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Sustainable Energy Reviews II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 23625

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Economics and Rural Development, Lithuanian Centre for Social Sciences, 03220 Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: sustainable development; integrated analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable energy development is the main target and challenge for energy sector development, as the energy sector is a major driver of economic growth and has a significant negative impact on the environment, especially on global climate change. This Special Issue welcomes review papers, original research and case studies dealing with applications of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency improvements in all sectors of the economy, sustainable energy technologies, sustainability assessment tools and models, and policies and regulatory frameworks to promote sustainable energy in the form of in-depth analysis, and critiques and comparative assessments. Impact assessments of the effect of sustainable energy development on the environment, economics and society can provide valuable insights into the developing energy sector and provide policy implications.

Prof. Dr. Dalia Štreimikienė
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy Systems and Sustainability
  • Sustainbale Energy Sources and Technologies
  • Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies
  • New Energy Technologies
  • Energy Efficiency Improvements
  • Energy and Climate Change Mitigation Policies
  • Sustainbaility Assessment of Energy Sources, Technologies, Policies
  • MCDA Tools and Frameworks
  • Surveys and Experiments on Energy Sustainability

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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32 pages, 2825 KiB  
Article
Production of Negative-Emissions Steel Using a Reducing Gas Derived from DFB Gasification
by Sébastien Pissot, Henrik Thunman, Peter Samuelsson and Martin Seemann
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4835; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164835 - 08 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
A dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification process is proposed to produce sustainable reducing gas for the direct reduction (DR) of iron ore. This novel steelmaking route is compared with the established process for DR, which is based on natural gas, and with the [...] Read more.
A dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification process is proposed to produce sustainable reducing gas for the direct reduction (DR) of iron ore. This novel steelmaking route is compared with the established process for DR, which is based on natural gas, and with the emerging DR technology using electrolysis-generated hydrogen as the reducing gas. The DFB-DR route is found to produce reducing gas that meets the requirement of the DR reactor, based on existing MIDREX plants, and which is produced with an energetic efficiency comparable with the natural gas route. The DFB-DR path is the only route considered that allows negative CO2 emissions, enabling a 145% decrease in emissions relative to the traditional blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) route. A reducing gas cost between 45–60 EUR/MWh is obtained, which makes it competitive with the hydrogen route, but not the natural gas route. The cost estimation for liquid steel production shows that, in Sweden, the DFB-DR route cannot compete with the natural gas and BF–BOF routes without a cost associated with carbon emissions and a revenue attributed to negative emissions. When the cost and revenue are set as equal, the DFB-DR route becomes the most competitive for a carbon price >60 EUR/tCO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews II)
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22 pages, 5387 KiB  
Article
Solar Energy Potential in the Yangtze River Delta Region—A GIS-Based Assessment
by Morice R. O. Odhiambo, Adnan Abbas, Xiaochan Wang and Gladys Mutinda
Energies 2021, 14(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010143 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Decarbonization of electrical power generation is an essential necessity in the reduction of carbon emissions, mitigating climate change and attaining sustainable development. Solar energy as a substitution for fossil fuel-based energy sources has the potential to aid in realizing this sustainable future. This [...] Read more.
Decarbonization of electrical power generation is an essential necessity in the reduction of carbon emissions, mitigating climate change and attaining sustainable development. Solar energy as a substitution for fossil fuel-based energy sources has the potential to aid in realizing this sustainable future. This research performs a geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment of the solar energy potential in the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR) of China using high-resolution solar radiation data combined with geographical, social, environmental and cultural constraints data. The solar energy potential is evaluated from the geographical and technical perspective, and the results reveal that the YRDR is endowed with rich solar energy resources, with the geographical potential in the suitable areas ranging from 1446 kWh/m2 to 1658 kWh/m2. It is also estimated that the maximum solar capacity potential could be up to 4140.5 GW, illustrating the high potential available for future capacity development in this region. Realizing this significant potential as an alternative for fossil fuel-based electricity generation would result in a substantial mitigation of CO2 emissions in this region, where air pollution is severe. Potential evaluations found that Jiangsu and Anhui provinces provide the most optimal areas for the development of solar photovoltaics (PV) installations, as they have the highest geographical and technological solar energy potential. Further, findings of the case study undertaken at a solar PV plant show disparities between actual generated power and technical solar potential, highlighting the significance of utilizing solar radiation data from local ground-based meteorological stations. This study provides policy makers and potential investors with information on solar energy potential in the Yangtze River Delta region that would contribute to solar power generation development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews II)
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Review

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26 pages, 8438 KiB  
Review
Online Wind-Atlas Databases and GIS Tool Integration for Wind Resource Assessment: A Spanish Case Study
by Agustín Sánchez-del Rey, Isabel Cristina Gil-García, María Socorro García-Cascales and Ángel Molina-García
Energies 2022, 15(3), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030852 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4819
Abstract
Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly integrated into the electricity-generation sector, being eco-friendly solutions, decreasing global warming, and improving the energy transition process. Among the different renewables, wind energy is considered a mature, clean, renewable, and inexhaustible technology as well, becoming one of [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly integrated into the electricity-generation sector, being eco-friendly solutions, decreasing global warming, and improving the energy transition process. Among the different renewables, wind energy is considered a mature, clean, renewable, and inexhaustible technology as well, becoming one of the main resources in a sustainable framework. Aiming to evaluate the wind resource, scientific contributions have mostly presented a common basis: historical data campaigns of the wind resource mainly considering wind speed—including the module, direction, standard deviation, etc. However, online wind-atlas databases are becoming tools widely used for both wind-resource assessment and optimal wind-power locations. Under this framework, this study analyzed and compared such online wind data sources and their integration with GIS tools for optimal wind-resource-assessment purposes. The proposed methodology identified the corresponding wind-atlas databases directly on their websites and indirectly through the wind data used in relevant contributions about the optimal location of wind sites. Our contribution to the scientific community is thus the review and comparison of these atlas databases for reducing the barrier to access wind data—including GIS-tool-integration analysis. The limitations raised by civil societies, particularly regarding environmental and bird concerns, were not included in this study. Nevertheless, the authors are aware of these concerns and limitations. A Spanish case study was also included in this work, comparing both estimated and collected wind-atlas databases in terms of wind-resource assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews II)
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45 pages, 3712 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Controlling Microgrid Networks with Energy Storage Systems: A Review
by Mudhafar Al-Saadi, Maher Al-Greer and Michael Short
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217234 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5319
Abstract
Distributed Energy Storage Systems are considered key enablers in the transition from the traditional centralized power system to a smarter, autonomous, and decentralized system operating mostly on renewable energy. The control of distributed energy storage involves the coordinated management of many smaller energy [...] Read more.
Distributed Energy Storage Systems are considered key enablers in the transition from the traditional centralized power system to a smarter, autonomous, and decentralized system operating mostly on renewable energy. The control of distributed energy storage involves the coordinated management of many smaller energy storages, typically embedded within microgrids. As such, there has been much recent interest related to controlling aspects of supporting power-sharing balance and sustainability, increasing system resilience and reliability, and balancing distributed state of charge. This paper presents a comprehensive review of decentralized, centralized, multiagent, and intelligent control strategies that have been proposed to control and manage distributed energy storage. It also highlights the potential range of services that can be provided by these storages, their control complications, and proposed solutions. Specific focus on control strategies based upon multiagent communication and reinforcement learning is a main objective of this paper, reflecting recent advancements in digitalization and AI. The paper concludes with a summary of emerging areas and presents a summary of promising future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews II)
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24 pages, 3216 KiB  
Review
Hydraulic Fracturing in Enhanced Geothermal Systems—Field, Tectonic and Rock Mechanics Conditions—A Review
by Rafał Moska, Krzysztof Labus and Piotr Kasza
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5725; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185725 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4889
Abstract
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a well-known stimulation method used to increase production from conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. In recent years, HF has been widely used in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). HF in EGS is used to create a geothermal collector in impermeable [...] Read more.
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a well-known stimulation method used to increase production from conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. In recent years, HF has been widely used in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). HF in EGS is used to create a geothermal collector in impermeable or poor-permeable hot rocks (HDR) at a depth formation. Artificially created fracture network in the collector allows for force the flow of technological fluid in a loop between at least two wells (injector and producer). Fluid heats up in the collector, then is pumped to the surface. Thermal energy is used to drive turbines generating electricity. This paper is a compilation of selected data from 10 major world’s EGS projects and provides an overview of the basic elements needed to design HF. Authors were focused on two types of data: geological, i.e., stratigraphy, lithology, target zone deposition depth and temperature; geophysical, i.e., the tectonic regime at the site, magnitudes of the principal stresses, elastic parameters of rocks and the seismic velocities. For each of the EGS areas, the scope of work related to HF processes was briefly presented. The most important HF parameters are cited, i.e., fracturing pressure, pumping rate and used fracking fluids and proppants. In a few cases, the dimensions of the modeled or created hydraulic fractures are also provided. Additionally, the current state of the conceptual work of EGS projects in Poland is also briefly presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews II)
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26 pages, 13910 KiB  
Review
Bigger Is Not Always Better: Review of Small Wind in Brazil
by Fábio Ricardo Procópio de Araújo, Marcio Giannini Pereira, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos Freitas, Neilton Fidelis da Silva and Eduardo Janser de Azevedo Dantas
Energies 2021, 14(4), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040976 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
This century registers a significant expansion in the wind power market. However, the vast majority of these investments are concentrated in large wind turbines. The century begins with an installed capacity of about 20 GW, which reaches 650 GW in 2019. On the [...] Read more.
This century registers a significant expansion in the wind power market. However, the vast majority of these investments are concentrated in large wind turbines. The century begins with an installed capacity of about 20 GW, which reaches 650 GW in 2019. On the other hand, it is important to highlight that small wind turbines have not followed this virtuous path, a fact that is evident in Brazil’s reality. In this context, the article aims at evaluating the current situation of the wind energy market for Small Wind Turbines in Brazil (SWT) and its future perspectives, identifying the main characteristics of the sector, its challenges, and opportunities. It is an exploratory–explanatory research study that investigates the theme, generating knowledge that turns to practical application, as it seeks answers to solve local interests. This methodological approach provides objective evidence that the production of knowledge about the use of SWT in Brazil still remains embryonic, shaded by the impressive progress registered by the major wind farms in the country, despite all the potential and socioeconomic and environmental attractions. This fact credits the revision research with an innovative role in the apprehension of knowledge related to the development of SWT in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews II)
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