind turbines), and photovoltaic panels (77% PV panels). Strategic food will be cultivated using smart farming that includes an open ponds cultivation system of microalgal cells to synthesis (5.0% of bio-fuel (. Aqua agriculture and aquaponics will cultivate marine culture and integrate mangrove, a shrimp aquaculture. A municipal waste water treatment is conceived for the irrigation of shrubby forests and landscapes. Mixotrophic cultures were explored to achieve a sustained ecological balance. Food, poultry and animal waste management, as well as a cooker factory, were included in the overall design. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) study shows a low risk due to anticipated net zero emissions, a 75% green city, and optimal waste recycling. This research assists in combining research efforts to address the challenging processes in nexus research and build resilient and sustainable water, energy, and food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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19 pages, 6903 KiB  
Article
Seawater Greenhouse Equipped with a Novel Solar Humidification-Dehumidification Desalination Unit in MAKRAN Coast: Fabrication and Experimental Study
by Mohammad Zamen, Mostafa Kahani and Ghasem Zarei
Water 2023, 15(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030539 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
The purpose of this study is the fabrication and performance evaluation of a new type of solar humidification–dehumidification (HD) desalination unit to supply sufficient fresh water for a seawater greenhouse in the MAKRAN coast in southeast Iran. In the proposed design, a particular [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is the fabrication and performance evaluation of a new type of solar humidification–dehumidification (HD) desalination unit to supply sufficient fresh water for a seawater greenhouse in the MAKRAN coast in southeast Iran. In the proposed design, a particular type of air-to-air condenser is used. The cold air coming out of the greenhouse ventilation system (fan and pad) in summer and the cold ambient air in winter is used to supply the required cooling of the system. In this way, when cold air passes over the pipes in air-to-air condensers, condensation of water vapor occurs in the moist air inside the pipes, and fresh water is produced. Greenhouse fans, which have an air flow rate of around 20,000 m3/hr, are used to create this air flow. By fabricating two condensers, each using 42 rows of PVC pipes with a diameter of 75 mm, it is possible to produce 400 L of fresh water per day in a 400 m2 greenhouse. The required heating is provided by the solar farm, which includes 96 square meters of flat plate collectors. The steps of unit fabrication are described in detail in this research. However, the effect of greenhouse air temperature and circulating seawater flow rate on freshwater production, energy consumption, and energy intensity are also investigated. By increasing the flow rate of circulating seawater and decreasing the greenhouse air temperature, the production rate of the system increases. When the hot seawater and greenhouse air temperature are 61.7 °C and 26 °C, respectively, the maximum instantaneous production is estimated to be 80 L/h. The energy intensity of the HD desalination unit is varied between 3192 and 4382 kJ/L, and the gain output ratio of the system is around 0.6. The proposed system can be easily paired with conventional greenhouses employing a fan and pad cooling system and produces around 1.25 (L/m2·day) fresh water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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18 pages, 12415 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Design of Monopile Foundations for Offshore Wind and Tidal Turbine Structures
by Navid Majdi Nasab, Jeff Kilby and Leila Bakhtiaryfard
Water 2022, 14(21), 3555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213555 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3150
Abstract
This paper aims to design an integrated offshore structure capable of supporting a hybrid assembly of one wind plus two tidal turbines. The monopile has been found to be a suitable foundation type as the most inexpensive solution in water depths of less [...] Read more.
This paper aims to design an integrated offshore structure capable of supporting a hybrid assembly of one wind plus two tidal turbines. The monopile has been found to be a suitable foundation type as the most inexpensive solution in water depths of less than 30 m. The Cook Strait in New Zealand is an ideal location for wind and tidal renewable energy sources due to its strong winds and tidal currents. Finite element analysis was performed to determine the displacement of the structure for different types of soils using OPTUM G3. After that, a macro-element model for soil was represented, considering the monopile as a Euler–Bernoulli beam model. The results enable the finding of optimum dimensions of monopiles with allowable tilt and deflection. Based on this, the diameter, thickness, and length of the monopile can be 6, 0.083, and 60 m, respectively. The maximum load occurs in extreme wind load scenarios when wind and waves move in same direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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19 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis and Determination of the Optimal Level of Water Use Efficiency for Winter Wheat and Barley under Different Irrigation Scenarios Using the AquaCrop Model in Arid and Semiarid Climatic Conditions (Case Study: Dehloran Plain, Iran)
by Amir Mahyar Khoshsirat, Mohsen Najarchi, Reza Jafarinia and Shahroo Mokhtari
Water 2022, 14(21), 3455; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213455 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The AquaCrop model is one of the most recent models that can simulate the growth rates and yields of various crops based on water consumption levels. To determine the optimal irrigation level, data measured in two crop years (2018–2019) in different irrigation scenarios [...] Read more.
The AquaCrop model is one of the most recent models that can simulate the growth rates and yields of various crops based on water consumption levels. To determine the optimal irrigation level, data measured in two crop years (2018–2019) in different irrigation scenarios (full irrigation or 100% water requirement and 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50% irrigation) were calibrated and validated for arid and semiarid climatic conditions using the AquaCrop model. The model was calibrated to simulate the grain yields of winter wheat and barley using R2, RMSE, d, EF, and NRMSE statistical indicators. The obtained values of these indices were, respectively, 0.97, 3, 0.98, 0.94, and 4 for winter wheat and 0.98, 4, 0.92, 0.89, and 7 for barley. The model efficiency was also validated using crop harvest data in the crop year 2019. For grain yield simulation, the calculated values of R2, RMSE, d, EF, and NRMSE statistical indicators were, respectively, 0.99, 4, 0.97, 0.93, and 4.4 for winter wheat and 0.97, 7, 0.94, 0.91, and 9 for barley. The data of field and modeled samples were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test, and significant results were obtained for both crops in all applied scenarios at the 95% level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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19 pages, 4223 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Impact of Different Absorber Materials in Solar Still Using CFD Simulation—Economic and Environmental Analysis
by Chandrakant Sonawane, Ali Jawad Alrubaie, Hitesh Panchal, Ali J. Chamkha, Mustafa Musa Jaber, Ankit D. Oza, Sasan Zahmatkesh, Dumitru Doru Burduhos-Nergis and Diana Petronela Burduhos-Nergis
Water 2022, 14(19), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193031 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3048
Abstract
Solar stills are one of the low water production desalination systems, but its low yield makes it necessary to investigate different design and performance parameters to improve its productivity. This paper aims to perform a parametric analysis of a solar still desalination system [...] Read more.
Solar stills are one of the low water production desalination systems, but its low yield makes it necessary to investigate different design and performance parameters to improve its productivity. This paper aims to perform a parametric analysis of a solar still desalination system and study the effect of different absorber materials on the performance of a single-slope solar desalination unit employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation via COMSOL® Multiphysics software. To consider the absorptivity of water with different absorbing materials, simulation was conducted with the application of effective emissivity for the solar still walls. In addition, the economic, exergoeconomic, and CO2 mitigation of solar stills were studied. The results revealed that the hourly water output of the solar desalination unit, with different absorbing materials (black ink, black dye, and black toner), reached the maximum values at 1:00 PM. On comparing the simulation results of solar stills with and without absorbing materials, it has been observed that the solar still painted with black toner shows the highest improvement in hourly productivity, the exergy of evaporation, and evaporative heat transfer coefficient with a maximum increase in respective values by 10.52%, 13.68% and 5.37%. The CO2 mitigation and enviroeconomic parameter of the solar still using black toner were equal to 31.4 tons and 455.3 USD, respectively. Moreover, the lowest cost per liter (CPL) of the solar still was obtained using black toner, which was about 0.0066 USD/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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15 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
The Sensitivity Analysis of the Drainage Unsteady Equations against the Depth of Drain Placement and Rainfall Time at the Shallow Water-Bearing Layers: A Case Study of Markazi Province, Iran
by Behzad Moshayedi, Mohsen Najarchi, Mohammad Mahdi Najafizadeh and Shahab Khaghani
Water 2022, 14(17), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172693 - 30 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
This research investigated various drainage parameters for unsteady conditions, including depth of installation, reflection coefficient, and depth of water table. For this purpose, Bouwer & Van Schilfgarrd, Dumm, Glover, Hemmad, and Bouwer equations were used. For the distance of computed drainage compared with [...] Read more.
This research investigated various drainage parameters for unsteady conditions, including depth of installation, reflection coefficient, and depth of water table. For this purpose, Bouwer & Van Schilfgarrd, Dumm, Glover, Hemmad, and Bouwer equations were used. For the distance of computed drainage compared with measured data in central Iran, the results showed that the Bouwer & Van Schilfgaarde equation is better than others. Additionally, the installed depth was obtained 130 cm below the exiting underground, and this depth was applicable more than other depths; 1, 3, and 5-day precipitation were used to determine water table changes. The results illustrated that a 5-day duration had a better effect, which appeared in the existing condition drainage area. The reflection coefficient for the superior equation was also obtained as 0.65, which was very close to the measured data in the area. Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and Standard deviation (σ) were used to evaluate the results. MAE, RMSE, and σ were computed as 1.78, 2.02, and 0.02, for the superior equation respectively, and the appropriate distance between the two drains was determined as 51.26 m. The obtained results have a close agreement with other researchers in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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16 pages, 5916 KiB  
Article
Deep Q-Value Neural Network (DQN) Reinforcement Learning for the Techno-Economic Optimization of a Solar-Driven Nanofluid-Assisted Desalination Technology
by Sina Jafari, Siamak Hoseinzadeh and Ali Sohani
Water 2022, 14(14), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142254 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
A solar-driven desalination system, featuring a single-slope solar still is studied here. For this design, Al2O3 nanofluid is utilized, and the condition achieving the highest efficiency and cost-effectiveness is found using a reinforcement learning called a deep Q-value neural network [...] Read more.
A solar-driven desalination system, featuring a single-slope solar still is studied here. For this design, Al2O3 nanofluid is utilized, and the condition achieving the highest efficiency and cost-effectiveness is found using a reinforcement learning called a deep Q-value neural network (DQN). The results of optimization are implemented for the built experimental setup. Experimental data obtained under the climatic conditions of Tehran, Iran, are employed to compare the enhancement potential of the optimized solar still system with nanofluid (OSTSWNF) with the solar still system with water (STSWWA). The hourly fluid temperatures in the basin as well as the hourly and cumulative freshwater production (HFWP and CFWP) are discussed. A number of other parameters, including daily water production and efficiency in addition to the cost per liter (CPL) of the resulting desalinated water, are also taken into account. The results reveal that annual water production increases from 1326.8 L to 1652.4 L, representing ~25% growth. Moreover, the annual average efficiency improves by ~32%, rising from 41.6% to 54.7%. A great economic enhancement is seen as well, with the CPL decreasing by ~8%, i.e., from USD 0.0258/L to USD 0.0237/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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15 pages, 4943 KiB  
Article
Post-Treatment of Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater through Unsaturated and Saturated Porous Media in a Large-Scale Experimental Model
by Reza Tahmasbi, Majid Kholghi, Mohsen Najarchi, Abdolmajeed Liaghat and Reza Mastouri
Water 2022, 14(7), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071137 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
In recent decades, groundwater overexploitation has caused an important aquifer level decline in arid zones each year. In addition to this issue, large volumes of effluent are produced each year in metropolitan areas of these regions. In this situation, an aquifer storage and [...] Read more.
In recent decades, groundwater overexploitation has caused an important aquifer level decline in arid zones each year. In addition to this issue, large volumes of effluent are produced each year in metropolitan areas of these regions. In this situation, an aquifer storage and recovery system (ASR) using the reclaimed domestic wastewater can be a local solution to these two challenges. In this research, a post-treatment of reclaimed municipal wastewater has been investigated through unsaturated–saturated porous media. A large-scale, L-shaped experimental model was set up near the second-stage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the west of greater Tehran. The water, soil, and treated wastewater of the experimental model were supplied from the aquifer, site, and WWTP, respectively. The 13 physicochemical parameters, temperature and fecal coliform were analyzed every 10 days in seven points for a period of four months (two active periods of 40 days with a 12-h on–off rate (wet cycles) and a rest period of 40 days (dry cycle) between the two wet cycles). The results showed that the effects of the saturated zone were twice as great as those of the unsaturated zone and two-thirds of the total treatment efficiency. Furthermore, a discontinuous wet–dry–wet cycle had a significant effect on effluent treatment efficiency and contaminants’ reduction. In conclusion, an aquifer storage and recovery system using treated wastewater through the unsaturated–saturated zones is a sustainable water resource that can be used for agriculture, environmental and non-potable water demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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17 pages, 4692 KiB  
Article
Multistage Models for Flood Control by Gated Spillway: Application to Karkheh Dam
by Farhad Salehi, Mohsen Najarchi, Mohammad Mahdi Najafizadeh and Mohammad Mirhoseini Hezaveh
Water 2022, 14(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050709 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The paper demonstrates a simulation optimization framework for enhancing the real-time flood control with gated spillways at places where no flood forecasting data are available. A multiobjective modeling scheme is presented for the flood management in a gated spillway in which the operator [...] Read more.
The paper demonstrates a simulation optimization framework for enhancing the real-time flood control with gated spillways at places where no flood forecasting data are available. A multiobjective modeling scheme is presented for the flood management in a gated spillway in which the operator may specify the priorities on floods based on their different return periods. Two different operation strategies were devised. Both operating strategies employ ten-stage policies, which rely on the reservoir water level as the input data. The second strategy benefits from both the observed reservoir water level and the flood peak. The optimal values of the models’ parameters were obtained using a genetic algorithm. This is a novel approach because none of its policies needs flood forecasting data, thus, making them adaptable to any flood with any return period. To evaluate the performances of the proposed models, the flood control through a gated spillway of the Karkheh reservoir was considered, where flood hydrographs with different return periods were routed through the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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17 pages, 2152 KiB  
Article
Geographical Preference for Installation of Solar Still Water Desalination Technologies in Iran: An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)-Based Answer
by Sina Jafari, Majid Aghel, Ali Sohani and Siamak Hoseinzadeh
Water 2022, 14(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020265 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
Water shortage is one of the most crucial challenges worldwide, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, with high population and low freshwater resources. Considering this point and the increasing popularity of solar stills desalination systems, as the contribution, this study aims at finding [...] Read more.
Water shortage is one of the most crucial challenges worldwide, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, with high population and low freshwater resources. Considering this point and the increasing popularity of solar stills desalination systems, as the contribution, this study aims at finding the geographical preference for installation of those technologies in Iran, which is one of the biggest and most populated countries in the Middle East. For this purpose, from each climatic zone of Iran, one representative city is chosen, and analytical hierarchy process (AHP), as one of the most powerful tools for systematic decision-making, is applied. Annual fresh water production (AFWP) from the technical aspect, energy payback period (EPBP) from the energy perspective, and investment payback period from the economic point of view are selected as the decision criteria. Obtaining the three indicated indicators is done using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for yield and water temperature in the basin, which are developed by means of the recorded experimental data. The results indicate that hot arid cities with high received solar radiation, or the ones that have a higher water tariff compared to the others, are the preferred places for installation of solar stills. The example of the first category is Ahvaz, while Tehran is representative of the cities from the second category. AHP demonstrates that they are the first and second priorities for solar still installation, with scores of 26.9 and 22.7, respectively. Ahvaz has AWFP, EPBP, and IPP of 2706.5 L, 0.58 years, and 4.01 years; while the corresponding values for Tehran are 2115.3 L, 0.87 years, and 2.86 years. This study belongs to three classifications in the mathematical problems: 1. experimental work (code: 76–05), 2. Neural networks (code: 92B20), 3. and decision problems, (code: 20F10). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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16 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality for Freshwater Production in a Semi-Arid Area
by Qi Zhang, Baohua Zhou, Fang Dong, Zhanhong Liu and Yaser Ostovari
Water 2021, 13(21), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213024 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Presenting groundwater quality assessment for different usages using one index is helpful to monitor the quality of this invaluable resource and reduce the cost of freshwater production, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The drinking groundwater quality index (DGWQI) is one the best [...] Read more.
Presenting groundwater quality assessment for different usages using one index is helpful to monitor the quality of this invaluable resource and reduce the cost of freshwater production, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The drinking groundwater quality index (DGWQI) is one the best indicators for groundwater quality assessment. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to assess and map the groundwater quality of an aquifer for freshwater production in a semi-arid region, using GIS-based spatial analysis of DGWQI. For this goal, mean data from 70 wells collected during 2010–2018 were used. Results showed that total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and total hardness (TH) had the highest impact on groundwater quality that exceed the permissible range for drinking purposes. Results also revealed that 42% of samples had a DGWQI value between 0 and 100 (appropriate quality class). Sensitivity analysis determined that Mg2+, EC, and TDS with highest mean variation indexes of 18.98, 20.68, and 19.04, respectively, were the most sensitive parameters in the calculation of DGWQI. According to R2 and RMSE, the ordinary kriging and spherical semi-variogram model had good performance for spatial analysis for all DGWQI, Mg2+, EC, and TDS. The DGWQI map showed that in the southern parts the groundwater (50% of the area) had unsuitable quality for drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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Review

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13 pages, 38749 KiB  
Review
Applications of Heat Exchanger in Solar Desalination: Current Issues and Future Challenges
by Ammar H. Elsheikh, Hitesh N. Panchal, Shanmugan Sengottain, Naser A. Alsaleh and Mahmoud Ahmadein
Water 2022, 14(6), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060852 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3710
Abstract
Solar desalination is a process to convert saline water into potable water by the application of solar energy. The enhancement of the distillate output of the solar desalination is low, so it is not considered as a method to produce potable water. A [...] Read more.
Solar desalination is a process to convert saline water into potable water by the application of solar energy. The enhancement of the distillate output of the solar desalination is low, so it is not considered as a method to produce potable water. A heat exchanger is an important device used for heat transfer applications. The present review article illustrates the application of a heat exchanger with a solar desalination system to enhance the distillate output. In the current review, it is found that the heat exchanger is an important device to improve the distillate productivity of the solar desalination system. Finally, the future work and future challenges of using a heat exchanger with a solar desalination system are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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