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Sustainable Energy Reviews

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020) | Viewed by 87952

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Economics and Rural Development, Lithuanian Centre for Social Sciences, 03220 Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: sustainable development; integrated analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable energy development is the main target and challenge for energy sector development, as the energy sector is a major driver of economic growth and has a significant negative impact on the environment, especially on global climate change. This Special Issue welcomes review papers, original research and case studies dealing with applications of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency improvements in all sectors of the economy, sustainable energy technologies, sustainability assessment tools and models, and policies and regulatory frameworks to promote sustainable energy in the form of in-depth analysis, and critiques and comparative assessments. Impact assessments of the effect of sustainable energy development on the environment, economics and society can provide valuable insights into the developing energy sector and provide policy implications.

Prof. Dr. Dalia Štreimikienė
Prof. Dr. Tomas Baležentis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy Systems and Sustainability
  • Sustainbale Energy Sources and Technologies
  • Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies
  • New Energy Technologies
  • Energy Efficiency Improvements
  • Energy and Climate Change Mitigation Policies
  • Sustainbaility Assessment of Energy Sources, Technologies, Policies
  • MCDA Tools and Frameworks
  • Surveys and Experiments on Energy Sustainability.

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

26 pages, 7412 KiB  
Article
Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Electricity Load Shedding Experiences: A Case Study of Communities in Accra, Ghana
by Paul Nduhuura, Matthias Garschagen and Abdellatif Zerga
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4280; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174280 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5685
Abstract
In many developing countries, electricity outages occur frequently with consequences for sustainable development. Moreover, within a country, region or city, the distribution of outages and their resultant impacts often vary from one locality to another. However, due to data constraints, local-scale variations in [...] Read more.
In many developing countries, electricity outages occur frequently with consequences for sustainable development. Moreover, within a country, region or city, the distribution of outages and their resultant impacts often vary from one locality to another. However, due to data constraints, local-scale variations in outage experiences have seldom been examined in African countries. In this study, a spatial approach is used to estimate and compare exposure to electricity load shedding outages across communities in the city of Accra, Ghana. Geographic Information System and statistics from the 2015 rolling blackouts are used to quantify neighborhood-level load shedding experiences and examine for spatial patterns. The results show that annual load shedding exposure varied greatly, ranging from 1117 to 3244 h. The exposure values exhibit statistically significant spatial clustering (Moran’s I = 0.3329, p < 0.01). Several neighborhoods classified as load shedding hot or cold spots, clusters and outliers are also identified. Using a spatial approach to quantify load shedding exposure was helpful for overcoming the limitations of lack of fine-grained, micro-level outage data that is often necessary for such an analysis. This approach can therefore be used in other data-constrained cities and regions. The significant global spatial autocorrelation of load-shedding exposure values also suggests influence by underlying spatial processes in shaping the distribution of load shedding experiences. The resultant exposure maps provide vital information on spatial disparities in load shedding implementation, which can be used to influence decisions and policies towards all-inclusive and sustainable electrification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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13 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Oil Price and Energy Depletion Nexus in GCC Countries: Asymmetry Analyses
by Tarek Tawfik Yousef Alkhateeb and Haider Mahmood
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3058; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123058 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Oil price has played a prominent role in oil exporter economies and may also affect energy depletion in oil-dependent countries. Considering asymmetry, the relationship between oil price (OP) and energy depletion has been investigated in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region from 1970 [...] Read more.
Oil price has played a prominent role in oil exporter economies and may also affect energy depletion in oil-dependent countries. Considering asymmetry, the relationship between oil price (OP) and energy depletion has been investigated in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region from 1970 to 2017. We find asymmetrical positive effects of OP on the energy depletion in the panel of the GCC region. To avoid aggregation biasness in the panel estimates, we also conduct a time-series analysis on each GCC country. We find a positive impact of increasing OP on the energy depletion in six GCC countries, and this effect is found to be elastic in the case of all countries except for Kuwait. Positive effects of decreasing OP on the depletion are also found in all the GCC countries, and these effects are found to be elastic or unit elastic in the case of all countries except Saudi Arabia. Asymmetry in the relationship of oil price and energy depletion is established for Bahrain, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia in terms of the different magnitude of effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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15 pages, 1239 KiB  
Article
Model of Optimization of Wind Energy Production in the Light of Legal Changes in Poland
by Marcin Rabe, Dalia Streimikiene and Yuriy Bilan
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071557 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
The article discusses the planning of wind energy development in the West Pomeranian Region after the introduction of the Act "On investments in wind farms" as of 20 May 2016. The purpose of the article is to provide the forecast of the region’s [...] Read more.
The article discusses the planning of wind energy development in the West Pomeranian Region after the introduction of the Act "On investments in wind farms" as of 20 May 2016. The purpose of the article is to provide the forecast of the region’s wind energy development in 2019–2030 by taking into account current legal regulations in Poland. The article proposes an original, optimizing multi-criteria wind energy development model for the studied region, exploring various types of technologies that may appear in the system, taking into account recent legal and political changes in the field of renewable energy regulation in Poland. The results of the optimization model show that the currently passed Act "On investments in wind farms" in Poland actually stopped the development of wind energy in the region. On the other hand, in accordance with the objectives of the adopted draft of the Polish energy policy until 2040, it is expected that the share of renewable energy in electricity production will increase in 2030 in the studied region. Therefore, the paper argues that policy changes are necessary to meet the renewable energy goals of Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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20 pages, 7828 KiB  
Article
The Benefits of Variable Speed Operation in Hydropower Plants Driven by Francis Turbines
by Edson Bortoni, Zulcy de Souza, Augusto Viana, Helcio Villa-Nova, Ângelo Rezek, Luciano Pinto, Roberto Siniscalchi, Rafael Bragança and José Bernardes, Jr.
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193719 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7504
Abstract
Climate change and environmental degradation has resulted in a reduction in water inflow at hydropower plants, as well as a decrease in reservoir levels. Existing hydropower plants suffer from water head reduction, mainly with decrease in efficiency of energy conversion in hydro turbines. [...] Read more.
Climate change and environmental degradation has resulted in a reduction in water inflow at hydropower plants, as well as a decrease in reservoir levels. Existing hydropower plants suffer from water head reduction, mainly with decrease in efficiency of energy conversion in hydro turbines. This paper showcases the benefits of operations with variable speed in existing hydropower plants, when working at a lower water head than the rated one. Theoretical analyses and tests were performed in a special constructed laboratorial setup aiming at evaluating the amount of efficiency recovery with variable speed operation. Connection alternatives for a constant frequency grid and applications of the learned concepts in an existent hydropower plant are presented. The investigations were applied to the Furnas hydropower plant. The results point out that economic feasibility of the application can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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21 pages, 841 KiB  
Article
Comparative Review of Corporate Social Responsibility of Energy Utilities and Sustainable Energy Development Trends in the Baltic States
by Jintao Lu, Licheng Ren, Siqin Yao, Jiayuan Qiao, Wadim Strielkowski and Justas Streimikis
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183417 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 5009
Abstract
This paper aims at developing the theoretical framework for linking the CSR of energy utilities with sustainable energy development achievements and at applying this framework in selected countries. The main issues of CSR relevant to the energy sector are discussed, and a comparative [...] Read more.
This paper aims at developing the theoretical framework for linking the CSR of energy utilities with sustainable energy development achievements and at applying this framework in selected countries. The main issues of CSR relevant to the energy sector are discussed, and a comparative analysis of CSR reports of energy utilities and sustainable energy development trends in the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) is performed based on the developed framework. There are three main interlinked sustainable energy development targets: increase in energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources, and GHG emission reduction. The significance of CSR in the energy sector is underlined based on the literature review, and the state policies to promote CSR in the energy sector are discussed and critically assessed based on the case studies of three Baltic States. The CSR practices of energy utilities of the Baltic States were assessed and compared with sustainable energy development achievements in these countries, based on the analysis of sustainable energy development trends. Estonia achieved the best results in approaching all sustainable energy development targets and was ranked with the highest scores in CSR ranking among the Baltic States, followed by Lithuania. The results of the case studies demonstrate that the Baltic countries have achieved different results in sustainable energy development progress, and the role of energy utilities and their corporate sustainability practices may have huge impacts on the achievement of sustainable energy development targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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12 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Economic Development and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Dynamic Impact of Renewable Energy Consumption, GDP, and Corruption
by Tetyana Vasylieva, Oleksii Lyulyov, Yuriy Bilan and Dalia Streimikiene
Energies 2019, 12(17), 3289; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12173289 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 153 | Viewed by 9445
Abstract
The paper investigates the relationships between economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. GDP growth represents the main economic dimension, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and renewable energy consumption the environmental dimension, and corruption the social dimension of sustainable development. The investigation of [...] Read more.
The paper investigates the relationships between economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. GDP growth represents the main economic dimension, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and renewable energy consumption the environmental dimension, and corruption the social dimension of sustainable development. The investigation of these relationships is based on the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis about the non-linear relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution. The authors used the panel data of EU countries and Ukraine for 2000–2016 years from the Eurostat database. The obtained results confirmed the Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for the EU and Ukraine. All the indicators were statistically significant at 1% and 5% levels. The findings proved that increasing renewable energy (RE) by 1% led to a decline of GHG in the interval (0.166103, 0.220551), and аn increase of the Control of Corruption Index by 1% provoked a decline of GHG by 0.88%. The conducted study enabled the authors to conclude that Ukraine needs to increase the GDP level per capita given the economy diversification and via the introduction of more effective and “clean” production technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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22 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Energy Security: A Case Study of China
by Mu Li, Li Li and Wadim Strielkowski
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112194 - 09 Jun 2019
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 5329
Abstract
Currently, due to the recent unprecedented urbanization and industrialization, energy consumption in China is increasing at an enormous speed. However, this process should go hand in hand with sustainable energy development that is based on three interconnected dimensions: (i) energy security, (ii) energy [...] Read more.
Currently, due to the recent unprecedented urbanization and industrialization, energy consumption in China is increasing at an enormous speed. However, this process should go hand in hand with sustainable energy development that is based on three interconnected dimensions: (i) energy security, (ii) energy affordability, and (iii) environmental sustainability. It becomes very obvious that an increase in energy efficiency leads to the increase in both energy security and environmental sustainability. Therefore, inadequate energy efficiency causes energy security and environmental sustainability issues, and thus negatively influences economic development of China (or any other country for that matter). This paper explores the intrinsic relationship among urbanization, industrialization, and energy security, as well as the influencing mechanisms of urbanization and industrialization on energy efficiency using a fixed effect model. The paper employs panel data from 30 provinces in mainland China collected in the time range from 2006 to 2015. Our results demonstrate that urbanization and industrialization can significantly improve energy efficiency. Although energy security level decreases considerably with the rise of energy consumption and population growth, the increase in urbanization and industrialization levels can increase energy security through energy efficiency improvements. Moreover, it appears that changes in disposable income and population structure do not alter the effects of industrialization and urbanization on energy security. We conclude that Chinese provinces with high and low urbanization levels should focus on technological innovation and increase industrial development and technological input, respectively. Local governments in China can formulate policies and regulations and promote urbanization according to local economic development and industrial and population structure. The paper also presents theoretical references and decision support that might help in developing local laws and regulations promoting energy efficiency during urbanization and industrialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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14 pages, 2382 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Comparison of Some Low-Temperature Heat Sources for Heat Pumps
by Pavel Neuberger and Radomír Adamovský
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101853 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
The efficiency of a heat pump energy system is significantly influenced by its low-temperature heat source. This paper presents the results of operational monitoring, analysis and comparison of heat transfer fluid temperatures, outputs and extracted energies at the most widely used low temperature [...] Read more.
The efficiency of a heat pump energy system is significantly influenced by its low-temperature heat source. This paper presents the results of operational monitoring, analysis and comparison of heat transfer fluid temperatures, outputs and extracted energies at the most widely used low temperature heat sources within 218 days of a heating period. The monitoring involved horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) of linear and Slinky type, vertical ground heat exchangers (VGHEs) with single and double U-tube exchanger as well as the ambient air. The results of the verification indicated that it was not possible to specify clearly the most advantageous low-temperature heat source that meets the requirements of the efficiency of the heat pump operation. The highest average heat transfer fluid temperatures were achieved at linear HGHE (8.13 ± 4.50 °C) and double U-tube VGHE (8.13 ± 3.12 °C). The highest average specific heat output 59.97 ± 41.80 W/m2 and specific energy extracted from the ground mass 2723.40 ± 1785.58 kJ/m2·day were recorded at single U-tube VGHE. The lowest thermal resistance value of 0.07 K·m2/W, specifying the efficiency of the heat transfer process between the ground mass and the heat transfer fluid, was monitored at linear HGHE. The use of ambient air as a low-temperature heat pump source was considered to be the least advantageous in terms of its temperature parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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Review

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21 pages, 335 KiB  
Review
Climate Change Mitigation in Households between Market Failures and Psychological Barriers
by Dalia Streimikiene, Tomas Balezentis and Irena Alebaite
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112797 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
Though there are areas of climate change mitigation linked to household’s energy consumption having huge greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential as energy renovation or installation of micro generation technologies using renewable energy sources, these GHG emission reduction potentials are not realized so [...] Read more.
Though there are areas of climate change mitigation linked to household’s energy consumption having huge greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential as energy renovation or installation of micro generation technologies using renewable energy sources, these GHG emission reduction potentials are not realized so far. The main input of the paper is to overcome this gap and to provide a systematic review of the main barriers of climate change mitigation behavior linked to energy consumption in households and to develop policies to overcome these barriers. The main policies and measures to reduce GHG emissions of energy combustion in households are promotion of renewable energy consumption and energy efficiency improvements however, these policies have been not successful in overcoming some important barriers of climate change mitigation in households. The empirical evidence of behavioral failures is deepened in this paper and the correlation between market barriers, unsuccessful climate change mitigation policies and behavioral and psychological barriers is provided based on systematic literature review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
27 pages, 1012 KiB  
Review
Tools for Measuring Energy Sustainability: A Comparative Review
by Rafael Ninno Muniz, Stéfano Frizzo Stefenon, William Gouvêa Buratto, Ademir Nied, Luiz Henrique Meyer, Erlon Cristian Finardi, Ricardo Marino Kühl, José Alberto Silva de Sá and Brigida Ramati Pereira da Rocha
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092366 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6255
Abstract
This paper is intended to perform a comparative and qualitative review among eight tools to measure energy sustainability. Therefore, it was necessary to create a theoretical and conceptual framework based on four criterias of selection and six categories of comparison. In this work, [...] Read more.
This paper is intended to perform a comparative and qualitative review among eight tools to measure energy sustainability. Therefore, it was necessary to create a theoretical and conceptual framework based on four criterias of selection and six categories of comparison. In this work, the conceptual bases that supported the research and the methodology created to carry out the comparative review will be presented. This analysis was based on the intrinsic concepts of energy sustainability of each of the reviewed tools with a critical qualitative analysis. Some conclusions shown through the conceptual framework developed that it was possible to apply an innovative methodology to qualitatively compare different tools to measure sustainability. The importance of this reflects the difficulty of conceptualizing the subjectivity of sustainable development, as shown throughout the paper, where it is often not possible to obtain a measurable result since the measured phenomenon is too complex to reduce it to a numerical value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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22 pages, 376 KiB  
Review
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) for the Assessment of Renewable Energy Technologies in a Household: A Review
by Indre Siksnelyte-Butkiene, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas and Dalia Streimikiene
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051164 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 147 | Viewed by 9536
Abstract
Different power generation technologies have different advantages and disadvantages. However, if compared to traditional energy sources, renewable energy sources provide a possibility to solve the climate change and economic decarbonization issues that are so relevant today. Therefore, the analysis and evaluation of renewable [...] Read more.
Different power generation technologies have different advantages and disadvantages. However, if compared to traditional energy sources, renewable energy sources provide a possibility to solve the climate change and economic decarbonization issues that are so relevant today. Therefore, the analysis and evaluation of renewable energy technologies has been receiving increasing attention in the politics of different countries and the scientific literature. The household sector consumes almost one third of all energy produced, thus studies on the evaluation of renewable energy production technologies in households are very important. This article reviews the scientific literature that have used multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods as a key tool to evaluate renewable energy technologies in households. The findings of the conducted research are categorized according to the objectives pursued and the criteria on which the evaluation was based are discussed. The article also provides an overview and in-depth analysis of MCDM methods and distinguishes the main advantages and disadvantages of using them to evaluate technologies in households. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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34 pages, 11339 KiB  
Review
A Review of Daylighting System: For Prototype Systems Performance and Development
by Allen Jong-Woei Whang, Tsai-Hsien Yang, Zhong-Hao Deng, Yi-Yung Chen, Wei-Chieh Tseng and Chun-Han Chou
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2863; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152863 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5162
Abstract
Daylighting systems make daylight illuminance possible, and the development of prototype daylighting systems can provide more efficient daylight illuminance. The purpose of this article is to review the development and performance of prototype daylighting systems in the last decade. The passive and active [...] Read more.
Daylighting systems make daylight illuminance possible, and the development of prototype daylighting systems can provide more efficient daylight illuminance. The purpose of this article is to review the development and performance of prototype daylighting systems in the last decade. The passive and active daylighting systems are listed separately and divided into the four categories by the presence and absence of hybrid. Each prototype daylighting system was evaluated in terms of cost and daylight performance and as well as their novel optical design. We evaluated the architecture and daylighting principles of each system by reviewing individual prototype daylighting systems. The cost of prototype systems still poses a challenge to development. How to use passive or active systems in different environments and whether or not electrical lighting assistance is needed is a controversial issue. However, active daylighting systems equipped with solar tracking systems are still mainstream. This research is a valuable resource for daylight researchers and newcomers. It is helpful to understand the advantages of various prototype daylighting systems and commercial daylighting systems that have been developed for many years; moreover, it is also possible to know the research directions suggested by the prototype daylighting systems. These will be of further use in developing innovative and better daylighting systems and designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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16 pages, 2222 KiB  
Review
The Potential and Status of Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia
by Wan Syakirah Wan Abdullah, Miszaina Osman, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir and Renuga Verayiah
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122437 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 146 | Viewed by 22476
Abstract
The Malaysian Government has set an ambitious target to achieve a higher penetration of Renewable Energy (RE) in the Malaysian energy mix. To date, Malaysia has approximately 2% of its energy coming from RE generation sources compared to the total generation mix and [...] Read more.
The Malaysian Government has set an ambitious target to achieve a higher penetration of Renewable Energy (RE) in the Malaysian energy mix. To date, Malaysia has approximately 2% of its energy coming from RE generation sources compared to the total generation mix and targets achieving 20% penetration by 2025. The current energy mix for Malaysia power generation is mainly provided by natural gas and coal. The discussion will cover the traditional sources of generation including natural gas, coal and big hydro stations. In addition, the paper will cover in depth the potential of RE in the country, challenges, and opportunities in this sector. This study can give an initial evaluation of the Malaysian energy industry, especially for RE and can initiate further research and development in this area in order to support the Government target to achieve RE target of 20% by 2025. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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