sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 95505

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lithuanian Energy Instiute, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: sustainable energy development; climate change mitigation in the energy sector; behavioral changes; assessment of willingness to pay
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The energy sector has seen serious transformation worldwide owing to economic, technological and environmental development. These changes have occurred worldwide, yet different regions have faced different types of objectives, policies and barriers. Therefore, there is a need for understanding the effects of energy policies across different regions of the world and thereby ensure the spill-over of best practices. On the other hand, support models are needed to set the reasonable targets for energy policies.

As the energy sector impacts such spheres as economy and the environment, an integrated approach is highly desirable. What is more, the levels of decision making in the energy sector nowadays comprise individual users (or prosumers), energy companies, grids and regions with (inter)national bodies of regulation. Thus, the studies aiming at unveiling the effects of energy policies at different levels, regions, and parts of the energy supply chain are welcome in this Special Issue. The topics covered are as follows:

  • Sustainable Energy Production and Use Across the Regions;
  • Sustainable Energy Policy;
  • Theoretical Developments in Energy Planning;
  • Sustainable and Renewable Energy Technologies;
  • Energy Efficiency on Demand and Supply Side;
  • Smart Grids and Virtual Grids;
  • Productivity Analysis Involving Energy and/or Environmental Pressures;
  • GHG Emission and Its Decomposition;
  • Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Energy Sector;
  • MCDA Tools for Decision Making in Energy Sector;
  • Energy System Modelling and its Implication on Energy Policy.

Prof. Dr. Dalia Streimikiene
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable energy
  • energy economics
  • energy policy
  • energy modelling
  • sustainable and renewable energy technologies
  • smart grids

Published Papers (21 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

18 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Differences in Electricity Generation from Renewable Sources from Similar Environmental Conditions: The Cases of Spain and Cuba
by Álvaro González Lorente, Montserrat Hernández López, Francisco Javier Martín Álvarez and Javier Mendoza Jiménez
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5190; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125190 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
In order to achieve the objectives set by the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement, the legislative framework that is developed at the national and regional level must be appropriate. Research has focused on the importance of environmental policies to stimulate renewable [...] Read more.
In order to achieve the objectives set by the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement, the legislative framework that is developed at the national and regional level must be appropriate. Research has focused on the importance of environmental policies to stimulate renewable energy demand and has also highlighted the existence of legal regimes more inclined to preserve the current model of dependence on fossil fuels. The main aim of this paper is to observe the impact of different regulation framework in the use of renewable energies in electricity generation. The choice of Spain and Cuba was based on several reasons: first, they present different models of legal regulations for renewable energies, with more centralized power in the case of Cuba and more influence of supranational institutions in the case of Spain; second, they have similarities regarding their productive model (highly dependent on hydrocarbons as sources of electricity generation) and the high potential for electricity generation with renewable energies thanks to their rich natural endowment that could favor energy generation from sources like the sun, wind and water; finally, both countries face a global situation where they could take advantage of this cost-cutting moment, and therefore, of electricity tariffs, to propose a sustainable model of electricity generation based exclusively on renewable energies. The conclusions show that Spain can become a role model to improve the Cuban system, given that the European and Spanish “green” positions can be very useful in developing Cuba’s future energy model based on renewables. The existing ties between the Caribbean country, Spain and the European Union (EU) should be the basis to support a model for which Cuba has an outstanding endowment of natural resources and where the similarities with Spain can generate synergies based on the European experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 1321 KiB  
Article
Energy Related CO2 Emissions before and after the Financial Crisis
by Perry Sadorsky
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093867 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3973
Abstract
The 2008–2009 financial crisis, often referred to as the Great Recession, presented one of the greatest challenges to economies since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Before the financial crisis, and in response to the Kyoto Protocol, many countries were making great strides [...] Read more.
The 2008–2009 financial crisis, often referred to as the Great Recession, presented one of the greatest challenges to economies since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Before the financial crisis, and in response to the Kyoto Protocol, many countries were making great strides in increasing energy efficiency, reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and reducing their emissions of CO2. During the financial crisis, CO2 emissions declined in response to a decrease in economic activity. The focus of this research is to study how energy related CO2 emissions and their driving factors after the financial crisis compare to the period before the financial crisis. The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method is used to decompose changes in country level CO2 emissions into contributing factors representing carbon intensity, energy intensity, economic activity, and population. The analysis is conducted for a group of 19 major countries (G19) which form the core of the G20. For the G19, as a group, the increase in CO2 emissions post-financial crisis was less than the increase in CO2 emissions pre-financial crisis. China is the only BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) country to record changes in CO2 emissions, carbon intensity and energy intensity in the post-financial crisis period that were lower than their respective values in the pre-financial crisis period. Compared to the pre-financial crisis period, Germany, France, and Italy also recorded lower CO2 emissions, carbon intensity and energy intensity in the post-financial crisis period. Germany and Great Britain are the only two countries to record negative changes in CO2 emissions over both periods. Continued improvements in reducing CO2 emissions, carbon intensity and energy intensity are hard to come by, as only four out of nineteen countries were able to achieve this. Most countries are experiencing weak decoupling between CO2 emissions and GDP. Germany and France are the two countries that stand out as leaders among the G19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3728 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Oil Import Risk and Strategic Petroleum Reserve: The Case of China
by Xiaodong Guo, Chen Hao and Shuwen Niu
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093723 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
Based on the data of 17 countries along the “One Belt and One Road” from 2000 to 2016, this paper quantified China’s oil import risks, and proposed a quantitative model to cope with the oil disruption. According to the model, the optimized scales [...] Read more.
Based on the data of 17 countries along the “One Belt and One Road” from 2000 to 2016, this paper quantified China’s oil import risks, and proposed a quantitative model to cope with the oil disruption. According to the model, the optimized scales of strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) and alternative fuels were calculated. An analysis of China’s examples shows that Saudi Arabia and Russia were the countries with the least supply risks in 2000−2016, and 10 countries with the highest risk of marine transportation were mainly located in the Middle East. China’s oil imports from Iraq and Qatar were more vulnerable to supply risks, and oil imports from other oil-producing countries in the Middle East were less affected. In addition, China’s oil imports from Asian countries were more susceptible to transportation risks, and those from the Middle East countries were less or not affected. If only SPR is considered, the optimal scale of SPR is 77 “days of oil consumption” to cope with the once-in-a-decade disruption to oil supplies. Once both alternative fuels and SPR were considered, China’s optimal alternative fuels’ size is 10 “days oil consumption” and SPR size is 75 “days oil consumption” to cope with the once-in-a-decade oil disruption. When changing disruption size, the proportion of alternative fuel and SPR will also change. If disruption scale continues to increase, the alternative fuels’ size increases from 10 “days of oil consumption” to 25 “days of oil consumption”, then decreases to 0, and the SPR size increases from 75 “days of oil consumption” to 270 “days of oil consumption”. This indicates that the SPR is more important than alternative fuels when the disruption scale is large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 1383 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Analysis of Energy Access with a Focus on the Role of Mini-Grids
by Alexandros Korkovelos, Hisham Zerriffi, Mark Howells, Morgan Bazilian, H-Holger Rogner and Francesco Fuso Nerini
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051793 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6984
Abstract
Achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 is a key part of the Agenda for Sustainable Development, and has its own Sustainable Development Goal, SDG 7.1. This is because electricity services are required for almost all aspects of a modern economy, from the [...] Read more.
Achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 is a key part of the Agenda for Sustainable Development, and has its own Sustainable Development Goal, SDG 7.1. This is because electricity services are required for almost all aspects of a modern economy, from the cooling of vaccines to irrigation pumping, to manufacturing and running a business. The achievement of SDG 7.1 will require a thoughtful mix of policy, finance, and technology to be designed and implemented at scale. Yet, the pressing need for an electrification ramp-up is not unprecedented. Many countries (now considered “industrialized”) faced similar challenges about a century ago. Although the existing literature covers a great deal of power systems evolution, there is a gap around the specific role and impact of small, isolated power systems in the early stages of electricity uptake. In this paper, we provide insights based on the review of the historical electrification efforts in four (now middle and high-income) countries. The drivers and context of electrification efforts in early stages are described. Those focus particularly on the role of dispersed, small-scale generation systems (mini-grids). Our analysis shows that electrification follows four loosely defined phases, namely: pilot projects, technological roll-out, economic expansion, and social scale-up. We report a selection of historical mistakes and advances that offer lessons of striking importance for today´s energy access efforts, particularly in regards to the development of mini-grids. We find that today, as historically, multi-stakeholder (e.g., planners, regulators, developers, investors, third party actors) collaboration is key and can help build locally adaptable, economically sustainable and community compatible mini-grids that can accelerate—and lower the societal costs of—universal access to electricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure A1

14 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth, Industrial Structure, Renewable and Nuclear Energy, and Urbanization on Korean Greenhouse Gas Emissions
by Suyi Kim
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041625 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4003
Abstract
This study analyzes the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth, industrial structure, renewable and nuclear energy, and urbanization on Korean greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1981 to 2014. The cointegration relationship of the variables is examined using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth, industrial structure, renewable and nuclear energy, and urbanization on Korean greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1981 to 2014. The cointegration relationship of the variables is examined using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test. The test confirmed the long-run equilibrium among the variables. After that, the short-run and long-run coefficients are estimated by an ARDL error-correction model. The result shows that in the long run, economic growth and urbanization are the main contributors to the increase of GHG emissions, while manufacturing industry share, renewable energy and nuclear energy contributed to the reduction of GHG emissions. The inflow of FDI has led to the increase of greenhouse gases, but the coefficients is negligible. In the short run, economic growth has caused an increase in GHG emissions, while renewable and nuclear energy have contributed to the reduction in GHG emissions. FDI and urbanization did not play a role in increasing of GHG emissions in the short term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
How Do Configuration Shifts in Fragmented Energy Governance Affect Policy Output? A Case Study of Changing Biogas Regimes in Indonesia
by Ibnu Budiman and Mattijs Smits
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041358 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
Biogas technology to support rural livelihoods and low-carbon development has been developed in different projects and programs in the Global South over the last few decades. However, the existence of multiple projects, actors and designs involved may lead to so-called fragmentation in governance. [...] Read more.
Biogas technology to support rural livelihoods and low-carbon development has been developed in different projects and programs in the Global South over the last few decades. However, the existence of multiple projects, actors and designs involved may lead to so-called fragmentation in governance. This research addresses the fragmented governance amongst the biogas programmes in Indonesia to study their impact on the implementation; the numbers of biodigesters disseminated and knowledge transferred. Drawing on concepts of fragmentation, regime effectiveness, and policy output, the research uses data from interviews with relevant actors, supplemented with documents review. Findings show that the governance architecture of biogas regime in Indonesia consists of different types of biogas programmes championed by different types of actors pursuing different objectives. There had been patterns and periodical shifts of configuration within the Indonesian biogas regime, i.e., from administrative fragmentation (2007–2009), to conflictive fragmentation (2010–2012), to cooperative fragmentation (2013–2016), and reduced fragmentation (2017). Shifting from administrative to cooperative fragmentation resonates with the increase of the number of biodigesters dissemination more than fourfold in ten years, from 800 in 2007, to 37,999 in 2016. The distribution of power within the governance architecture among government bodies, NGOs, and the private sector influenced the speed of implementation and innovation of the biogas programs. This suggests that a higher degree of distribution of power and cooperation within a governance architecture contribute to increasing policy output of the regime complex of renewable energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
An Inverted-U Impact of Environmental Regulations on Carbon Emissions in China’s Iron and Steel Industry: Mechanisms of Synergy and Innovation Effects
by Ya Chen, Xiaoli Fan and Qian Zhou
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031038 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3344
Abstract
Based on a panel data of China’s iron and steel (IS) industry from 2000 to 2014, this paper explores the impact of environmental regulations on CO2 emissions in the industry. The results show that there is a clear inverted-U relationship between environmental [...] Read more.
Based on a panel data of China’s iron and steel (IS) industry from 2000 to 2014, this paper explores the impact of environmental regulations on CO2 emissions in the industry. The results show that there is a clear inverted-U relationship between environmental regulations and CO2 emissions in the IS industry. Additionally, there are regional heterogeneity and regulatory intensity on the impact of environmental regulations on CO2 emissions. The results in the eastern region are consistent with the whole sample results, while the upward trend in the central region and the downward trend in the western region together lay the basis for the inverted-U shape of the whole sample. High environmental regulations affect CO2 emissions in an inverted-U shape, while low environmental regulations present a U shape. The mechanisms of environmental regulations affecting CO2 emissions are synergy effect and technological innovation effect. Finally, this paper proposes some policy recommendations according to the above findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 6897 KiB  
Article
Supporting Electrification Policy in Fragile States: A Conflict-Adjusted Geospatial Least Cost Approach for Afghanistan
by Alexandros Korkovelos, Dimitrios Mentis, Morgan Bazilian, Mark Howells, Anwar Saraj, Sulaiman Fayez Hotaki and Fanny Missfeldt-Ringius
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030777 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5996
Abstract
Roughly two billion people live in areas that regularly suffer from conflict, violence, and instability. Infrastructure development in those areas is very difficult to implement and fund. As an example, electrification systems face major challenges such as ensuring the security of the workforce [...] Read more.
Roughly two billion people live in areas that regularly suffer from conflict, violence, and instability. Infrastructure development in those areas is very difficult to implement and fund. As an example, electrification systems face major challenges such as ensuring the security of the workforce or reliability of power supply. This paper presents electrification results from an explorative methodology, where the costs and risks of conflict are explicitly considered in a geo-spatial, least cost electrification model. Discount factor and risk premium adjustments are introduced per technology and location in order to examine changes in electrification outlooks in Afghanistan. Findings indicate that the cost optimal electrification mix is very sensitive to the local context; yet, certain patterns emerge. Urban populations create a strong consumer base for grid electricity, in some cases even under higher risk. For peri-urban and rural areas, electrification options are more sensitive to conflict-induced risk variation. In this paper, we identify these inflection points, quantify key decision parameters, and present policy recommendations for universal electrification of Afghanistan by 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 4187 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Distributional Impacts of European Cap-and-Trade Climate Policies: A CGE Multi-Regional Analysis
by Roland Cunha Montenegro, Vidas Lekavičius, Jurica Brajković, Ulrich Fahl and Kai Hufendiek
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6868; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236868 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3948
Abstract
Carbon pricing is a policy with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the household sector and support the European Union in achieving its environmental targets by 2050. However, the policy faces acceptance problems from the majority of the public. In the [...] Read more.
Carbon pricing is a policy with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the household sector and support the European Union in achieving its environmental targets by 2050. However, the policy faces acceptance problems from the majority of the public. In the framework of the project Role of technologies in an energy efficient economy–model-based analysis of policy measures and transformation pathways to a sustainable energy system (REEEM), financed by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 program, we investigate the effects of such a policy in order to understand its challenges and opportunities. To that end, we use a recursive-dynamic multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium model to represent carbon pricing as a cap-and-trade system and calculate its impacts on consumption of energy goods, incidence of carbon prices, and gross income growth for different income groups. We compare one reference scenario and four scenario variations with distinct CO2 reduction targets inside and outside of the EU. The results demonstrate that higher emission reductions, compared to the reference scenario, lead to slower Gross Domestic Product growth, but also produce a more equitable increase of gross income and can help reduce income inequalities. In this case, considering that the revenues of carbon pricing are paid back to the households, the gross income of the poorest quintile grows as much as, or even more in some cases, than the gross income of the richest quintile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2104 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand Forecast (2018–2040): A LEAP Model Application towards a Sustainable Power Generation System in Ecuador
by Luis Rivera-González, David Bolonio, Luis F. Mazadiego and Robert Valencia-Chapi
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5316; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195316 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5679
Abstract
This research assesses the Ecuadorian power generation system, estimating the electricity supply and demand forecast until 2040. For this purpose, three potential alternative scenarios were analyzed using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) System; S1: Business As Usual; S2: Power Generation Master Plan; [...] Read more.
This research assesses the Ecuadorian power generation system, estimating the electricity supply and demand forecast until 2040. For this purpose, three potential alternative scenarios were analyzed using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) System; S1: Business As Usual; S2: Power Generation Master Plan; and S3: Sustainable Power Generation System. The main goal of this study is to analyze the possible alternatives for electricity supply and demand, fuel consumption, and the future structure of the Ecuadorian power generation system to transform the current system based on petroleum fuels into a sustainable system that consumes natural gas, and progressively introduces renewable power generation plants such as solar, wind, biomass, and hydroelectric until 2040. According to the estimated results through the inclusion of sustainable energy policies, S3 scenario relative to S1 scenario could reduce the average CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions by 11.72%, the average production costs by 9.78%, and the average petroleum fuel consumption by 15.95%. Consequently, a correct energy transition contributes to the protection of the environment and public health and has a direct effect on economic savings for the state, which benefits to improve the citizen’s quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Demand Function for Industrial Electricity: Evidence from South Korean Manufacturing Sector
by Hyo-Jin Kim, Gyeong-Sam Kim and Seung-Hoon Yoo
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185112 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Electricity is a crucial input to the industrial production of South Korea. Estimating the demand function for electricity in the manufacturing sector is an important task because electricity consumption in the manufacturing sector accounts for 56.3% of total electricity consumption in South Korea. [...] Read more.
Electricity is a crucial input to the industrial production of South Korea. Estimating the demand function for electricity in the manufacturing sector is an important task because electricity consumption in the manufacturing sector accounts for 56.3% of total electricity consumption in South Korea. Thus, this article tries to estimate the demand function for industrial electricity in the manufacturing sector of South Korea using cross-sectional data for analyzing the influence of manufacturing firms’ characteristics. To this end, 946 observations collected from a nationwide survey of manufacturing firms in 2018 are used and analyzed. As a robust approach, the least absolute deviations estimation method is applied to obtaining the demand function. The results show that the price elasticity and the sales amount elasticity of the industrial electricity demand are estimated to be −0.9206 and 0.2568, respectively, which are statistically significant at the 1% level. Furthermore, the economic benefits of industrial electricity consumption are computed to be 1.46 times as great as the price of electricity. The results of this study can be utilized in policy planning, making, and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
21 pages, 1369 KiB  
Article
Scientific Decision Framework for Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources under Q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy Set with Partially Known Weight Information
by R. Krishankumar, K. S. Ravichandran, Samarjit Kar, Fausto Cavallaro, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas and Abbas Mardani
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4202; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154202 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 3275
Abstract
As an attractive generalization of the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), q-rung orthopair fuzzy set (q-ROFS) provides the decision makers (DMs) with a wide window for preference elicitation. Previous studies on q-ROFS indicate that there is an urge for a decision framework which can [...] Read more.
As an attractive generalization of the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), q-rung orthopair fuzzy set (q-ROFS) provides the decision makers (DMs) with a wide window for preference elicitation. Previous studies on q-ROFS indicate that there is an urge for a decision framework which can make use of the available information in a proper manner for making rational decisions. Motivated by the superiority of q-ROFS, in this paper, a new decision framework is proposed, which provides scientific methods for multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM). Initially, a programming model is developed for calculating weights of attributes with the help of partially known information. Later, another programming model is developed for determining the weights of DMs with the help of partially known information. Preferences from different DMs are aggregated rationally by using the weights of DMs and extending generalized Maclaurin symmetric mean (GMSM) operator to q-ROFS, which can properly capture the interrelationship among attributes. Further, complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) method is extended to q-ROFS for prioritization of objects by using attributes’ weight vector and aggregated preference matrix. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated by using a renewable energy source prioritization problem from an Indian perspective. Finally, the superiorities and weaknesses of the framework are discussed in comparison with state-of-the-art methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 497 KiB  
Article
Corporate Social Responsibility and Corruption: Implications for the Sustainable Energy Sector
by Jintao Lu, Licheng Ren, Jiayuan Qiao, Siqin Yao, Wadim Strielkowski and Justas Streimikis
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4128; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154128 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 9359
Abstract
This paper focuses on the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its relationship with sustainability. The authors investigate the linkages between CSR and sustainability at both enterprise and country levels. The main focus of this study is the energy sector due to [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its relationship with sustainability. The authors investigate the linkages between CSR and sustainability at both enterprise and country levels. The main focus of this study is the energy sector due to its importance in terms of economic, environmental, and social impacts. There are some doubts as to whether a socially responsible business meets public welfare expectations and fosters the country’s social and economic development, as well as the successful achievement of sustainable development objectives. However, it becomes apparent that the development of corporate social responsibility in the energy sector faces a plethora of challenges. Corruption is one of the most important challenges of sustainable energy development. The study analyzes the main areas of CSR policies where energy companies are expected to make a positive contribution to sustainable energy development: mitigation of environmental impact, economic and social development, and good governance. The authors argue that the corruption risks represent a very important issue that is hampering sustainable energy development, and CSR can be applied to mitigate these risks in the energy sector. In addition, government policies might be necessary to create a favorable environment for corruption risk mitigation. The study analyzes the main tools of corporate social responsibility in the energy sector and addresses the impact of CSR on the sustainability of energy sector and corruption risk mitigation. The study analyzes a corruption risk mitigation model in the energy sector and provides recommendations for strengthening corporate social responsibility and mitigating corruption risk. Our results show that CSR can play a vital role in dealing with corruption in the energy sector at the enterprise level. It becomes apparent that anti-corruption standards represent the main supporting means for achieving other CSR goals and principles. Therefore, mitigation of corruption risks should become a priority for socially responsible companies that are operating in the energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3706 KiB  
Article
A Bibliometric Analysis of Energy Performance Contracting Research from 2008 to 2018
by Wenjie Zhang and Hongping Yuan
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133548 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5045
Abstract
Increasing research interests in energy performance contracting (EPC) has resulted in a large number of publications over the past decade. However, very limited attempts have been made to map the global research in this area. To identify the state of the field and [...] Read more.
Increasing research interests in energy performance contracting (EPC) has resulted in a large number of publications over the past decade. However, very limited attempts have been made to map the global research in this area. To identify the state of the field and trends in EPC research, the VOSviewer software package was used to conduct a series of content analyses and examine global patterns among publications, including the distribution of core authors and institutions, high-frequency categories and keywords, journal and author contributions, highly cited papers, etc. Based on a systematical and deeply qualitative analysis on the 127 identified papers, five mainstream research topics in EPC were summarized, covering implementations of EPC, mechanisms for effective EPC projects, stakeholder behaviors and decisions in EPC projects, energy service company (ESCO) in EPC projects, and risk management in EPC. In addition, six main research gaps in EPC were identified, including lack of effective measurement and verification of energy savings, limited studies on EPC projects in the residential sector, ineffective mechanisms to ensure post-EPC energy-saving, limited research on the dual relationships among EPC project stakeholders, how to improve the energy users’ (EU) attitudes/cognitions toward ESCO/EPC, and lack of effective mechanisms to prevent risks in EPC projects. Furthermore, based on the current EPC research topics and research gaps in EPC, six potential research directions in EPC in future were also explored, which are how to develop effective methods for measuring and verifying energy efficiency?, EPC diffusion issues in the residential sector, effective mechanisms to ensure post-EPC energy-saving, effects of cooperative and competitive relationships between EU and ESCO on the performance of EPC projects, how to improve the EU’s attitudes/cognitions toward ESCO/EPC, and how to deal with risks in EPC projects. The outcomes would be useful for understanding the latest development of global EPC research and guiding future research in the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Urban Sprawl and Industrial Agglomeration on Environmental Efficiency: Evidence from the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Urban Agglomeration
by Dong Feng, Jian Li, Xintao Li and Zaisheng Zhang
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113042 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3118
Abstract
Environmental efficiency evaluation is an effective way to assess the synergetic development degree between the economy and environment. In order to realize the mechanism of the effects of urban sprawl and industrial agglomeration on environmental efficiency by using the super efficiency Slacks-based Measure [...] Read more.
Environmental efficiency evaluation is an effective way to assess the synergetic development degree between the economy and environment. In order to realize the mechanism of the effects of urban sprawl and industrial agglomeration on environmental efficiency by using the super efficiency Slacks-based Measure (SBM) model with undesirable outputs, this paper firstly calculates the environmental efficiency of the 13 cities in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban agglomeration from 2006 to 2017. Then, based on the panel data of the 13 cities, we empirically examine the influence of urban sprawl and industrial agglomeration on environmental efficiency by adopting the panel Tobit regression model. The results show that large gaps exist in the degree of the cities’ environmental efficiency in the research period, and only Beijing’s environmental efficiency exhibits full efficiency in the 13 cities, with the overall environmental efficiency of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban agglomeration presenting a decreasing trend. Additionally, the Tobit regression results indicate that urban sprawl has a significantly negative impact on environmental efficiency, but with the continual improvement of industrial agglomeration, the negative effects of urban sprawl will be partially offset. From the regression results of control variables, economic growth and urbanization developments have an inhibiting effect on the promotion of environmental efficiency. Furthermore, industrial structure optimization and technological innovation are helpful to improve environmental efficiency. The opening-up policy has had a significantly positive impact on environmental efficiency, and the “pollution paradise” hypothesis was untenable in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban agglomeration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
16 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Linking between Renewable Energy, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth: Challenges for Candidates and Potential Candidates for the EU Membership
by Yuriy Bilan, Dalia Streimikiene, Tetyana Vasylieva, Oleksii Lyulyov, Tetyana Pimonenko and Anatolii Pavlyk
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061528 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 143 | Viewed by 7104
Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of renewable energy sources (RESs), CO2 emissions, macroeconomics, and the political stability in a country on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The authors analyse the dynamics of RESs use, CO2 emissions, and GDP development and also [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the impact of renewable energy sources (RESs), CO2 emissions, macroeconomics, and the political stability in a country on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The authors analyse the dynamics of RESs use, CO2 emissions, and GDP development and also test the following hypotheses: (1) The country’s economic growth is related to the energy consumption, in terms of both human resources and capital; (2) the share of the renewable energy consumption of the total energy consumption has a positive impact on the economic growth; and (3) the share of the renewable energy consumption of the total energy consumption is unrelated to the economic growth. To test the above hypotheses, the authors use the modified Cobb-Douglas production function, which also considers RES production volumes, CO2 emissions, and economic growth. The study employs data between 1995 to 2015 from the candidate and potential candidate countries for the EU membership. The data are drawn from the World Bank and Eurostat. The analyses entail panel unit root tests, Pedroni panel cointegration tests, fully modified OLS (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS) panel cointegration techniques, and the Vector Error Correction model (VECM). The findings confirm the relationship between RESs, CO2 emissions, and the GDP. For the EU countries, RESs as human resources and capital have an impact on the GDP. Moreover, the results reveal a correction retraction when the economic growth leads to an increase in renewable energy consumption. The investigation also finds that candidate and potential candidate countries for the EU membership should foster renewable energy development. The authors conclude that developing affordable and effective instruments and mechanisms to boost the RES implementation is necessary to decrease the anthropogenic impact on the environment (in particular, decreasing CO2 emissions) without any attendant reduction in the economic growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
The Concept of Risk and Possibilities of Application of Mathematical Methods in Supporting Decision Making for Sustainable Energy Development
by Marcin Rabe, Dalia Streimikiene and Yuriy Bilan
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041018 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3150
Abstract
This study is devoted to presentation of the concept of risk, and the possibility of applying mathematical methods in supporting decision making in the energy sector to promote sustainable energy development. The problem with risk assessment in the energy sector arises mainly due [...] Read more.
This study is devoted to presentation of the concept of risk, and the possibility of applying mathematical methods in supporting decision making in the energy sector to promote sustainable energy development. The problem with risk assessment in the energy sector arises mainly due to the difficulty of expressing risk in numerical terms. To avoid risk, it is necessary to set the criteria and objectives of measurement before making decisions in the energy sector. The aim of this study is to try to fill in this gap by means of comparing decisions under risk conditions within models supporting energy decisions. The authors’ focus is on the problem of risk in supporting decision making towards sustainable energy sector development, which is the main target of the European Union (EU) energy policies. Without the ability to determine the probability of occurrence of certain phenomena and their inclusion into the model, it is not possible to determine how well the solutions resulting from the models are accurate, and what is the probability of their implementation under specific conditions linked to renewable energy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 5239 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Energy Sector Development Trends and Forecast of Final Energy Demand in the Baltic States
by Vaclovas Miskinis, Arvydas Galinis, Inga Konstantinaviciute, Vidas Lekavicius and Eimantas Neniskis
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020521 - 19 Jan 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4540
Abstract
The paper provides a comparative analysis of economic growth in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and discusses differences in development of the main sectors during the period 2000–2016. Based on detailed analysis of energy sector development, the driving factors influencing changes in primary energy [...] Read more.
The paper provides a comparative analysis of economic growth in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and discusses differences in development of the main sectors during the period 2000–2016. Based on detailed analysis of energy sector development, the driving factors influencing changes in primary energy consumption in each country and in the Baltic region are discovered. Increase of renewable energy sources (RES) consumption in the Baltic region over this period by 73.6% is emphasized. The paper presents valuable insights from analysis of trends in final energy consumption by sectors of the national economies, branches of the manufacturing sector, and by energy carriers. Long-term relationships between economic growth and final energy consumption are established. An econometric model was applied to predict final energy demand in the Baltic States for the 2020 horizon. It is emphasized that growing activities in the manufacturing and transport sectors will cause increase of final energy demand in all three countries. Based on detailed analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trends some positive shifts are shown and the necessity of new policies in the transport sector and agriculture is identified. Changes of emission intensity indicators are examined and a potential for decoupling of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from economic growth in Estonia is indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Economic and Efficiency Analysis of China Electricity Market Reform Using Computable General Equilibrium Model
by Jieting Yin, Qingyou Yan, Kaijie Lei, Tomas Baležentis and Dalia Streimikiene
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020350 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4729
Abstract
China’s electricity industry has been undergoing a process of regulatory reform. This study aims to analyse the impact of liberalization on the electricity market assuming different degrees of scope of the reforms by applying a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. In this paper, [...] Read more.
China’s electricity industry has been undergoing a process of regulatory reform. This study aims to analyse the impact of liberalization on the electricity market assuming different degrees of scope of the reforms by applying a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. In this paper, we consider the three sub-sectors of the electricity industry, namely generation, transmission and distribution. We assume that the reform will phase out the entry barriers on the generation side and allow for competition on the distribution side, while keeping the transmission side under regulation. The results showed that the reform could enhance efficiency in the electricity sector and reduce energy prices for households. Introduction of a complete competition model would decrease welfare by 5.394 billion yuan, if contrasted to a limited competition model. The composite energy price would decline under both scenarios, whereas the quantity of energy consumed by the households would go up. This research, thus, contributes to literature on the economic effects of China’s electric power market reform, and can be used as a case study to support policy decisions for the decision-makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

17 pages, 2217 KiB  
Review
Overview of the Available Knowledge for the Data Model Definition of a Building Renovation Passport for Non-Residential Buildings: The ALDREN Project Experience
by Marta Maria Sesana, Mathieu Rivallain and Graziano Salvalai
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020642 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3882
Abstract
According to its strategic long-term vision, Europe wants to be a climate-neutral economy by 2050. Buildings play a crucial role in this vision, and they represent a sector with low-cost opportunities for high-level CO2 reduction. The challenge the renovation of the existing [...] Read more.
According to its strategic long-term vision, Europe wants to be a climate-neutral economy by 2050. Buildings play a crucial role in this vision, and they represent a sector with low-cost opportunities for high-level CO2 reduction. The challenge the renovation of the existing building stock, which must be increased to 3%/year, more than double compared to the current 1.2%/year. In this context, the ALliance for Deep RENovation (ALDREN) project has the goal of encouraging property owners to undertake renovation of existing buildings using a clear, robust, and comparable method. This paper aims to present the ALDREN approach and the ALDREN Building Renovation Passport (BRP), giving an overview of the connections and data links to other existing databases and certification schemes. To understand the data value potential of buildings, one requires reliable and trustworthy information. The Building Renovation Passport, introduced by the recent Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) recast 844/2018/EU, aims to provide this information. This paper presents the experience of the ALDREN BRP for non-residential buildings as well as the development procedure for its data model and the potential that this tool could have for the construction market. The ALDREN BRP has been structured into two main parts—BuildLog and RenoMap—with a common language that facilitates communication on the one hand and, on the other, the setting of renovation targets based on lifetime, operation, and user needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 831 KiB  
Review
Innovative Policy Schemes to Promote Renovation of Multi-Flat Residential Buildings and Address the Problems of Energy Poverty of Aging Societies in Former Socialist Countries
by Dalia Streimikiene and Tomas Balezentis
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072015 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3778
Abstract
In former socialist countries, urban districts having the lowest building and insulation quality and the highest district heat consumption overlap with low-income and older households, creating a problem of energy poverty and a significant barrier to renovation of multi-flat buildings. Thus, the main [...] Read more.
In former socialist countries, urban districts having the lowest building and insulation quality and the highest district heat consumption overlap with low-income and older households, creating a problem of energy poverty and a significant barrier to renovation of multi-flat buildings. Thus, the main challenge centers on fuel poverty in an aging society. This paper analyzes the main barriers to renovation of multi-flat buildings and assesses policies and measures to promote renovation of multi-flat buildings in terms of overcoming these barriers in former socialist countries which are currently EU Member States. Furthermore, it presents a new conceptual framework for developing innovative policies and schemes to promote renovation of multi-flat buildings in the face of the renovation barriers outlined above. The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) model or on-bill financing models can be modified and applied to renovation of multi-flat buildings, based on the UK example. Higher payments for utility bills can be shared among households living in multi-flat buildings that require renovation. As in the case of subsidies for communal services, life-line tariffs can be applied to pay for Energy Company Obligation services. This enables sharing the costs of renovation among apartment owners having different incomes and addresses the principle of social justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop