Non-linear Modelling and Analysis of Buildings

A topical collection in Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This collection belongs to the section "Building Structures".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: nonlinear modeling and analysis of RC buildings; seismic vulnerability for building classes; post-earthquake assessment and reparability of buildings

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: infilled frames; pushover; seismic capacity; frame-infill interaction; retrofit; FRP; brittle failure; joints

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In modern society, there is growing attention towards safety and sustainability of constructions; therefore, building performance estimation has to rely on advanced analysis methods, suitably accounting for possible nonlinear behavior.

The increased knowledge and modeling features for materials and structures, as well as the availability of more reliable analysis tools and software, encourage the adoption of refined nonlinear models towards the static and/or dynamic analysis of single structures, local and global damage assessment, and vulnerability studies.

On the other hand, simplified modeling approaches, such as limit analysis or the adoption of equivalent SDOF or MDOF systems, are useful for sensitivity studies or when large building portfolios have to be analyzed. 

Considering these aspects, this Topical Collection aims at stimulating the exchange of ideas and knowledge on the nonlinear modeling and analysis of buildings. Original contributions describing new research, case studies, and applications or state-of-the-art discussion on the following and related topics are welcome:

  • Nonlinear modeling of bare or infilled RC frames, shear walls or dual systems; steel or masonry buildings; structural elements or sub-assemblages;
  • Advanced/simplified models for estimating the performance of structural systems during earthquakes, wind or blasts; nonlinear soil–structure interaction;
  • Finite element modeling, macro- and micro-modeling approaches; local interaction between structural and nonstructural components; validation of existing and new models to the simulation of structures; experimental calibration;
  • Nonlinear modeling, analysis, and simulation over the range of structural response from damage to collapse; definition of element and building collapse criteria.

Dr. Maria Polese
Dr. Marco Gaetani d'Aragona
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced nonlinear modeling
  • Simplified nonlinear modeling
  • Nonlinear response history analysis
  • Nonlinear static pushover
  • Numerical model calibration
  • Limit analysis
  • Local interaction
  • Performance evaluation

Published Papers (11 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020

23 pages, 35899 KiB  
Article
Design and Non-Linear Modeling of New Wind Girder Used for Bolted Tanks
by Lukas Drahorad, Pavel Marsalek, Juraj Hroncek, David Rybansky, Martin Sotola, Zdenek Poruba and Michal Larys
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112724 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Large-capacity bolted cylindrical tanks for liquid storage are used in many applications. The tanks are made of thin steel sheets that are connected by bolts. A common problem associated with tanks is deforming under extreme loads. Adding wind girders to the tank increases [...] Read more.
Large-capacity bolted cylindrical tanks for liquid storage are used in many applications. The tanks are made of thin steel sheets that are connected by bolts. A common problem associated with tanks is deforming under extreme loads. Adding wind girders to the tank increases the tank’s buckling capacity, which is defined as the limit load at which the structure loses stability. The girders are usually placed in the horizontal joints of the tank wall. The girders are bent from standard or non-standard steel bars with a uniform cross-section. This type of design is difficult to produce, especially with large profiles or large curvatures, to avoid distortion of the cross-section during bending. Furthermore, the girders are customized to the given openings and curvature for various tank diameters. The resulting solution is then uneconomical and more complicated to store. This paper deals with the design and non-linear modeling of a new shape of wind girder for bolted tanks that eliminates the above-mentioned disadvantages. To analyze the new shape of the girder, a non-linear numerical model of an open-topped tank with various dimensions is designed to study its buckling capacity. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021, 2020

18 pages, 6567 KiB  
Article
Non-Linear Analysis and Retrofitting by Steelwork of a Precast RC Warehouse
by Antonio Formisano and Antonio Davino
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091350 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Seismic upgrading and retrofitting of existing constructions is a pressing need for designers and researchers. The necessity of efficient seismic upgrading/retrofitting techniques is, therefore, required in seismic-prone countries, such as Italy. In this framework, steelwork has clearly shown many advantageous applications in the [...] Read more.
Seismic upgrading and retrofitting of existing constructions is a pressing need for designers and researchers. The necessity of efficient seismic upgrading/retrofitting techniques is, therefore, required in seismic-prone countries, such as Italy. In this framework, steelwork has clearly shown many advantageous applications in the last century. Nonetheless, if compared to other different technologies, steelwork is still limited for consolidation purposes. Moreover, the wide damage provoked by earthquakes to industrial buildings have induced scientific research to investigate the seismic vulnerability of such constructions much more. In the current study, the attention has been, therefore, focused on the use of steelwork systems as anti-seismic intervention techniques from a precast RC industrial warehouse hit by the 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes. Besides the usefulness of steelwork in implementing reliable techniques against earthquakes, the paper has the aim of discussing the different seismic behaviour of the building deriving from dissimilar beam-to-column joint types obtained using steelwork interventions. Other than the widely diffused static scheme with hinges, other types of joints (semi-rigid and rigid), along with the presence of a rigid roof, have been investigated, and the different seismic risk indicators derived from these static schemes have been achieved, highlighting the case of the best seismic behaviour of the warehouse. Finally, the effectiveness of local steel interventions in improving the efficient global response of the building has also been highlighted. Full article
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15 pages, 3630 KiB  
Article
Fragility Curves of Existing RC Buildings Accounting for Bidirectional Ground Motion
by Maria Zucconi, Marco Bovo and Barbara Ferracuti
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070872 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
In recent decades, the considerable number of worldwide earthquakes caused considerable damage and several building collapses, underlining the high vulnerability of the existing buildings designed without seismic provisions. In this regard, this work analyses the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete building designed [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the considerable number of worldwide earthquakes caused considerable damage and several building collapses, underlining the high vulnerability of the existing buildings designed without seismic provisions. In this regard, this work analyses the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete building designed without any seismic criteria, characterized by a seismically-stronger and a seismically-weaker direction, such as several existing reinforced concrete-framed structures designed for vertical load only. The case study building was modelled in OpenSees considering a non-linear three-dimensional model, also accounting for the contribution of joint panel deformability on the global behavior. Thirty bidirectional ground motions have been applied to the structure with the highest component alternatively directed along the two principal building directions. Time-history analyses have been performed for eight increasing hazard levels with the aim of evaluating the influence of bidirectional ground motion on structural response and estimating the seismic vulnerability of the building. The seismic performance of the structures are provided in terms of fragility curves for the two principal directions of the building and for different damage states defined according to the European Macroseismic Scale. Full article
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23 pages, 10569 KiB  
Article
Flange Contribution to the Shear Strength of RC T-Beams with Flange in Compression
by Osman M. Ramadan, Ahmed H. Abdel-Kareem, Ibrahim A. El-Azab and Hala R. Abousafa
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060803 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
As is well known, in the current design codes, the shear strength of beams is calculated based on the modified truss theory, which does not consider the effects of the flange area of T-beams. The main objective of this paper was to gain [...] Read more.
As is well known, in the current design codes, the shear strength of beams is calculated based on the modified truss theory, which does not consider the effects of the flange area of T-beams. The main objective of this paper was to gain a better understanding and enhance the experimental database of the shear behavior of RC T-beams and illustrate the contribution of the flange to the shear capacity of T-beams. To accomplish this aim, a specially designed experimental program was executed, and its test results were analyzed. The main investigated variables were flange dimensions (thickness and width) and its reinforcement (longitudinal and/or vertical). Nineteen simply supported beam specimens were tested to failure under a load configuration made of two concentrated loads. Eighteen specimens had T-shaped cross-sections, while one specimen had a rectangular cross-section for comparison purposes. The items monitored during testing included the development of diagonal cracks, concrete strains, reinforcement strains, maximum loads, and deflections. Test results showed a notable increase in the shear strength of T-beams compared to rectangular beams with the same web size. For the range of variables investigated, increasing the flange thickness-to-beam depth ratio (ρt) from 0.3 to 0.5 increased the shear capacity by up to 54%. In addition, increasing the flange width-to-web width ratio (ρb) from 3 to 5 increased the shear capacity by up to 19%. It was also shown that the results of three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses using ANSYS compared reasonably well with the test results for all specimens. Finally, based on the test and FE results, a simplified method that accounts for the contribution of the flange to shear capacity was proposed. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2020

25 pages, 6256 KiB  
Article
Rotation-Free Based Numerical Model for Nonlinear Analysis of Thin Shells
by Hrvoje Smoljanović, Ivan Balić, Ante Munjiza and Viktor Hristovski
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120657 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
This paper presents a computationally efficient numerical model for the analysis of thin shells based on rotation-free triangular finite elements. The geometry of the structure in the vicinity of the observed triangular element is approximated through a controlled domain consisting of nodes of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a computationally efficient numerical model for the analysis of thin shells based on rotation-free triangular finite elements. The geometry of the structure in the vicinity of the observed triangular element is approximated through a controlled domain consisting of nodes of the observed finite element and nodes of three adjacent finite elements between which a second-order spatial polynomial is defined. The model considers large displacements, large rotations, small strains, and material and geometrical nonlinearity. Material nonlinearity is implemented by considering the von Mises yield criterion and the Levi–Mises flow rule. The model uses an explicit time integration scheme to integrate motion equations but an implicit radial returning algorithm to compute the plastic strain at the end of each time step. The presented numerical model has been embedded in the program Y based on the finite–discrete element method and tested on simple examples. The advantage of the presented numerical model is displayed through a series of analyses where the obtained results are compared with other results presented in the literature. Full article
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24 pages, 10615 KiB  
Article
Strengthening Solutions for Deep Reinforced Concrete Beam with Cutout Opening
by Alireza Bahrami, Felicia Ågren and Kim Kollberg
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080370 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3794
Abstract
Since reinforced concrete (RC) buildings have long service life, cutout openings are generally needed in their load-bearing walls as a sustainable solution in order to meet new requirements of their users. However, the cutout openings decrease the load-bearing capacity of the walls, which [...] Read more.
Since reinforced concrete (RC) buildings have long service life, cutout openings are generally needed in their load-bearing walls as a sustainable solution in order to meet new requirements of their users. However, the cutout openings decrease the load-bearing capacity of the walls, which may result in the failure of the buildings. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of making a door opening in a load-bearing RC wall of an existing building in Gävle in Sweden. The wall studied in the current paper rests on two individual supports at its two ends; thus, it is considered as a deep beam. However, it is called an examined wall (EW) here. The StruSoft FEM-Design software is used in this study to model, analyze, and design the building based on the Eurocodes and Swedish national annex. The potential need for the EW to be strengthened when the cutout opening is made is also evaluated. It is concluded that strengthening the EW with cutout opening is needed. Different strengthening solutions are proposed for the EW. Moreover, the situation of the EW with the solutions is assessed with regard to the utilization ratio, deflection, and weight. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the proposed strengthening solutions function well for the EW. Full article
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17 pages, 8421 KiB  
Article
Failure Analysis of Apennine Masonry Churches Severely Damaged during the 2016 Central Italy Seismic Sequence
by Francesco Clementi
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020058 - 8 Feb 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3737
Abstract
This paper presents a detailed study of the damages and collapses suffered by various masonry churches in the aftermath of the seismic sequence of Central Italy in 2016. The damages will first be analyzed and then compared with the numerical data obtained through [...] Read more.
This paper presents a detailed study of the damages and collapses suffered by various masonry churches in the aftermath of the seismic sequence of Central Italy in 2016. The damages will first be analyzed and then compared with the numerical data obtained through 3D simulations with eigenfrequency and then nonlinear static analyses (i.e., pushover). The main purposes of this study are: (i) to create an adequately consistent sensitivity study on several definite case studies to obtain an insight into the role played by geometry—which is always unique when referred to churches—and by irregularities; (ii) validate or address the applicability limits of the more widespread nonlinear approach, widely recommended by the Italian Technical Regulations. Pushover analyses are conducted assuming that the masonry behaves as a nonlinear material with different tensile and compressive strengths. The consistent number of case studies investigated will show how conventional static approaches can identify, albeit in a qualitative way, the most critical macro-elements that usually trigger both global and local collapses, underlining once again how the phenomena are affected by the geometry of stones and bricks, the texture of the wall face, and irregularities in the plan and elevation and in addition to hypotheses made on the continuity between orthogonal walls. Full article
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25 pages, 3233 KiB  
Article
Effect of Masonry Infill Constitutive Law on the Global Response of Infilled RC Buildings
by Marco Gaetani d’Aragona, Maria Polese and Andrea Prota
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020057 - 7 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3342
Abstract
Masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames represent a very common construction typology across the Mediterranean countries. The presence of infills substantially modifies the global seismic performances of buildings in terms of strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation. Although several research studies focused on the overall performances [...] Read more.
Masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames represent a very common construction typology across the Mediterranean countries. The presence of infills substantially modifies the global seismic performances of buildings in terms of strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation. Although several research studies focused on the overall performances of infilled reinforced concrete frames, the modeling of infill panels remains an open issue due to the complex interaction between the infill and the frame and the uncertainties involved in the definition of the problem. In the present paper, an existing masonry-infilled RC frame designed according to obsolete seismic codes is chosen as a case study. A refined three-dimensional finite element model is built for performing nonlinear static and time-history analyses in order to investigate some significant aspects related to the modeling of infills. In particular, it is investigated the effect of different infill constitutive models on the seismic performance of infilled RC building expressed in terms of engineering demand parameters such as interstory drift ratios and peak floor accelerations, and on the generation of damage fragility curves. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

30 pages, 13421 KiB  
Article
Seismic Vulnerability of Masonry Lighthouses: A Study of the Bengut Lighthouse, Dellys, Boumerdès, Algeria
by Karima Amari, Amina Abdessemed Foufa, Mustapha Cheikh Zouaoui and Giuseppina Uva
Buildings 2020, 10(12), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10120247 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3471
Abstract
In Algeria, lighthouses are an essential element of the maritime landscape and constitute a substantial part of the local historical and cultural heritage, marked by a great variety of styles, architecture, geometrical forms, and materials. The study presented falls into the general context [...] Read more.
In Algeria, lighthouses are an essential element of the maritime landscape and constitute a substantial part of the local historical and cultural heritage, marked by a great variety of styles, architecture, geometrical forms, and materials. The study presented falls into the general context of pre- and post-seismic conservation of Algerian lighthouses, since all these stone masonry buildings are situated in areas characterized by a medium–high seismic hazard. In the paper, a relevant example has been analyzed: the Bengut Lighthouse, which has been classified as “National Heritage” by the Algerian Ministry of Culture and has been severely damaged by the Boumerdès that occurred on 21 May 2003. After an overview of historical lighthouses in Algeria and their morpho-typological classification, the case study of the lighthouse at Cap Bengut is presented, showing the results of a detailed survey of the geometric and constructive features and of the actual cracking and damage pattern. First, based on the critical analysis of this knowledge framework, a preliminary qualitative evaluation of the seismic vulnerability has been made, analyzing and classifying the set of local and global failure modes coherently with the observed structural pathologies and damages. Then, numerical modeling has been implemented in TreMuri computer code, performing a set of pushover analyses. This allowed the investigation of the criticalities in the response of the building to seismic actions, characterization of the dynamic behavior, and comparison with the actual observed damages, which are discussed, providing an interpretation of the global and local failure modes. Based on the results of the visual assessment and numerical analysis, guidelines for the retrofitting intervention have been proposed, by considering, on the one hand, the objective of effectively mitigating the elements of vulnerability pointed out by the results and, on the other, the main principles of conservation and restoration. The presented study and its results, in perspective, are intended to provide a basis for developing risk and vulnerability analysis of typological classes of historical lighthouses at a large scale. Full article
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16 pages, 8040 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Existing RC School Buildings: The “P3” School Typology
by João M.C. Estêvão and Carlos Esteves
Buildings 2020, 10(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10110210 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3242
Abstract
The seismic assessment of existing school buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions; such is the case of the Algarve, which is the southern region of Portugal mainland. Having this problem in mind, the PERSISTAH project (Projetos de Escolas Resilientes [...] Read more.
The seismic assessment of existing school buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions; such is the case of the Algarve, which is the southern region of Portugal mainland. Having this problem in mind, the PERSISTAH project (Projetos de Escolas Resilientes aos SISmos no Território do Algarve e de Huelva, in Portuguese) aimed to develop a computational approach enabling the damage evaluation of a large number of individual school buildings. One of the school typologies assessed was the so-called “P3” schools. This typology is composed of several different modules that are combined in different manners depending on the number of students. Each module was built in accordance with architectural standardised designs. For this reason, there are many replicas of these modules all over the Algarve region. The structural system of each module is composed of a frame of reinforced concrete (RC) elements. Nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures were adopted to evaluate the structural seismic behaviour, namely by using the new concept of performance curve. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that the seismic safety of this type of school building is mainly ruled by the shear capacity of the columns. This study also shows the difficulties of carrying out accurate seismic assessments of existing buildings using the methods of analysis that are established in the Eurocode 8. Full article
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25 pages, 7387 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Intervention Options for Massive Seismic Upgrading of Essential Facilities
by Angelo Anelli, Marco Vona and Sandra Santa-Cruz Hidalgo
Buildings 2020, 10(7), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10070125 - 9 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3596
Abstract
The seismic retrofitting of essential facilities is a typical problem of public administrations. Due to the large amount of existing and/or historic buildings with a high seismic vulnerability and the limited economic resources, it is necessary to provide efficient solutions for the structural [...] Read more.
The seismic retrofitting of essential facilities is a typical problem of public administrations. Due to the large amount of existing and/or historic buildings with a high seismic vulnerability and the limited economic resources, it is necessary to provide efficient solutions for the structural reinforcement of these structures on a national, regional, and urban level. This paper proposes an innovative and multidisciplinary framework to choose massive interventions on a large territorial scale according to the potential benefits of the intervention in terms of reduction in expected economic losses associated with retrofitting intervention and other important aspects usually neglected in intervention strategies. The proposed framework is based on Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) analysis. It is applied to a very complex urban area: the case study is the school buildings stock (4458 buildings) in the Lima Metropolitan area, Peru. The goal of the study is arisk analysis aimed at selecting the optimal retrofitting strategy in a huge urban area. The results of this work can be considered the base for decision-makers. They could use them as a decision support tool in the seismic risk mitigation on a large territorial scale. Full article
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