Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 36995

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: structural integrity; fatigue; fracture mechanics; finite element method; fiber-reinforced composites; environmental effects; additive manufacturing
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: fatigue and fracture behavior of materials; mechanical characterization; structural integrity of conventional and innovative materials
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Editorial Board Member
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Interests: solid mechanics; fracture mechanics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aluminum alloys are widely used in various strategic sectors due to their superior properties, such as lightness, strength, corrosion resistance, toughness, electrical and thermal conductivity, recyclability, and formability. These superior mechanical properties make them ideal for critical applications which experience complex operational conditions, as well as adverse environmental actions. However, the need to develop more efficient materials with improved properties requires a deep understanding of the relationships between the microstructural features and the mechanical properties.

The goal of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive overview of the more recent advances in the field of mechanical behavior of aluminum alloys, which include alloy design strategies, novel processing techniques, advanced simulation methods, forming and joining technologies, and corrosion protection solutions. Examples of innovative and successful industrial applications, as well as non-conventional experimental or numerical approaches, are also encouraged. Research and review papers addressing all aspects of the mechanical behavior of aluminum alloys are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ricardo Branco
Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Prof. Dr. Andrei Kotousov
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Aluminum alloys
  • Structural integrity
  • Manufacturing and processing techniques
  • Alloy design
  • Microstructure and texture
  • Mechanical properties
  • Loading history
  • Environmental conditions
  • Applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 6078 KiB  
Article
Parameter Estimation and Application of Anisotropic Yield Criteria for Cylindrical Aluminum Extrusions: Theoretical Developments and StereoDIC Measurements
by Farzana Yasmeen, Michael A. Sutton, Xiaomin Deng, Megan Ryan and Anthony P. Reynolds
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9701; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209701 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
Theoretical and experimental studies are presented to characterize the anisotropic plastic response under torsion loading of two nominally identical aluminum Al6061-T6 extruded round bars. Theoretical models are developed using isotropic (Von Mises 1913) and anisotropic (Barlat 1991) yield criteria, along with isotropic strain [...] Read more.
Theoretical and experimental studies are presented to characterize the anisotropic plastic response under torsion loading of two nominally identical aluminum Al6061-T6 extruded round bars. Theoretical models are developed using isotropic (Von Mises 1913) and anisotropic (Barlat 1991) yield criteria, along with isotropic strain hardening formulae, to model post-yield behavior under simple torsion loading. For the case of simple shear loading, incremental plasticity theory is used to determine the theoretical elastic, plastic, and total shear strains. A set of experiments are performed to calibrate Barlat’s 1991 yield function. Several specimens are extracted at different orientations to the longitudinal direction of each round Al6061-T6 bar and tested under uniaxial tension and simple torsion to optimally determine all anisotropic (Barlat 1991) yield function parameters. During loading, Stereo Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is used to quantify surface deformations for the torsion experiments and a baseline tension specimen to identify and correct measurement anomalies. Results show the isotropic yield model either underestimates or overestimates the experimental shear strains for both extrusions. Conversely, results using the Barlat 1991 anisotropic yield criteria are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements for both extrusions. The presence of significant differences in the anisotropic parameters for nominally similar extrusions confirms that plastic anisotropy is essential for the accurate prediction of mechanical behavior in longitudinally extruded Al6061-T6 bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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19 pages, 8612 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Crack Growth from Notches: A Numerical Analysis
by Micael Borges, Manuel Caldas, Fernando Antunes, Ricardo Branco and Pedro Prates
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124174 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2959
Abstract
A numerical approach based on plastic crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) was followed to study fatigue crack growth (FCG) from notches. The identification of fundamental mechanisms was made considering notched and unnotched models, with and without contact of crack flanks. Different parameters were [...] Read more.
A numerical approach based on plastic crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) was followed to study fatigue crack growth (FCG) from notches. The identification of fundamental mechanisms was made considering notched and unnotched models, with and without contact of crack flanks. Different parameters were studied, namely, notch radius, crack length, stress state, and material. The notch increases the plastic CTOD, and therefore fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, as expected. The reduction of notch radius increases da/dN but reduces the notch affected zone. Ahead of the notch affected zone, da/dN increases linearly with crack growth, with a rate that increases linearly with the plastic CTOD. The crack closure phenomenon has a dramatic effect under plane stress conditions but a limited effect on plane strain conditions. In the former case, the contact of crack flanks reduces substantially the effect of notch radius and the size of the notch affected zone. These trends are associated with the increase of crack closure level with notch radius. The material does not affect the global trends, but the reduction of yield stress increases the level of plastic deformation and therefore da/dN. The effect of material, and also of stress state, is mainly associated with crack closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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19 pages, 12306 KiB  
Article
Effects of Solid Die Types in Complex and Large-Scale Aluminum Profile Extrusion
by Tat-Tai Truong, Quang-Cherng Hsu and Van-Canh Tong
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010263 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 12615
Abstract
Increasing customer requirements for quality and productivity in extruding aluminum products has led to the development of different types of extrusion dies. In this study, three different types of dies, including traditional flat die, pocket die and spread die were designed to extrude [...] Read more.
Increasing customer requirements for quality and productivity in extruding aluminum products has led to the development of different types of extrusion dies. In this study, three different types of dies, including traditional flat die, pocket die and spread die were designed to extrude complex and large-scale solid profiles. The design parameters for these dies were used from actual extrusion experience. The results obtained from steady-state simulation such as velocity, temperature, extrusion force, and die deformation were used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the dies. Transient simulations were performed to analyze the evolution of transverse weld in the pocket and spread dies. The effects of ram speeds on the related extrusion parameters were also investigated. The research results provide useful guides for designers and engineers in selecting these types of extrusion dies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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16 pages, 3258 KiB  
Article
Reliable Method to Detect Alloy Soldering Fractures under Accelerated Life Test
by M.A. Zamora-Antuñano, O. Mendoza-Herbert, M. Culebro-Pérez, A. Rodríguez-Morales, Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J.E.E. Gonzalez-Duran, N. Mendez-Lozano and C.A. Gonzalez-Gutierrez
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163208 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
In this research, we investigated the development and design of the Accelerated Life Test (ALT) and its approach to the waste of material. The development of a reliability model is based on the moment at which failure appears. The faults detected in welding [...] Read more.
In this research, we investigated the development and design of the Accelerated Life Test (ALT) and its approach to the waste of material. The development of a reliability model is based on the moment at which failure appears. The faults detected in welding joints during this research prevented proper current flow within electronic components and this interruption of current is considered a critical system failure. Minitab v18 was used to process data. Through statistical analysis, it was determined that the sample size was adequate with a 95% level of significance. A Shapiro Wilk analysis was carried out to determine the normality of the data, where a p-value of 0.1349 was obtained, which indicates that the data are normal. A Weibull analysis was applied, and it was observed that the data adjusted to the regression analysis and Weibull’s reliability distribution. The results showed that failure phenomena can occur during electronic assembly due to the values of R being too high and too close to each other. Significant issues included the welding alloy, temperature, and the interaction between the welding alloy and vibration. It is observed that with high temperature, the number of faults in the solder alloy used for tin and lead and for tin, silver, and copper were lower. 17 electronic assemblies with measures of 2 cm × 2 cm were fabricated, where components such as leads and electric resistance were used. The objective of analyzing this is to obtain the characteristics of the soldering alloy. Electronic components of this type are used worldwide in all types of electronic components, including: TVs, cell phones, tablet, computers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, and capacitors. For this work, the components were built based on an LED and a diode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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13 pages, 6781 KiB  
Article
Effect of (Pr+Ce) Additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi5Cu1Mg Alloy
by Miao-Miao Fang, Hong Yan, Xian-Chen Song and Yong-Hui Sun
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091856 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
The microstructure and mechanical properties of AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy with (Pr+Ce) addition were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the rare earth (Pr+Ce) addition refined the grain. The long needle-like eutectic Si [...] Read more.
The microstructure and mechanical properties of AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy with (Pr+Ce) addition were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the rare earth (Pr+Ce) addition refined the grain. The long needle-like eutectic Si phases turned to granual. The secondary dendrite arm spacing (SADS) of the primary α-Al phase with the AlSi5Cu1Mg+0.6 wt.% (Pr+Ce) alloy reached the minimum value, which decreased by 50.2%. The mean length and the aspect ratio of the eutectic Si decreased by 78.8% and 67.4%. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the microhardness, and the breaking elongation of the AlSi5Cu1Mg+0.6 wt.% (Pr+Ce) alloy reached a maximum, and increased by 21.5%, 21.7%, and 8.0% compared to the AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy. The fracture examinations manifested in cleaved surfaces and brittle fracture areas, which were seen from the AlSi5Cu1Mg+0.6 wt.% (Pr+Ce) alloy. The number of dimples slightly increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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11 pages, 4886 KiB  
Article
Effect of Trace Yttrium Addition and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast ADC12 Aluminum Alloy
by Jianlong Liu, Qingjie Wu, Hong Yan, Songgen Zhong and Zhixiang Huang
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010053 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3624
Abstract
The effects of rare earth yttrium (Y) additions and the heat treatment process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast ADC12 aluminum alloy have been investigated. The results showed that the primary Si crystals were significantly refined from long axis to fibrous [...] Read more.
The effects of rare earth yttrium (Y) additions and the heat treatment process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast ADC12 aluminum alloy have been investigated. The results showed that the primary Si crystals were significantly refined from long axis to fibrous or granular when the Y content was 0.2 wt%. Compared to the matrix, the mean area and aspect ratio were decreased by 92% and 75%, respectively. Moreover, the Si and Fe-rich phases were spheroidized and refined with a small average size during the solid solution. It was also noted that the copper-rich phases were dissolved into the matrix. Correspondingly, it was found that after metamorphic and heat treatment the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation, and, hardness increased by 81.9%, 69.7%, and 74.8%, respectively, compared to the matrix. The improved mechanical properties can primarily be attributed to the optimization of the microstructure and the refinement of various phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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Review

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19 pages, 9683 KiB  
Review
Fatigue of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy Joints: A Review
by Hongjun Li, Jian Gao and Qinchuan Li
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122626 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 7216
Abstract
The application fields of friction stir welding technology, such as aerospace and transportation, has high safety requirements and fatigue is the dominant failure mode for weldments. It is of great significance to understand the fatigue properties of friction stir welded joints. This paper [...] Read more.
The application fields of friction stir welding technology, such as aerospace and transportation, has high safety requirements and fatigue is the dominant failure mode for weldments. It is of great significance to understand the fatigue properties of friction stir welded joints. This paper provides an overview of the fatigue mechanism, influencing factors, crack growth rate, and fatigue life assessment. It is found that the fatigue performance of friction stir welded joints can be affected by welding process parameters, test environment, stress ratio, residual stress, and weld defect. The optimized process parameters can produce high quality weld and increase the weld fatigue life. Laser peening is an effective post weld treatment to decrease fatigue crack growth rate and improve material fatigue life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Integrity of Aluminium Alloys)
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