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Sustainable Energy Development Strategies: Energy Efficiency and Renewables

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 March 2019) | Viewed by 117265

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Economics and Rural Development, Lithuanian Centre for Social Sciences, 03220 Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: sustainable development; integrated analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable energy development has a direct impact on climate change mitigation and is the top priority of energy policy. Sustainable energy development strategies typically involve three major technological changes: Energy savings on the demand side, energy efficiency improvements in the energy production and replacement of fossil fuels by renewables.

This Special Issue is dedicated to the analysis of sustainable energy development strategies and policies at various levels, the analysis of policies and measures aiming to promote energy efficiency and penetration of renewables at global, national, sectoral, regional, enterprise and households levels, the impacts of sustainable energy policies on climate change mitigation at global, national, sectoral, and regional levels.

Methodologically, analysis for sustainable energy development requires considering multiple factors affecting different aspects of energy supply and consumption. Therefore, frontier techniques for analysis of the underlying environmental production technologies, index decomposition models for isolation of the contributions of different factors in energy use or environmental pressures, and multi-criteria frameworks for policy design are topical, among others.

The Special Issue will include the following topics:

  • Analysis of sustainable energy development policies and strategies;
  • Development and application of indicator systems, tools and techniques for assessment of sustainable energy development;
  • Assessment of climate change mitigation policies;
  • Energy efficiency analysis and assessment of energy efficiency policies;
  • Analysis of renewable energy development and the associated policies;
  • The interlinkages among sustainable energy policies and climate change mitigation policies;
  • The assessment of role of renewables in achieving climate change mitigation targets;
  • The assessment of role of energy efficiency improvements in achieving climate change mitigation targets;
  • The assessment of energy technologies in electricity, heat and transport sectors;
  • The assessment of demand side management measures;
  • The role of environmental and social innovations in achieving sustainable energy development goals;
  • Data Envelopment Analysis;
  • Index Decomposition Analysis;
  • Multi-criteria Decision Making

Prof. Dr. Dalia Štreimikienė
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable Energy Development
  • Policies and Strategies
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Renewables
  • Climate change mitigation

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3260 KiB  
Article
Experimental Tests and Modeling on a Combined Heat and Power Biomass Plant
by Guido Marseglia, Carlo Maria Medaglia, Alessandro Petrozzi, Andrea Nicolini, Franco Cotana and Federico Sormani
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132615 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4450
Abstract
Renewable energy sources can help the countries to achieve some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provided from the recent 2030 Agenda, allowing for clean, secure, reliable and affordable energy. Biomass technology is a relevant renewable energy to contribute to reach a clean [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources can help the countries to achieve some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provided from the recent 2030 Agenda, allowing for clean, secure, reliable and affordable energy. Biomass technology is a relevant renewable energy to contribute to reach a clean and affordable energy production system with important emissions reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG). An innovative technological application of biomass energy consisting of a burner coupled with an external fired gas turbine (EFGT) has been developed for the production of electricity. This paper shows the results of the plant modelling by Aspen Plus environment and preliminary experimental tests; the validation of the proposed model allows for the main parameters to be defined that regulate the energy production plant supplied by woodchips. Full article
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20 pages, 4269 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Study of Freeze Recovery Options in Parabolic Trough Collector Plants Working with Molten Salt as Heat Transfer Fluid
by Cristina Prieto, Alfonso Rodríguez-Sánchez, F. Javier Ruiz-Cabañas and Luisa F. Cabeza
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122340 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4057
Abstract
Parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology is currently the most mature solar technology, which has led to the accumulation of relevant operational experience. The overall performance and efficiency of these plants depends on several components, and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) is one of [...] Read more.
Parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology is currently the most mature solar technology, which has led to the accumulation of relevant operational experience. The overall performance and efficiency of these plants depends on several components, and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) is one of the most important ones. Using molten salts as HTFs has the advantage of being able to work at higher temperatures, but it also has the disadvantage of the potential freezing of the HTF in pipes and components. This paper models and evaluates two methods of freeze recovery, which is needed for this HTF system design: Heat tracing in pipes and components, and impedance melting in the solar field. The model is used to compare the parasitic consumption in three molten salts mixtures, namely Solar Salt, HiTec, and HiTec XL, and the feasibility of this system in a freezing event. After the investigation of each of these subsystems, it was concluded that freeze recovery for a molten salt plant is possible. Full article
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26 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Internal Combustion Engine Analysis of Energy Ecological Parameters by Neutrosophic MULTIMOORA and SWARA Methods
by Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Audrius Čereška, Jonas Matijošius, Alfredas Rimkus and Romualdas Bausys
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081415 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3737
Abstract
The investigation for new innovative solutions to reduce transport pollution is a priority for the European Union (EU). This study includes energy and a sustainable environment, as well as transport, logistics, and information and communication technologies. Energy ecological parameters of internal combustion depend [...] Read more.
The investigation for new innovative solutions to reduce transport pollution is a priority for the European Union (EU). This study includes energy and a sustainable environment, as well as transport, logistics, and information and communication technologies. Energy ecological parameters of internal combustion depend on many factors: fuel, the fuel injection time, engine torque, etc. The engine’s energy ecological parameters were studied by changing engine torques, using different fuels, and changing the start of the fuel injection time. The selection of the optimum parameters is a complex problem. Multicriteria decision-making methods (MCDM) present powerful and flexible techniques for the solution of many sustainability problems. The article presents a new way of tackling transport pollution. The analysis of the energy ecological parameters of the experimental internal combustion engine is performed using the neutrosophic multi-objective optimization by a ratio analysis plus the full multiplicative form (MULTIMOORA) and step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) methods. The application of MCDM methods provides us with the opportunity to establish the best alternatives which reflect the best energy ecological parameters of the internal combustion engine. Full article
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17 pages, 1643 KiB  
Article
Innovative Policies for Energy Efficiency and the Use of Renewables in Households
by Wadim Strielkowski, Elena Volkova, Luidmila Pushkareva and Dalia Streimikiene
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071392 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 5636
Abstract
Renewable energy sources (RES) are gradually becoming one of the key elements in the process of achieving energy efficiency worldwide. This trend can be observed in many developed Western economies—for example, in the United States, as well as in the United Kingdom. Hence, [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources (RES) are gradually becoming one of the key elements in the process of achieving energy efficiency worldwide. This trend can be observed in many developed Western economies—for example, in the United States, as well as in the United Kingdom. Hence, the role of innovative policies for promoting energy efficiency is becoming crucial in transition to the post-carbon economy. The shift to the carbon-free future make all actors to face forgoing commitments Nevertheless, customers and residential households are the first and the most important players in the pursuit of the energy-efficient future. Without them, carbon-free economy based on RES would never take the shape as envisaged. Our paper focuses on the innovative strategies and policies studying the effect and the scope of RES penetration into the households. We employ and empirical analysis of the effects from using RES in households using an example of the residential households in the northwest region of the United Kingdom (UK) with and without solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and electric vehicles (EV). We analyse the four scenarios that are aimed at analysing the system dynamics and providing differentiation between systems in terms of the varying values of the gross demand, tariffs, metered import, and the total revenue. Our results demonstrate that the solar PV leads to the transfer of costs and wealth regardless of the ownership of PV and EVs. Solar energy generation reduces the share of UK solar PV households per kWh costs of the distribution system which causes the augmenting of the per unit charges as well as to the changes in payments for the electricity that impoverishes less wealthy customer groups. It also becomes clear that with the increase of EV penetration, the existing energy efficiency schemes would have to be revised. Full article
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21 pages, 758 KiB  
Article
Sustainability in the Electricity Sector through Advanced Technologies: Energy Mix Transition and Smart Grid Technology in China
by Tomas Baležentis and Dalia Štreimikienė
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061142 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4361
Abstract
In this paper, we integrate technological, institutional, and financial approaches towards expansion of the smart grid technology. We turn to China as the major producer and consumer of energy with an increasing focus on renewables. China’s electricity market has experienced a number of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we integrate technological, institutional, and financial approaches towards expansion of the smart grid technology. We turn to China as the major producer and consumer of energy with an increasing focus on renewables. China’s electricity market has experienced a number of reforms while trying to address the economic and environmental challenges. In order to identify the basic requirements for the Chinese power sector, we look into the underlying trends of the energy mix, regulatory policies, and financial flows. Understanding these facets allows one to suggest directions for the further development of the Chinese power sector in the light of the smart grid concept. Indeed, the smart grid concept has no strict definition and, therefore, requires simultaneous consideration of multiple factors. The analysis shows that ensuring smooth transfer of electricity across the regions is a quintessential condition for smart grid development and the promotion of renewable energy in China. As the role of the state-owned enterprises still remains the most important one in the sector, private initiatives should be supported. Therefore, financial incentives are needed to guide the shifts in the energy mix and maintain efficient energy generation and consumption in China. Full article
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17 pages, 7729 KiB  
Article
Research on the Comprehensive Performance of Hygroscopic Materials in an Office Building Based on EnergyPlus
by Shui Yu, Yumeng Cui, Yifei Shao and Fuhong Han
Energies 2019, 12(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010191 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5427
Abstract
This paper presents the research status of hygroscopic materials, points out the weak links as targets for major breakthroughs, and introduces humidifying mechanisms and their categories. In this paper, we simulated a single-monomer Shenyang office building with different envelopes of inner-surface hygroscopic materials [...] Read more.
This paper presents the research status of hygroscopic materials, points out the weak links as targets for major breakthroughs, and introduces humidifying mechanisms and their categories. In this paper, we simulated a single-monomer Shenyang office building with different envelopes of inner-surface hygroscopic materials for indoor humidity conditions, energy consumption, and economy, which are three aspects of energy consumption analysis in EnergyPlus software. To obtain the best moisture buffering performance from hygroscopic materials, we also simulated different cases including the laying area, ventilation strategy, thickness, and initial moisture content of different hygroscopic materials. The humidity fluctuation, with changes in the style of hygroscopic materials and usage conditions, of a room in a building can be analyzed by numerical simulation. This allows the determination of the best moisture buffering performance of the building structure. The results show that hygroscopic materials have great advantages in three energy saving aspects of building assessment. Hygroscopic materials can regulate indoor air humidity and reduce energy consumption. In addition, the entire life-cycle cost can be minimized. Lower rates of air exchange and larger usable areas can help enhance the level of performance of hygroscopic materials. The thickness and initial moisture content of hygroscopic materials have little impact on the moisture buffering value. This study strived to provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the production and installation of hygroscopic materials. It also promoted the passive materials market and the building’s energy savings. The best moisture buffering performance, evaluated at room level in this paper, can be obtained through real-world environmental simulation. Full article
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17 pages, 3882 KiB  
Article
Simulation Research on the Effect of Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer on the Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment of Public Buildings
by Shui Yu, Yumeng Cui, Yifei Shao and Fuhong Han
Energies 2019, 12(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010141 - 01 Jan 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3150
Abstract
A building envelope is a multi-layer porous structure. It transfers heat and moisture to balance the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and water vapor partial pressure difference. This is a typical coupled heat and moisture migration process. When the space is filled with [...] Read more.
A building envelope is a multi-layer porous structure. It transfers heat and moisture to balance the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and water vapor partial pressure difference. This is a typical coupled heat and moisture migration process. When the space is filled with moist air, water or ice, it will directly affect the thermal properties of the material. With respect to moisture coming through the wall into the indoor building, it will also affect the indoor environment and the energy consumption due to the formation of latent heat. However, the moisture transfer process in the building envelopes is not taken into account in the current conventional thermal calculation and energy consumption analysis. This paper analyzes the indoor thermal and humidity environment and building energy consumption of typical cities in Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. The results show that it is obvious that the coupled heat and moisture transfer in the building envelopes has an impact on the annual cooling and heating energy consumption, the total energy consumption, and the indoor thermal and humidity environment. The geographical location of buildings ranging from north to south influences the effect of coupled heat and moisture transfer on the annual energy consumption of the building, moving from positive to negative. It is suggested that the additional coefficient of the coupled thermal and moisture method can effectively correct the existing energy consumption calculation results, which do not take the consumption from the coupled heat and moisture in the building envelopes into account. Full article
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9 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
Novel Design for Thermal Management of PV Cells in Harsh Environmental Conditions
by Nasser Ahmad, Amith Khandakar, Amir El-Tayeb, Kamel Benhmed, Atif Iqbal and Farid Touati
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113231 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4186
Abstract
The abundance of solar energy is a blessing in the Arabian Peninsula, where more than 2000 kWh/m2 density has been recorded annually. This has resulted in sincere consideration of PV harvesting in the energy matrix and smart grid. However, artefacts such as [...] Read more.
The abundance of solar energy is a blessing in the Arabian Peninsula, where more than 2000 kWh/m2 density has been recorded annually. This has resulted in sincere consideration of PV harvesting in the energy matrix and smart grid. However, artefacts such as degradation of PV efficiency due to the high temperature effect have to be addressed. This paper presents a novel design of a PV cooling system using water to mitigate the effect of high temperature. Several experiments have been conducted, and the results have been analyzed. It has been found that the collected water from the panel after 40 min of cooling gained a temperature of 10 °C approximately, during December 2016. Eventually, the efficiency was improved by 10.35% (without using MPPT) using water at ambient temperature (24 °C) compared to the non-cooled panel. Moreover, the temperature of the panel during solar peak hours dropped from 64.3 °C to 32 °C and from 59 °C to 27 °C in 3 min for the back and front surface, respectively. These results, which are the first of their kind in Qatar, constitute good incentives and pave the way for further investigation to enhance PV efficiency in harsh environments. This would be of paramount significance, especially for scaling up PV deployment, as is planned in Qatar and GCC countries in their 2030 vision. Full article
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16 pages, 3409 KiB  
Article
A New Optimal Selection Method with Seasonal Flow and Irrigation Variability for Hydro Turbine Type and Size
by Kiattisak Sakulphan and Erik L. J. Bohez
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3212; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113212 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
A micro hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is considered to be the most cost-effective investment in developing counties. This paper presents a novel methodology to improve flow estimation, without using the flow direction curve (FDC) method, to determine the turbine type and [...] Read more.
A micro hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is considered to be the most cost-effective investment in developing counties. This paper presents a novel methodology to improve flow estimation, without using the flow direction curve (FDC) method, to determine the turbine type and size to operate consistently. A higher precision is obtained through the use of seasonal flow occurrence data, irrigation variability, and fitting the best probability distribution function (PDF) using flow data. Flow data are grouped in classes based on the flow rate range. This method will need a larger dataset but it is reduced to a tractable amount by using the PDF. In the first part of the algorithm, the average flow of each range is used to select the turbine type. The second part of the algorithm determines the optimal size of the turbine type in a more accurate way, based on minimum and maximum flow rates in each class range instead of the average flow rate. A newly developed micro hydropower plant was installed and used for validation at Baan Khun Pae, Chiang Mai Province. It was found, over four years of observation from 2014–2018, that the plant capacity factor was 82%. Full article
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15 pages, 4180 KiB  
Article
Saving Energy in the Transportation Sector: An Analysis of Modified Bitumen Application Based on Marshall Test
by Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah, Hunain Arshad, Ahsan Waqar, Muhammad Hasnain Saeed, Salman Hafeez, Junaid Mansoor, Abdullah Naveed Sadiq and Muhammad Asad Malik
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113025 - 03 Nov 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4047
Abstract
Energy consumption and material production are two major factors associated with the road construction industry. Worldwide, millions of tons of hot mix asphalt production consume a huge amount of fuel as an energy source in terms of quantity and cost to achieve the [...] Read more.
Energy consumption and material production are two major factors associated with the road construction industry. Worldwide, millions of tons of hot mix asphalt production consume a huge amount of fuel as an energy source in terms of quantity and cost to achieve the standard temperature of up to 170 °C during the mixing process. Modification of bitumen can not only reduce its usage but also the consumption of energy (fuel) during the asphalt mix production process at low temperatures. This study provides a method to save energy by proposing the addition of bitumen modifier in the road construction sector. Furthermore, to make it compatible with the field conditions for road construction, stability analysis is executed on the prepared samples by partially replacing the bitumen with polyurethane foam (PUF) and plastic waste (PW) (at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%). Experimental results demonstrate a reasonable saving in the amount of energy (33%) and material (40% bitumen) used and showed that similar strength of developed asphalt mix can be achieved using PUF. An extensive calculation concludes that these savings could make a huge difference in construction economics of mega road infrastructure projects, especially during an energy crisis. Full article
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31 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Hybridization of Heuristic Techniques for Residential Load Scheduling
by Zafar Iqbal, Nadeem Javaid, Syed Muhammad Mohsin, Syed Muhammad Abrar Akber, Muhammad Khalil Afzal and Farruh Ishmanov
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102861 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3772
Abstract
With the emergence of the smart grid, both consumers and electricity providing companies can benefit from real-time interaction and pricing methods. In this work, a smart power system is considered, where consumers share a common energy source. Each consumer is equipped with a [...] Read more.
With the emergence of the smart grid, both consumers and electricity providing companies can benefit from real-time interaction and pricing methods. In this work, a smart power system is considered, where consumers share a common energy source. Each consumer is equipped with a home energy management controller (HEMC) as scheduler and a smart meter. The HEMC keeps updating the utility with the load profile of the home. The smart meter is connected to a power grid having an advanced metering infrastructure which is responsible for two-way communication. Genetic teaching-learning based optimization, flower pollination teaching learning based optimization, flower pollination BAT and flower pollination genetic algorithm based energy consumption scheduling algorithms are proposed. These algorithms schedule the loads in order to shave the peak formation without compromising user comfort. The proposed algorithms achieve optimal energy consumption profile for the home appliances equipped with sensors to maximize the consumer benefits in a fair and efficient manner by exchanging control messages. Control messages contain energy consumption of consumer and real-time pricing information. Simulation results show that proposed algorithms reduce the peak-to-average ratio by 34.56% and help the users to reduce their energy expenses by 42.41% without compromising the comfort. The daily discomfort is reduced by 28.18%. Full article
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25 pages, 439 KiB  
Article
Co-Optimization of Energy and Reserve Capacity Considering Renewable Energy Unit with Uncertainty
by Muhammad Wajahat Hassan, Muhammad Babar Rasheed, Nadeem Javaid, Waseem Nazar and Muhammad Akmal
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102833 - 20 Oct 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4848
Abstract
This paper proposes a system model for optimal dispatch of the energy and reserve capacity considering uncertain load demand and unsteady power generation. This implicates uncertainty in managing the power demand along with the consideration of utility, user and environmental objectives. The model [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a system model for optimal dispatch of the energy and reserve capacity considering uncertain load demand and unsteady power generation. This implicates uncertainty in managing the power demand along with the consideration of utility, user and environmental objectives. The model takes into consideration a day-ahead electricity market that involves the varying power demand bids and generates a required amount of energy in addition with reserve capacity. The lost opportunity cost is also considered and incorporated within the context of expected load not served. Then, the effects of combined and separate dispatching the energy and reserve are investigated. The nonlinear cost curves have been addressed by optimizing the objective function using robust optimization technique. Finally, various cases in accordance with underlying parameters have been considered in order to conduct and evaluate numerical results. Simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheduling model in terms of reduced cost and system stability. Full article
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19 pages, 2709 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Electric Power Forecasting Using Dual-Stage Hierarchical Wavelet- Particle Swarm Optimization- Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System PSO-ANFIS Approach Based On Climate Change
by Samuel Atuahene, Yukun Bao, Yao Yevenyo Ziggah, Patricia Semwaah Gyan and Feng Li
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102822 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3639
Abstract
Analyzing electrical power generation for a wind turbine has associated inaccuracies due to fluctuations in environmental factors, mechanical alterations of wind turbines, and natural disaster. Thus, development of a highly reliable prediction model based on climatic conditions is crucial in forecasting electrical power [...] Read more.
Analyzing electrical power generation for a wind turbine has associated inaccuracies due to fluctuations in environmental factors, mechanical alterations of wind turbines, and natural disaster. Thus, development of a highly reliable prediction model based on climatic conditions is crucial in forecasting electrical power for proper management of energy demand and supply. This is essential because early forecasting systems will enable an energy supplier to schedule and manage resources efficiently. In this research, we have put forward a novel electrical power prediction model using wavelet and particle swarm optimization based dual-stage adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (dual-stage Wavelet-PSO-ANFIS) for precise estimation of electrical power generation based on climatic factors. The first stage is used to project wind speed based on meteorological data available, while the second stage took the output wind speed prediction to predict electrical power based on actual supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). Furthermore, influence of data dependence on the forecasting accuracy for both stages is analyzed using a subset of data as input to predict the wind power which was also compared with other existing electrical power forecasting techniques. This paper defines the basic framework and the performance evaluation of a dual-stage Wavelet-PSO-ANFIS based electrical power forecasting system using a practical implementation. Full article
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14 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Consumer Attitudes towards Industrial CO2 Capture and Storage Products and Technologies
by Valentina Kashintseva, Wadim Strielkowski, Justas Streimikis and Tatiana Veynbender
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102787 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
This paper discusses and elicits consumer attitudes towards industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (ICCS) products and technologies. It presents a comprehensive review of the relevant research literature on consumer attitudes towards ICCS represented by the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and willingness-to-accept [...] Read more.
This paper discusses and elicits consumer attitudes towards industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (ICCS) products and technologies. It presents a comprehensive review of the relevant research literature on consumer attitudes towards ICCS represented by the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and willingness-to-accept (WTA) negative externalities and outcomes of the carbon capture and storage (the so-called “not-in-my-backyard” (NIMBY) approach). In addition, it employs a concise empirical model that uses the data from the online questionnaire survey conducted in 7 European Union (EU) countries with and without ICSS sites. Our results demonstrate that having at least one ICCS site significantly reduces the WTA for the ICCS products and technologies. It is shown that further increase of ICCS sites, including those in the neighboring regions and countries, leads to the increase of negative consumer attitudes to the ICCS technologies and renewable energy policies. It becomes apparent that the majority of consumers are willing to support industrial CO2 capture and storage only if it happens far away from their dwellings. The outcomes of this paper might be informative for the EU local industries and policy-makers who are planning the location of ICCS sites and optimizing the public support for their endeavors. Moreover, they might be relevant for the stakeholders dealing with the threat of climate change and the necessity for the decarbonization of the economy. Full article
15 pages, 2662 KiB  
Article
Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, and CO2 Emissions in G20 Countries: Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
by Abbas Mardani, Dalia Streimikiene, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Daniel Arias Aranda, Nanthakumar Loganathan and Ahmad Jusoh
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102771 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 3694
Abstract
Understanding the relationships among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth helps nations to develop energy sources and formulate energy policies in order to enhance sustainable development. The present research is aimed at developing a novel efficient model for analyzing the relationships [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationships among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth helps nations to develop energy sources and formulate energy policies in order to enhance sustainable development. The present research is aimed at developing a novel efficient model for analyzing the relationships amongst the three aforementioned indicators in G20 countries using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model in the period from 1962 to 2016. In this regard, the ANFIS model has been used with prediction models using real data to predict CO2 emissions based on two important input indicators, energy consumption and economic growth. This study made use of the fuzzy rules through ANFIS to generalize the relationships of the input and output indicators in order to make a prediction of CO2 emissions. The experimental findings on a real-world dataset of World Development Indicators (WDI) revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the CO2 emissions based on energy consumption and economic growth. The direction of the interrelationship is highly important from the economic and energy policy-making perspectives for this international forum, as G20 countries are primarily focused on the governance of the global economy. Full article
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9 pages, 2834 KiB  
Article
Experimental Methodology and Thermal Loss Tests on Small Size Absorber Tubes for Solar Applications
by Giacomo Pierucci, Sahand Hosouli, Michele Salvestroni, Matteo Messeri, Federico Fagioli, Francesco Taddei and Maurizio De Lucia
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102552 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
Since thermal energy for residential applications is a relevant part of the entire energy demand, solar technologies could play an important role in decreasing fossil fuel consumption. A novel small parabolic trough collector matched with a storage system is developed to satisfy heating [...] Read more.
Since thermal energy for residential applications is a relevant part of the entire energy demand, solar technologies could play an important role in decreasing fossil fuel consumption. A novel small parabolic trough collector matched with a storage system is developed to satisfy heating and required hot water demand for a single house. A new receiver concept is designed and a prototype is realized using two coaxial tubes (three spattered layers). A covering glass with vacuum inside completes the high tech design. Because of numerous innovations including the small size, a specific off-Sun measurement procedure is set up with the aim of evaluating the real thermal loss and direct heating of the absorber by Joule effect. A novel test procedure is proposed for the one-end absorber. The receiver performance results are reported under vacuum conditions and with air at ambient pressure. Full article
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16 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
Towards Zero Energy Stadiums: The Case Study of the Dacia Arena in Udine, Italy
by Mattia Manni, Valentina Coccia, Andrea Nicolini, Guido Marseglia and Alessandro Petrozzi
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092396 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6112
Abstract
The environmental impacts of sport events have been growing during the last decades, which has led to the organizing associations developing adequate countermeasures to both reduce carbon emissions due to construction and operational stages compensate for the emissions. This work aims at proposing [...] Read more.
The environmental impacts of sport events have been growing during the last decades, which has led to the organizing associations developing adequate countermeasures to both reduce carbon emissions due to construction and operational stages compensate for the emissions. This work aims at proposing an approach to stadiums energy enhancement that includes strategies largely recognized as effective and applicable to several building typologies (residential, commercial, academic, etc.). The selected case study is the Dacia Arena in northern Italy that has been recently refurbished and renovated. The proposed workflow has as a goal minimizing the increment of the operational emissions, caused by new heated areas in the stadium. Firstly, the energy consumption was estimated in dynamic state for Scenario 0 (current state) and Scenario 1 (refurbished state) to quantify the new plant’s energy demand. Secondly, two hypothetical system layouts were proposed and evaluated. In the first, the power for lighting, cooling and heating is supplied by a system that couples photovoltaic panels with heat pump. In the second, the same photovoltaic plant is integrated with a biomass plant and an absorption chiller. The comparison highlights the suitability of those interventions and the environmental advantages deriving from their exploitation. Full article
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15 pages, 557 KiB  
Article
A Critical Approach on Sustainable Renewable Energy Sources in Rural Area: Evidence from North-West Region of Romania
by Gabriela O. Chiciudean, Rezhen Harun, Felix H. Arion, Daniel I. Chiciudean, Camelia F. Oroian and Iulia C. Muresan
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092225 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4298
Abstract
In the favorable context of a potential increase in the use of renewable energy sources in Romania, a research was conducted among the rural population in the North-West region of development in order to analyze public perception regarding this alternative energy production. A [...] Read more.
In the favorable context of a potential increase in the use of renewable energy sources in Romania, a research was conducted among the rural population in the North-West region of development in order to analyze public perception regarding this alternative energy production. A survey was conducted on a sample of 322 respondents and data was analyzed using different statistical methods (Principal Component Analysis, Cluster analysis, etc.). Results indicated a positive attitude towards renewable energy and support mainly from young and highly educated people. The percentage of users is relatively low and there is little intention in the future to switch to a renewable energy source even if it is perceived as a sustainable way of living. Lack of knowledge regarding renewable energy sources is the most important aspect and authorities should assume a mission in the public education of citizens in order to implement the measures and achieve the goals established in the national strategy plans. Full article
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12 pages, 3058 KiB  
Article
SOLIS—A Novel Decision Support Tool for the Assessment of Solar Radiation in ArcGIS
by Jan K. Kazak and Małgorzata Świąder
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082105 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3943
Abstract
The global Sustainable Development Goals influence the implementation of energy development strategies worldwide. However, in order to support local stakeholders in sustainable energy development strategies and climate change adaptation plans and the implementation of policies, there is a need to equip local decision [...] Read more.
The global Sustainable Development Goals influence the implementation of energy development strategies worldwide. However, in order to support local stakeholders in sustainable energy development strategies and climate change adaptation plans and the implementation of policies, there is a need to equip local decision makers with tools enabling the assessment of sustainable energy investments. In order to do so, the aim of this study is to create a novel tool for the assessment of solar radiation (SOLIS) in ArcGIS. The SOLIS tool builds on the existing ArcGIS algorithm by including input data conversion and post-processing of the results. This should expand the group of potential users of solar radiation analyses. The self-filtering tool excludes surfaces that are not suitable for solar energy investments due to geometrical reasons. The reduction of the size of the output data is positive for technical reasons (speed of the calculation and occupied storage place) and for cognitive reasons (reduction of the number of objects necessary to analyse by the user). The SOLIS tool limits the requirement for users to insert three-dimensional (3D) models of roofs (with any geometry) and select solar radiation calculation periods. The highlight of this research is to develop the decision support tool for the assessment of solar radiation, which would reduce the requirements for potential users, in order to promote indicator-based assessments among non-Geographical Information Systems (GIS) specialists. Full article
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20 pages, 2417 KiB  
Article
Optimal Power Dispatch of Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid Located in Colombian Territory
by Andrés Henao-Muñoz, Andrés Saavedra-Montes and Carlos Ramos-Paja
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071877 - 19 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3781
Abstract
An optimal power dispatch of a small-scale standalone microgrid for remote area power supply in Colombian territory is proposed in this paper. The power dispatch is generated by an energy management system based on a mixed-integer linear programming, which minimizes the cost of [...] Read more.
An optimal power dispatch of a small-scale standalone microgrid for remote area power supply in Colombian territory is proposed in this paper. The power dispatch is generated by an energy management system based on a mixed-integer linear programming, which minimizes the cost of operating the microgrid while fulfilling the technical constraints of its elements. The energy management system solves an optimization problem using the algebraic representation of the generators and its constraints. Basic steady-state models of the generators are selected to solve the optimization problem. The small-scale microgrid is considered for a remote area power supply in Taroa, a small settlement in La Guajira, Colombia. The microgrid is composed of photovoltaic modules, a wind generator, a diesel generator, a battery bank, and residential loads. To validate the solution, the elements of the microgrids are parameterized with information from commercial equipment. Moreover, the power dispatch obtained with the proposed solution is compared with a power dispatch generated by a heuristic algorithm, which has been previously used to dispatch power in a small-scale standalone microgrid. Results show that the cost of operating the microgrid is minimized using the proposed optimization approach: a reduction of the operating cost equal to 25.5% of the cost imposed by the heuristic algorithm is obtained. Full article
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13 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Fluid Structure Interaction Modelling of Tidal Turbine Performance and Structural Loads in a Velocity Shear Environment
by Mujahid Badshah, Saeed Badshah and Kushsairy Kadir
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071837 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3758
Abstract
Tidal Current Turbine (TCT) blades are highly flexible and undergo considerable deflection due to fluid interactions. Unlike Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) models are able to model this hydroelastic behavior. In this work a coupled modular FSI approach was [...] Read more.
Tidal Current Turbine (TCT) blades are highly flexible and undergo considerable deflection due to fluid interactions. Unlike Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) models are able to model this hydroelastic behavior. In this work a coupled modular FSI approach was adopted to develop an FSI model for the performance evaluation and structural load characterization of a TCT under uniform and profiled flow. Results indicate that for a uniform flow case the FSI model predicted the turbine power coefficient CP with an error of 4.8% when compared with experimental data. For the rigid blade Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) CFD model this error was 9.8%. The turbine blades were subjected to uniform stress and deformation during the rotation of the turbine in a uniform flow. However, for a profiled flow the stress and deformation at the turbine blades varied with the angular position of turbine blade, resulting in a 22.1% variation in stress during a rotation cycle. This variation in stress is quite significant and can have serious implications for the fatigue life of turbine blades. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

38 pages, 10078 KiB  
Review
A Review of Willingness to Pay Studies for Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy Sector
by Dalia Streimikiene, Tomas Balezentis, Ilona Alisauskaite-Seskiene, Gintare Stankuniene and Zaneta Simanaviciene
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081481 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 7547
Abstract
A wide range of climate change mitigation policies have been developed around the world and these policies have become one of the major concerns, however there is still debate among scientists about what are the main external benefits and how to account for [...] Read more.
A wide range of climate change mitigation policies have been developed around the world and these policies have become one of the major concerns, however there is still debate among scientists about what are the main external benefits and how to account for them and prepare effective climate change mitigation policies that might be widely accepted by society in general. One of the main ways to assess external benefit of climate change mitigation in energy sector is to conduct Willingness to Pay (WTP) assessments for climate change mitigation options by households. There are many studies on WTP assessment for climate stability conducted in recent years. The paper surveys the existing literature on WTP for climate change mitigation policy in the energy sector. The aim of the paper is to identify the common variables across a varied set of WTP studies in order to establish a basis for comparison. The key variables selected for analysis of WTP studies for climate change mitigation in energy sector addressed in the paper are: the WTP assessment methods; the main attributes used for comparing alternatives in WTP studies, targeted climate change mitigation policies in energy sector, mathematical model used to estimate WTP, the main socio-demographic factors having impact on WTP for climate change mitigation policies. The analysis of WTP studies for climate change mitigation is grouped in two areas: renewables and energy efficiency measures in households. The paper provides analytical structure for future studies to evaluate the effects of variation in key comparative elements upon WTP. Full article
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25 pages, 2834 KiB  
Review
Comparative Assessment of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Fuel Combustion Sector of Lithuania and Bulgaria
by Asta Mikalauskiene, Justas Štreimikis, Ignas Mikalauskas, Gintarė Stankūnienė and Rimantas Dapkus
Energies 2019, 12(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030529 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3358
Abstract
The paper performed comparative assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends and climate change mitigation policies in the fuel combustion sector of selected EU member states with similar economic development levels and historical pasts, and implementing main EU energy and climate change mitigation [...] Read more.
The paper performed comparative assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends and climate change mitigation policies in the fuel combustion sector of selected EU member states with similar economic development levels and historical pasts, and implementing main EU energy and climate change mitigation policies, having achieved different success in GHG emission reduction. The impact of climate change mitigation policies on GHG emission reduction was assessed based on analysis of countries’ reports to UNFCCC by identifying the key areas of GHG emission reduction, their GHG emission reduction potential, and the driving forces behind them. The study revealed that climate change mitigation policies that have been implemented so far in Bulgaria are less efficient than in Lithuania, as Bulgaria places priorities not on energy efficiency improvement and penetration of renewable energy sources, but on switching from coal to natural gas. The policy implications for strengthening GHG emissions reduction efforts are provided based on analysis conducted. Full article
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21 pages, 1412 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods in Dealing with Sustainable Energy Development Issues
by Indre Siksnelyte, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Dalia Streimikiene and Deepak Sharma
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102754 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 149 | Viewed by 8204
Abstract
The measurement of sustainability is actively used today as one of the main preventative instruments in order to reduce the decline of the environment. Sustainable decision-making in solving energy issues can be supported and contradictory effects can be evaluated by scientific achievements of [...] Read more.
The measurement of sustainability is actively used today as one of the main preventative instruments in order to reduce the decline of the environment. Sustainable decision-making in solving energy issues can be supported and contradictory effects can be evaluated by scientific achievements of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. The main goal of this paper is to overview the application of decision-making methods in dealing with sustainable energy development issues. In this study, 105 published papers from the Web of Science Core Collection (WSCC) database are selected and reviewed, from 2004 to 2017, related to energy sustainability issues and MCDM methods. All the selected papers were categorized into 9 fields by the application area and into 10 fields by the used method. After the categorization of the scientific articles and detailed analysis, SWOT analysis of MCDM approaches in dealing with sustainable energy development issues is provided. The widespread application and use of MCDM methods confirm that MCDM methods can help decision-makers in solving energy sustainability problems and are highly popular and used in practice. Full article
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21 pages, 3821 KiB  
Review
Data Envelopment Analysis in Energy and Environmental Economics: An Overview of the State-of-the-Art and Recent Development Trends
by Abbas Mardani, Dalia Streimikiene, Tomas Balezentis, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Khalil Md Nor and Seyed Meysam Khoshnava
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082002 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 7843
Abstract
Measurement of environmental and energy economics presents an analytical foundation for environmental decision making and policy analysis. Applications of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models in the assessment of environmental and energy economics are increasing notably. The main objective of this review paper is [...] Read more.
Measurement of environmental and energy economics presents an analytical foundation for environmental decision making and policy analysis. Applications of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models in the assessment of environmental and energy economics are increasing notably. The main objective of this review paper is to provide the comprehensive overview of the application of DEA models in the fields of environmental and energy economics. In this regard, a total 145 articles published in the high-quality international journals extracted from two important databases (Web of Science and Scopus) were selected for review. The 145 selected articles are reviewed and classified based on different criteria including author(s), application scheme, different DEA models, application fields, the name of journals and year of publication. This review article provided insights into the methodological and conceptualization study in the application of DEA models in the environmental and energy economics fields. This study should enable scholars and practitioners to understand the state of art of input and output indicators of DEA in the fields of environmental and energy economics. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

24 pages, 5041 KiB  
Concept Paper
Fuel-Optimal Thrust-Allocation Algorithm Using Penalty Optimization Programing for Dynamic-Positioning-Controlled Offshore Platforms
by Se Won Kim and Moo Hyun Kim
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082128 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3004
Abstract
This research, a new thrust-allocation algorithm based on penalty programming is developed to minimize the fuel consumption of offshore vessels/platforms with dynamic positioning system. The role of thrust allocation is to produce thruster commands satisfying required forces and moments for position-keeping, while fulfilling [...] Read more.
This research, a new thrust-allocation algorithm based on penalty programming is developed to minimize the fuel consumption of offshore vessels/platforms with dynamic positioning system. The role of thrust allocation is to produce thruster commands satisfying required forces and moments for position-keeping, while fulfilling mechanical constraints of the control system. The developed thrust-allocation algorithm is mathematically formulated as an optimization problem for the given objects and constraints of a dynamic positioning system. Penalty programming can solve the optimization problems that have nonlinear object functions and constraints. The developed penalty-programming thrust-allocation method is implemented in the fully-coupled vessel–riser–mooring time-domain simulation code with dynamic positioning control. Its position-keeping and fuel-saving performance is evaluated by comparing with other conventional methods, such as pseudo-inverse, quadratic-programming, and genetic-algorithm methods. In this regard, the fully-coupled time-domain simulation method is applied to a turret-moored dynamic positioning assisted FPSO (floating production storage offloading). The optimal performance of the penalty programming in minimizing fuel consumption in both 100-year and 1-year storm conditions is demonstrated compared to pseudo-inverse and quadratic-programming methods. Full article
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