High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Current and Future Challenges

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2022) | Viewed by 11120

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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: fatigue of advanced and traditional materials; fracture mechanics; solid mechanics; structural integrity; additive materials
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: fatigue and fracture behavior of materials; mechanical characterization; structural integrity of conventional and innovative materials
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Guest Editor
University of Coimbra, Department of Civil Engineering, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: steel structures; structural stability; structural reliability; structural mechanics; additive manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The modern industry, driven by economic and environmental factors, faces an urgent need to improve efficiency, safety, and reliability. In this challenging scenario, high-strength low-alloy steels are outstanding materials to meet these goals due to their balanced properties, such as strength, toughness, formability, weldability, and corrosion resistance. These balanced properties make them ideal for critical applications under severe service conditions or in aggressive environments, namely, automotive and aeronautical components, offshore and bridge structures, or construction machinery and pipelines, just to mention a few. 

The goal of this Special Issue is to foster the dissemination of the latest research devoted to high-strength low-alloy steels from different perspectives, more specifically: the assessment of structural integrity, experimental analysis and numerical modeling of mechanical behavior, damage and failure under static and dynamic loading, alloy design and microstructural evaluation, the influence of environmental mediums, and advanced applications. Both experimental and numerical approaches are encouraged. Literature review articles are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ricardo Branco
Prof. Filippo Berto
Prof. Dr. Trayana Tankova
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • High-strength low-alloy steels
  • Manufacturing and processing techniques
  • Alloy design
  • Microstructure and texture
  • Loading history
  • Environmental conditions
  • Large-scale structures
  • Advanced applications

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 5505 KiB  
Article
Influence of Deposition Plane Angle and Saline Corrosion on Fatigue Crack Growth in Maraging Steel Components Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Rui F. Fernandes, Joel de Jesus, Luís Borrego, Luís Vilhena, Amílcar Ramalho and José A. M. Ferreira
Metals 2022, 12(3), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030433 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Maraging steels are used in several industries, namely in the molds industry. The determination of fatigue crack propagation resistance in 18Ni300 maraging steel at the Paris regime is a vital issue for safety-relevant components, which are designed to work for a large number [...] Read more.
Maraging steels are used in several industries, namely in the molds industry. The determination of fatigue crack propagation resistance in 18Ni300 maraging steel at the Paris regime is a vital issue for safety-relevant components, which are designed to work for a large number of loading cycles before periodic inspections. The main goal of this work is to analyze the influence of the deposition plane angle and saline corrosion on fatigue crack growth in maraging steel samples produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF). The crack closure parameter was used in order to analyze the different fatigue crack growth behaviors, as well as the metallographic, hardness, fractography and corrosion/oxidation analysis. From this work, the main achievement was that the deposition plane angle did not reveal a notable influence in the fatigue crack growth behavior for the fatigue tests unsubmitted to saline corrosion. On the other hand, the fatigue crack growth behavior for the tests under saline corrosion showed an increase in the crack closure parameter due to the appearance of the crack closure induced by oxides, which reduced the fatigue crack growth speed. This phenomenon depends on the deposition plane angle, which controls the martensite amount and consequently controls the level of corrosion/oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Current and Future Challenges)
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18 pages, 13792 KiB  
Article
Fracture Areas Quantitative Investigating of Bending-Torsion Fatigued Low-Alloy High-Strength Steel
by Wojciech Macek
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101620 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
In this study, the impact of pseudo-random non-proportional bending-torsion fatigue loadings proportion on the fatigue life and the fracture surface topography was analyzed. Investigation was carried out for 24 specimens made of S355J2 steel with 11 different ratios of maximum stresses λ. [...] Read more.
In this study, the impact of pseudo-random non-proportional bending-torsion fatigue loadings proportion on the fatigue life and the fracture surface topography was analyzed. Investigation was carried out for 24 specimens made of S355J2 steel with 11 different ratios of maximum stresses λ. For these cases, after the fatigue tests, the surface topography measurements were carried out using an optical profilometer, using the focus variation method. Three fracture zones were analyzed for each specimen: (1) total; (2) propagation; (3) rupture, taking into account the root average square height Sq and void volume Vv parameters. The results pointed that ratio of maximum stresses λ is the most influenced on volume surface parameters represented by void volume at a given height Vv, in the rupture area. A new fatigue loading parameter P was used, depending on fatigue life T and ratio of maximum stresses λ, which shows very good correlation in 4th degree type of fit, to void volume Vv parameter for the rupture area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Current and Future Challenges)
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10 pages, 4789 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Crack Growth in Welded S355 Samples Subjected to Bending Loading
by Janusz Lewandowski and Dariusz Rozumek
Metals 2021, 11(9), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091394 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
The paper presents a result of experimental tests of welded S355 samples subjected to bending loading. In order to analyze how the fillet joints’ shape and the load ratio affect the crack growth, we selected two kinds of the fillet shape: concave and [...] Read more.
The paper presents a result of experimental tests of welded S355 samples subjected to bending loading. In order to analyze how the fillet joints’ shape and the load ratio affect the crack growth, we selected two kinds of the fillet shape: concave and convex, and load ratios, namely R = −1. Samples with stress concentrators in form of the two-sided fillet welded joint were tested. The test results were compared to experiments conducted on welds samples with and without heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Current and Future Challenges)
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19 pages, 3934 KiB  
Article
Imperfections and Modelling of the Weld Bead Profile of Laser Butt Joints in HSLA Steel Thin Plate
by Patricio G. Riofrío, José A. M. Ferreira and Carlos A. Capela
Metals 2021, 11(1), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11010151 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3096
Abstract
In many applications that use high strength steels, structural integrity depends greatly on weld quality. Imperfections and the weld bead geometry are influencing factors on mechanical properties of the welded joints but, especially in the fatigue strength, they cause a great decrease. The [...] Read more.
In many applications that use high strength steels, structural integrity depends greatly on weld quality. Imperfections and the weld bead geometry are influencing factors on mechanical properties of the welded joints but, especially in the fatigue strength, they cause a great decrease. The proper knowledge of these two factors is important from the nominal stress approach to the fracture mechanics approaches. Studies concerning the profile and imperfections of the weld bead in laser welding for thin plates of high strength steels are scarce. In this work, these two aspects are covered for five series single and double-welded joints, butt joints in a 3 mm thick HSLA steel, welded in a small range of welding parameters. The actual profiles captured with profilometer were modeled with proposed geometric parameters achieving an adequate fit with values of the coefficient of determination ℜ2 greater than 0.9000. Description of imperfections includes the distributions of porosity and undercuts. The evaluation of the weld quality, taking as guide the ISO 13919-1 standard determined B and D levels for the welded series while based on the stress-concentrating effect, showed a greater detriment in those series with undercuts and excessive penetration. The analysis of variance validated the results of the different combinations of laser welding parameters and showed, for the factorial experimental design, a more significant effect of the welding speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Current and Future Challenges)
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