Application of Alloys in Transport

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 23830

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Department of Mobile Machinery and Railway Transport, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Plytinės g. 27, LT-10105 Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: transport engineering; mechanical engineering; pipeline transport; transportation; metals; alloys; materials; traffic safety; vehicle dynamics

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Department of Industrial Automation, Ternopil Ivan Pul’uj National Technical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
Interests: mechanical properties; mechanical behavior of materials; material characterization; mechanical testing; finite element analysis
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Laboratory of Mechanics of Polymer Composite Materials, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055 Tomsk, Russia
Interests: high performance polymers; multiscale design; polymer composites; wear resistance; interphase/interface; fatigue; polymer laminates; adhesion; computer aided design
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: fatigue and fracture behavior of materials; mechanical characterization; structural integrity of conventional and innovative materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The globalization of human development requires increasing the efficiency of transport systems as a whole (infrastructure, vehicles, passengers, and cargo) as well as that of its individual components. Much attention is paid to the various types of vehicles and to the transportation process itself. International aviation and high-speed railway transport (e.g., hyperloop) are of particular importance, because these transportation modes are associated with increased speeds of movement of passengers and goods. In the field of urban transportation, the prospects of using unmanned aerial vehicles for targeted delivery of goods are becoming increasingly real. Pipeline transport for the transportation of oil and gas is actively developing, also along the bottom of the seas. New designs of ships and icebreakers open up prospects for transporting goods along the Northern Sea Route. In the field of automobile transport, hybrid cars, electromobiles, and electric cars are being actively introduced. In many cities, the rental of bikes and electric scooters (bike-sharing) is actively used.

We should not forget the elements of transport infrastructure, such as  road safety fences, street and road lighting poles, structural elements of road signs, and traffic lights.

An intensive development of various types of vehicles and elements of the transport infrastructure requires the use of new materials to reduce the weight of transport structures, ensure high strength and manufacturability, and thereby increase the safety of both the vehicle and the infrastructure element. A special place is occupied by the development of 3-D technology for printing parts and assemblies, which increases the efficiency of using new alloys and provides the necessary reliability and wear resistance of transport systems. Surface nanostructuring of parts and the creation of new coatings and lubrication systems can enhance the durability of vehicles and extend their service life and reliability.

We also invite you to submit articles focused on improving ergonomics and creating a comfortable and safe environment for humans using modern alloys and coatings.

Prof. Dr. Olegas Prentkovskis
Prof. Dr. Pavlo Maruschak
Prof. Dr. Sergey Panin
Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • transport
  • vehicle
  • transport infrastructure
  • alloys
  • reliability
  • durability
  • wear resistance
  • safety

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Application of Alloys in Transport
by Olegas Prentkovskis, Pavlo Maruschak, Sergey Panin and Filippo Berto
Metals 2023, 13(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010031 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Improving the reliability of transport vehicles requires ensuring their durability while reducing metal consumption [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

20 pages, 2594 KiB  
Article
Structural Materials Durability Statistical Assessment Taking into Account Threshold Sensitivity
by Žilvinas Bazaras, Vaidas Lukoševičius and Eglė Bazaraitė
Metals 2022, 12(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020175 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
This work presents an experimental—analytical study of the possibility of applying the method of the greatest probability to evaluate the sensitive thresholds of the bottom (N0) and top (Nk) of the statistical distribution of the mechanical structural [...] Read more.
This work presents an experimental—analytical study of the possibility of applying the method of the greatest probability to evaluate the sensitive thresholds of the bottom (N0) and top (Nk) of the statistical distribution of the mechanical structural characteristics. For the structural materials alloyed steel 15Cr2MoVA, steel C45 and aluminium alloy D16T1, the statistical distribution of proportional limit, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, reduction in area, cyclic stress was estimated, as well as the following statistical parameters: mathematical mean, average square deviation, dispersion, asymmetry, variation coefficient, and excess. Purpose: to determine whether the limits of the sensitivity of the statistical distribution of the mechanical characteristics have been computed using the maximum likelihood method. Value: there is a certain upward and downward flattening of the probability curves in the statistical distribution curves of the fatigue test results. This implies that the chosen law of the distribution of random variables has an effect on the appearance of errors. These errors are unacceptable given the importance of accurately determining the reliability and durability of transport means, shipbuilding, machinery, and other important structures. Our results could potentially explain why sensitive limits cannot be applied to the statistical distribution of the mechanical characteristics of structural materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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23 pages, 3710 KiB  
Article
Statistical Estimation of Resistance to Cyclic Deformation of Structural Steels and Aluminum Alloy
by Žilvinas Bazaras and Vaidas Lukoševičius
Metals 2022, 12(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010047 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Resistance to cyclic loading is a key property of the material that determines the operational reliability of the structures. When selecting a material for structures operating under low-cycle loading conditions, it is essential to know the cyclic deformation characteristics of the material. Low-cycle [...] Read more.
Resistance to cyclic loading is a key property of the material that determines the operational reliability of the structures. When selecting a material for structures operating under low-cycle loading conditions, it is essential to know the cyclic deformation characteristics of the material. Low-cycle strain diagrams are very sensitive to variations in chemical composition, thermal processing technologies, surface hardening, loading conditions, and other factors of the material. The application of probability methods enables the increase in the life characteristics of the structures and the confirmation of the cycle load values at the design phase. Most research papers dealing with statistical descriptions of low-cycle strain properties do not look into the distribution of low-cycle diagram characteristics. The purpose of our paper is to provide a probability assessment of the low-cycle properties of materials extensively used in the automotive and aviation industries, taking into account the statistical assessment of the cyclic elastoplastic strain diagrams or of the parameters of the diagrams. Materials with contrasting cyclic properties were investigated in the paper. The findings of the research allow for a review of durability and life of the structural elements of service facilities subjected to elastoplastic loading by assessing the distribution of low-cycle strain parameters, as well as the allowed distribution limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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15 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Phenomenological Models and Peculiarities of Evaluating Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloys Subjected to Dynamic Non-Equilibrium Processes
by Mykola Chausov, Andrii Pylypenko, Pavlo Maruschak and Abdellah Menou
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101625 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Physical-mechanical models for predicting the fatigue life of aluminum alloys D16ChATW and 2024-T351 are proposed and tested. Damage accumulation patterns are established for these alloys in the initial state and after dynamic non-equilibrium processes (DNP) of different intensity that occur at maximum cycle [...] Read more.
Physical-mechanical models for predicting the fatigue life of aluminum alloys D16ChATW and 2024-T351 are proposed and tested. Damage accumulation patterns are established for these alloys in the initial state and after dynamic non-equilibrium processes (DNP) of different intensity that occur at maximum cycle stresses σmax from 340 to 440 MPa, cycle asymmetry coefficients R = 0.1 and load frequency f = 110 Hz. The main model parameters are the initial alloy hardness HV and the limiting parameters of scatter of hardness values m. These parameters are evaluated in the process of cyclic loading with fixed maximum stresses of the cycles. Relative values me are also considered. For the alloys in the initial state, the proposed models are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Conversely, structural changes taking place in alloys after DNP complicate the prediction of their fatigue life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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19 pages, 5544 KiB  
Article
Probability Assessment of the Mechanical and Low-Cycle Properties of Structural Steels and Aluminium
by Žilvinas Bazaras, Vaidas Lukoševičius, Andrius Vilkauskas and Ramūnas Česnavičius
Metals 2021, 11(6), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11060918 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Key mechanical properties used in low-cycle strength and durability calculations are the strength (proportional limit stress, σpr; relative yield strength, σ0.2; and ultimate tensile stress, σu) and strain properties (proportional limit strain, epr; percent area [...] Read more.
Key mechanical properties used in low-cycle strength and durability calculations are the strength (proportional limit stress, σpr; relative yield strength, σ0.2; and ultimate tensile stress, σu) and strain properties (proportional limit strain, epr; percent area reduction, ψ; and percent area reduction at failure, ψu). When selecting the key mechanical properties provided in the specifications, an error may be made due to the failure to account for a series of random factors that determine the distribution of properties. The majority of research papers dealing with statistical descriptions of the low-cycle strain properties do not look deeper into the distribution of mechanical properties and the diagram parameters of strain characteristics. This paper provides a description of the distribution patterns of mechanical properties, statistical parameters, and low-cycle fatigue curves. Log-normal distribution generated the lowest values for the coefficient of variation of one of the key statistical indicators, suggesting that log-normal distribution is superior to normal or Weibull distribution in this respect. The distribution of low-cycle strain parameters exceeded the distribution of mechanical properties considerably. Minimum coefficients of variation of the parameters were generated at normal distribution. The statistical analysis showed the lower distribution of the durability parameters compared to the distribution of parameters of the strain diagrams. The findings of the paper enable a revision of the durability and life of the structural elements of in-service facilities subject to elastoplastic loading by assessing the distribution of mechanical characteristics and low-cycle strain parameters as well as the permissible distribution limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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14 pages, 3948 KiB  
Article
Recognition of Scratches and Abrasions on Metal Surfaces Using a Classifier Based on a Convolutional Neural Network
by Ihor Konovalenko, Pavlo Maruschak, Vitaly Brevus and Olegas Prentkovskis
Metals 2021, 11(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040549 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4742
Abstract
Classification of steel surface defects in steel industry is essential for their detection and also fundamental for the analysis of causes that lead to damages. Timely detection of defects allows to reduce the frequency of their appearance in the final product. This paper [...] Read more.
Classification of steel surface defects in steel industry is essential for their detection and also fundamental for the analysis of causes that lead to damages. Timely detection of defects allows to reduce the frequency of their appearance in the final product. This paper considers the classifiers for the recognition of scratches, scrapes and abrasions on metal surfaces. Classifiers are based on the ResNet50 and ResNet152 deep residual neural network architecture. The proposed technique supports the recognition of defects in images and does this with high accuracy. The binary accuracy of the classification based on the test data is 97.14%. The influence of a number of training conditions on the accuracy metrics of the model have been studied. The augmentation conditions have been figured out to make the greatest contribution to improving the accuracy during training. The peculiarities of damages that cause difficulties in their recognition have been studied. The fields of neuron activation have been investigated in the convolutional layers of the model. Feature maps which developed in this case have been found to correspond to the location of the objects of interest. Erroneous cases of the classifier application have been considered. The peculiarities of damages that cause difficulties in their recognition have been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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21 pages, 50242 KiB  
Article
High Velocity Oxygen Liquid-Fuel (HVOLF) Spraying of WC-Based Coatings for Transport Industrial Applications
by Janette Brezinová, Anna Guzanová, Jana Tkáčová, Jakub Brezina, Kristína Ľachová, Dagmar Draganovská, Filip Pastorek, Pavlo Maruschak and Olegas Prentkovskis
Metals 2020, 10(12), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121675 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3335
Abstract
In this article, we analyse five types of coatings, in terms of their microstructure, hardness, porosity, and wear resistance, in the as-sprayed state. The coatings are WC-based (WC-FeCrAl, WC-WB-Co, and WC-NiMoCrFeCo), alloy-based (Co-MoCrSi), or nanoWC coating-based (nanoWC-CoCr). Two tests were applied to assess [...] Read more.
In this article, we analyse five types of coatings, in terms of their microstructure, hardness, porosity, and wear resistance, in the as-sprayed state. The coatings are WC-based (WC-FeCrAl, WC-WB-Co, and WC-NiMoCrFeCo), alloy-based (Co-MoCrSi), or nanoWC coating-based (nanoWC-CoCr). Two tests were applied to assess the wear resistance of the coatings: a dry-pot wear test with two impact angles and an abrasive test using an abrasive cloth with two grit sizes. Porosity was determined by image analysis. Vickers impression was performed on cross-sections of the coatings, in order to determine their indentation fracture toughness. The highest hardness of the tested coatings was recorded for the nanoWC coating, followed by the rest of the WC-based coatings; meanwhile, the lowest hardness was recorded for the alloy coating. Minimal porosity was achieved by the alloy coating, due to its different nature and the absence of hard particles with a higher melting point. The NanoWC coating and other WC-based coatings had a higher porosity; however, porosity did not exceed 1% for each coating. The best wear resistance was achieved by the nanoWC coating, followed by the other WC-based coatings, with the lowest obtained by the alloy coating. The same tendency was recorded when determining the indentation fracture toughness. From a microscopic point of view, the structure of the evaluated coatings is not compact; nevertheless, their properties are excellent, and they act as compact coatings under load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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10 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
Study of the Combined Severe Plastic Deformation Techniques Applied to Produce Contact Wire for High-Speed Railway Lines
by Rashid N. Asfandiyarov, Georgy I. Raab and Denis A. Aksenov
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111476 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
This work considers the development and the application of combined severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques to produce contact wire with an enhanced complex of physical, mechanical, and service properties used for high-speed railway lines. This type of processing can be used as an [...] Read more.
This work considers the development and the application of combined severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques to produce contact wire with an enhanced complex of physical, mechanical, and service properties used for high-speed railway lines. This type of processing can be used as an alternative to most conventional production methods, including rolling and drawing. The proposed technique is based on the combination of radial swaging and equal-channel angular pressing, bundled with the wire-forming process. Laboratory contact wire samples with an enhanced complex of physical, mechanical, and service properties were produced during physical experiments. The composition of processed alloy samples meets modern requirements for contact wires for high-speed railways. Ultimate tensile strength of 560 ± 20 MPa, electrical conductivity of 76 ± 2% IACS, and relative tensile elongation of 20 ± 2% are achieved through the formation of a band structure. Fragments of 300 ± 20 nm were formed inside strips with the precipitation of secondary phase particles of 20–100 nm along the fragment boundaries, mainly during the aging process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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16 pages, 6744 KiB  
Article
The Determination of the Limit Load Solutions for the New Pipe-Ring Specimen Using Finite Element Modeling
by Andrej Likeb and Nenad Gubeljak
Metals 2020, 10(6), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060749 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
To estimate the acceptable size of cracks and predict the loading limit of the pipeline or its resistance to the initiation and crack growth by following the structural integrity, the fracture toughness and limit load solutions are required. Standard fracture toughness testing of [...] Read more.
To estimate the acceptable size of cracks and predict the loading limit of the pipeline or its resistance to the initiation and crack growth by following the structural integrity, the fracture toughness and limit load solutions are required. Standard fracture toughness testing of thin-walled pipelines is often difficult to perform in order to complete standard requirements. To find an alternative technique for the measurement of the fracture toughness of the already delivered pipeline segment, the new pipe-ring specimen has been proposed; however, the limit load solutions have not been investigated yet. The limit load depends on the geometry of the specimen and loading mode. The ligament yielding of pipe-ring specimens containing axial cracks through the thickness under combined loads was calculated by the finite element method. This paper provides limit load solutions of several different pipe-ring geometries containing two diametric symmetrical cracks with the same depth ratio in a range of 0.45 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.55. The limit load (LL) solutions calculated by numerical analysis are shown as a function of the full ring section’s size and the corresponding crack aspect ratio for determining the normalized load. These can potentially construct the failure assessment diagram to estimate the crack acceptance in a part of the pipe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Alloys in Transport)
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