Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Failure Analysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 42134

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: fatigue and fracture behavior of materials; mechanical characterization; structural integrity of conventional and innovative materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fatigue behavior of traditional and advanced materials is a very relevant topic in different strategic applications impacting and affecting our daily life. The present special issue invites papers to make an update state of the art on this important topic. Both review and original manuscripts are welcome. Special attention will be dedicated to innovative materials and innovative manufacturing processes or post-treatments able to improve the fatigue life and reliability of a structural component. Scale effect will be also fully treated focusing on different applications and multiscale approaches aimed to understand the structural integrity under cyclic loadings. This state of the art will help engineers, designers and people from the academy to have an updated state of the art on this very challenging topic which is nowadays very important due to the advances in manufacturing technologies that allow complex new materials to be fabricated.

Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fatigue
  • advanced materials
  • innovative manufacturing
  • scale effects
  • aerospace applications

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 138 KiB  
Editorial
Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys
by Filippo Berto
Metals 2020, 10(12), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121645 - 06 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Prevention and prediction of unexpected fracture and fatigue failures constitute a key objective in any engineering application [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)

Research

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29 pages, 3904 KiB  
Article
On the Influence of Control Type and Strain Rate on the Lifetime of 50CrMo4
by Max Benedikt Geilen, Josef Arthur Schönherr, Marcus Klein, Dominik Sebastian Leininger, Alexander Giertler, Ulrich Krupp and Matthias Oechsner
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111458 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the influence of control type and strain rate on the lifetime of specimens manufactured from 50CrMo4. This influence is described by a strain rate dependent method that uses cyclic stress strain curves to correct displacement-controlled cyclic test results. [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the influence of control type and strain rate on the lifetime of specimens manufactured from 50CrMo4. This influence is described by a strain rate dependent method that uses cyclic stress strain curves to correct displacement-controlled cyclic test results. The objective of this correction is to eliminate the stress related differences between displacement-controlled cyclic test results and force-controlled cyclic test results. The method is applied to the results of ultrasonic fatigue tests of six different combinations of heat treatment, specimen geometry (notch factor) and atmosphere. In a statistical analysis, the corrected results show an improved agreement with test results obtained on conventional fatigue testing equipment with similar specimens: the standard deviation in combined data sets is significantly reduced (p = 4.1%). We discuss the literature on intrinsic and extrinsic strain rate effects in carbon steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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11 pages, 9398 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Fracture Mechanism of a Nickel-Based Single Crystal Superalloy with Partially Recrystallized Grains at 550 °C by In Situ SEM Studies
by Hao Yang, Jishen Jiang, Zhuozheng Wang, Xianfeng Ma, Jiajun Tu, Hui-ji Shi, Hailin Zhai and Wenjie Zhang
Metals 2020, 10(8), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10081007 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
The fatigue fracture mechanism of a nickel-based single crystal (NBSC) superalloy with recrystallized grains was studied at 550 °C by in situ observation with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the first time. Multiple crack initiations associated with recrystallized grain boundaries and carbides [...] Read more.
The fatigue fracture mechanism of a nickel-based single crystal (NBSC) superalloy with recrystallized grains was studied at 550 °C by in situ observation with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the first time. Multiple crack initiations associated with recrystallized grain boundaries and carbides were observed. By analysis of the slip traces and crack propagation planes, the operated slip systems were identified to be octahedral for both single crystal substrate and recrystallized grains. Distinct crystallographic fractures dominated, accompanied by recrystallized grain boundary associated crack initiations. This is different from the widely reported solely intergranular cracking at high temperature. Fatigue crack growth rate curves showed evident fluctuation, due to the interaction of fatigue cracks with local microstructures and the crack coalescence mechanism. Both the recrystallized grains and the competition between different slip systems were responsible for the deceleration and acceleration of fatigue microstructurally small crack behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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22 pages, 10555 KiB  
Article
Effect of In-Situ Synthesized Boride Phases on the Impact Behavior of Iron-Based Composites Reinforced by B4C Particles
by Fehmi Nair and Mustafa Hamamcı
Metals 2020, 10(5), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10050554 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact behavior of iron-based composites reinforced with boron carbide (B4C) particles and in-situ synthesized iron borides (Fe2B/FeB). The composite specimens (Fe/B4C) were fabricated by hot-pressing under a pressure [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact behavior of iron-based composites reinforced with boron carbide (B4C) particles and in-situ synthesized iron borides (Fe2B/FeB). The composite specimens (Fe/B4C) were fabricated by hot-pressing under a pressure of 250 MPa at 500 °C, and sintered at a temperature of 1000 °C. The effects of the reinforcement ratio on the formation of in-situ borides and impact behavior were investigated by means of different volume fractions of B4C inside the iron matrix: 0% (un-reinforced), 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Drop-weight impact tests were performed by an instrumented Charpy impactor on reinforced and un-reinforced test specimens. The results of the impact tests were supported with microstructural and fractographical analysis. As a result of in-situ reactions between the Fe matrix and B4C particles, Fe2B phases were formed in the iron matrix. The iron borides, formed in the iron matrix during sintering, heavily affected the hardness and the morphology of the fractured surface. Due to the high amount of B4C (over 10%), porosity played a major role in decreasing the contact forces and fracture energy. The results showed that the in-situ synthesized iron boride phases affect the impact properties of the Fe/B4C composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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10 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Study of the Effect of Isotropic Hardening Parameters on Mode I Fatigue Crack Growth
by M. F. Borges, F. V. Antunes, P. A. Prates and R. Branco
Metals 2020, 10(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020177 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
The consideration of plastic crack tip opening displacement (CTOD, δp), as a crack driving force has given us the opportunity to predict fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate numerically, and, therefore, to develop parametric studies focused on the effect of loading, geometrical, [...] Read more.
The consideration of plastic crack tip opening displacement (CTOD, δp), as a crack driving force has given us the opportunity to predict fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate numerically, and, therefore, to develop parametric studies focused on the effect of loading, geometrical, and material parameters. The objective here is to study the effect of the isotropic hardening parameters of the Voce law on FCG, which are the isotropic saturation stress, YSat, and the isotropic saturation rate, CY. The increase of these hardening parameters causes δp to decrease. However, this effect is much more pronounced for YSat than CY. The variation is non-linear, and the rate of variation decreases with the increase of isotropic parameters. The increase of YSat increases the crack closure phenomenon. Finally, the influence of the isotropic parameters is more relevant for pure isotropic hardening than for mixed hardening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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16 pages, 8738 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Property and Improvement of a Rounded Welding Region between the Diaphragm Plate and Closed Rib of an Orthotropic Steel Bridge Deck
by Datao Li, Chunguo Zhang and Pengmin Lu
Metals 2020, 10(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020161 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2624
Abstract
By means of finite element modeling (FEM) and fatigue experiments, we study the fatigue performance of the rounded welding region between the diaphragm plate and closed rib of orthotropic steel bridge deck in this work. A local sub-model of the rounded welding region [...] Read more.
By means of finite element modeling (FEM) and fatigue experiments, we study the fatigue performance of the rounded welding region between the diaphragm plate and closed rib of orthotropic steel bridge deck in this work. A local sub-model of the rounded welding region from the orthotropic steel bridge deck was developed to analyze the stress distributions. Based on the analysis results we designed the fatigue specimen for the fatigue test of this detailed structure. The fatigue experimental results revealed that the crack initiates from the weld toe of the rounded welding region and the stress concentration at the rounded welding region is the main mechanism of fatigue crack initiation. In addition, we propose three improvements to reduce the stress concentration of the rounded welding region, and the local structure optimization scheme of the diaphragm–rib weld can effectively improve the fatigue resistance of the detailed weld structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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14 pages, 8191 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Fracture Toughness of X80 Pipeline Steels in DTB Transition Region Involving the Effect of Temperature and Crack Growth
by Jie Xu, Wei Song, Wenfeng Cheng, Lingyu Chu, Hanlin Gao, Pengpeng Li and Filippo Berto
Metals 2020, 10(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010028 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
This work presents an investigation of the effects of temperature and crack growth on cleavage fracture toughness for weld thermal simulated X80 pipeline steels in the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) regime. A great bulk of fracture toughness (crack tip opening displacement—CTOD) tests and numerical [...] Read more.
This work presents an investigation of the effects of temperature and crack growth on cleavage fracture toughness for weld thermal simulated X80 pipeline steels in the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) regime. A great bulk of fracture toughness (crack tip opening displacement—CTOD) tests and numerical simulations are carried out by deep-cracked single-edge-notched bending (SENB) and shallow-cracked single-edge-notched tension (SENT) specimens at various temperatures (−90 °C, −60 °C, −30 °C, and 0 °C). Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of tested specimens have been employed to obtain computational data. The results show that temperature exerts only a slight effect on the material hardening behavior, which indicates the crack tip constraint (as denoted by Q-parameter) is less dependent on the temperature. The measured CTOD-values give considerable scatter but confirm well-established trends of increasing toughness with increasing temperature and reducing constraint. Crack growth and 3D effect exhibited significant influences on CTOD-CMOD relations at higher temperatures, −30 °C and 0 °C for the SENT specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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14 pages, 1764 KiB  
Article
On the Behaviour of 316 and 304 Stainless Steel under Multiaxial Fatigue Loading: Application of the Critical Plane Approach
by Alejandro S. Cruces, Pablo Lopez-Crespo, Stefano Bressan, Takamoto Itoh and Belen Moreno
Metals 2019, 9(9), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090978 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3567
Abstract
In this work, the multiaxial fatigue behaviour of 316 and 304 stainless steel was studied. The study was based on the critical plane approach which is based on observations that cracks tend to nucleate and grow in specific planes. Three different critical plane [...] Read more.
In this work, the multiaxial fatigue behaviour of 316 and 304 stainless steel was studied. The study was based on the critical plane approach which is based on observations that cracks tend to nucleate and grow in specific planes. Three different critical plane models were employed to this end, namely Fatemi–Socie (FS), Smith–Watson–Topper (SWT) and the newly proposed Sandip–Kallmeyer–Smith (SKS) model. The study allowed equi-biaxial stress state, mean strain and non–proportional hardening effects to be taken into consideration. Experimental tests including different combinations of tension, torsion and inner pressure were performed and were useful to identify the predominant failure mode for the two materials. The results also showed that the SKS damage parameter returned more conservative results than FS with lower scatter level in both materials, with prediction values between FS and SWT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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12 pages, 5300 KiB  
Article
Study on the Corrosion Fatigue Properties of 12Cr1MoV Steel at High Temperature in Different Salt Environments
by Jianjun He, Jiangyong Bao, Kailiang Long, Cong Li and Gang Wang
Metals 2019, 9(7), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070774 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
Biomass energy, as a reliable renewable energy source, has gained more and more attention. However, microstructure degradation and corrosion fatigue damage of heat pipes hinder its further application. In this paper, high temperature corrosion fatigue characteristics of 12Cr1MoV steel under a mixed alkali [...] Read more.
Biomass energy, as a reliable renewable energy source, has gained more and more attention. However, microstructure degradation and corrosion fatigue damage of heat pipes hinder its further application. In this paper, high temperature corrosion fatigue characteristics of 12Cr1MoV steel under a mixed alkali metal chloride salt environment and mixed sulfate salt environment were investigated. Fatigue tests with different total strain amplitudes were performed. Results show that the effect of total strain amplitude on the cyclic stress response of the alloy is approximately the same under three different deformation conditions. With the increase of the cyclic numbers, the alloyed steel mainly exhibited cyclic hardening during loading. The fatigue properties in air environment were the best, which is most obvious when the total strain amplitude is ±0.3%. The fatigue life of samples in mixed alkali metal salts is the shortest. Furthermore, the fatigue fracture morphology of the alloyed steel in different environments were also deeply analyzed. This experimental study attempts to provide a theoretical reference for solving the problem of rapid failure of heat pipes in biomass boilers, and to establish a scientific basis for the material selection and safety operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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13 pages, 5303 KiB  
Article
Influence of Residual Stress on Fatigue Weak Areas and Simulation Analysis on Fatigue Properties Based on Continuous Performance of FSW Joints
by Guoqin Sun, Xinhai Wei, Jiangpei Niu, Deguang Shang and Shujun Chen
Metals 2019, 9(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030284 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
The fatigue weak area of aluminum alloy for a friction stir-welded joint is investigated based on the hardness profile, the residual stress measurement and the simulation analysis of fatigue property. The maximum residual stresses appeared at the heat-affected zone of the joint in [...] Read more.
The fatigue weak area of aluminum alloy for a friction stir-welded joint is investigated based on the hardness profile, the residual stress measurement and the simulation analysis of fatigue property. The maximum residual stresses appeared at the heat-affected zone of the joint in the fatigue damage process, which was consistent with the fracture location of the fatigue specimen. The fatigue joint model of continuous performance is established ignoring the original negative residual stress; considering that it will be relaxed soon when the joint is under tension-tension cyclic loading. The fatigue parameters of joint model is based on the static mechanical properties of the joint that obtained from the micro-tensile tests and four-point correlation method. The predicted results for the fatigue weak locations and fatigue lives based on the continuous performance joint model are closer to the fatigue experimental results by comparison with the simulation results of the partitioned performance joint model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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18 pages, 14179 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Numerical Crack Growth Analysis of 1:3 Scaled Railway Axle Specimens
by David Simunek, Martin Leitner, Jürgen Maierhofer, Hans-Peter Gänser and Reinhard Pippan
Metals 2019, 9(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020184 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4245
Abstract
This paper deals with experimental fatigue crack propagation in rotating bending loaded round bar specimens as well as an analytical and numerical analysis of the residual lifetime. Constant amplitude (CA) load tests are performed with the surface crack length being evaluated using an [...] Read more.
This paper deals with experimental fatigue crack propagation in rotating bending loaded round bar specimens as well as an analytical and numerical analysis of the residual lifetime. Constant amplitude (CA) load tests are performed with the surface crack length being evaluated using an optical measurement system. Fracture surfaces are microscopically analyzed to determine crack growth in depth as well as the crack shape. In spite of identical testing conditions, the experimental results show some scatter in residual lifetime, which is mainly caused by different residual stress states. Although X-ray residual stress measurements reveal only minor values, a superposition of the residual stress state with the load-induced stress leads to a significant impact on the residual lifetime calculations, which explains the experimental scatter. Numerical analyses are conducted to consider the residual stress state and their effect on crack propagation by different options. Considering the residual stress distribution in depth within the residual lifetime assessment, the deviation to the most conservative experiment is reduced from +48% to +2%. In conclusion, the results in this paper highlight that it is of utmost importance to consider local residual stress conditions in the course of a crack propagation analysis in order to properly assess the residual lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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18 pages, 5623 KiB  
Article
A Fatigue Life Prediction Model Based on Modified Resolved Shear Stress for Nickel-Based Single Crystal Superalloys
by Jialiang Wang, Dasheng Wei, Yanrong Wang and Xianghua Jiang
Metals 2019, 9(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020180 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3130
Abstract
In this paper, the viewpoint that maximum resolved shear stress corresponding to the two slip systems in a nickel-based single crystal high-temperature fatigue experiment works together was put forward. A nickel-based single crystal fatigue life prediction model based on modified resolved shear stress [...] Read more.
In this paper, the viewpoint that maximum resolved shear stress corresponding to the two slip systems in a nickel-based single crystal high-temperature fatigue experiment works together was put forward. A nickel-based single crystal fatigue life prediction model based on modified resolved shear stress amplitude was proposed. For the four groups of fatigue data, eight classical fatigue life prediction models were compared with the model proposed in this paper. Strain parameter is poor in fatigue life prediction as a damage parameter. The life prediction results of the fatigue life prediction model with stress amplitude as the damage parameter, the fatigue life prediction model with maximum resolved shear stress in 30 slip directions as the damage parameter, and the McDiarmid (McD) model, are better. The model proposed in this paper has higher life prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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12 pages, 4369 KiB  
Article
Precipitate Evolution and Fatigue Crack Growth in Creep and Artificially Aged Aluminum Alloy
by Chi Liu, Yilun Liu, Liyong Ma, Songbai Li, Xianqiong Zhao and Qing Wang
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121039 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2768
Abstract
The fatigue performance of high-strength Al-Cu-Mg alloys is generally influenced by the process of creep age formation when applied to acquire higher strength. The results show that creep aging accelerates the precipitation process, leading to a more uniform precipitation of strengthening phases in [...] Read more.
The fatigue performance of high-strength Al-Cu-Mg alloys is generally influenced by the process of creep age formation when applied to acquire higher strength. The results show that creep aging accelerates the precipitation process, leading to a more uniform precipitation of strengthening phases in grains, as well as narrowed precipitation-free zones (PFZ). Compared with the artificially aged alloy, the yield strength and hardness of the creep aged alloy increased, but the fatigue resistance decreased. In the low stress intensity factor region (ΔK ≤ 7 MPa·m1/2), the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate was mainly affected by the characteristics of precipitates, and the fatigue resistance noticeably decreased with the increased creep time. In a 4 h creep aged alloy, the microstructure was dominated by Cu-Mg clusters and Guinier-Preston (GP) zones, while S″ phases began to precipitate in the matrix, showing better fatigue resistance. After aging for 24 h, the needle-shaped S’ phases were largely precipitated and coarsened, which changed the mode of dislocation slip, reduced the reversibility of slip, and accelerated the accumulation of fatigue damage. In stable and rapid crack propagation regions, the influence of precipitates on the FCP rate was negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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19 pages, 3281 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Damage Accumulation Modeling of Metals Alloys under High Amplitude Loading at Elevated Temperatures
by Jarosław Szusta and Andrzej Seweryn
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121030 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
This article presents an approach related to the modeling of the fatigue life of constructional metal alloys working under elevated temperature conditions and in the high-amplitude load range. The article reviews the fatigue damage accumulation criteria that makes it possible to determine the [...] Read more.
This article presents an approach related to the modeling of the fatigue life of constructional metal alloys working under elevated temperature conditions and in the high-amplitude load range. The article reviews the fatigue damage accumulation criteria that makes it possible to determine the number of loading cycles until damage occurs. Results of experimental tests conducted on various technical metal alloys made it possible to develop a fatigue damage accumulation model for the LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) range. In modeling, the material’s damage state variable was defined, and the damage accumulation law was formulated incrementally so as to enable the analysis of the influence of loading history on the material’s fatigue life. In the proposed model, the increment of the damage state variable was made dependent on the increment of plastic strain, on the tensile stress value in the sample, and also on the actual value of the damage state variable. The model was verified on the basis of data obtained from experiments in the field of uniaxial and multiaxial loads. Samples made of EN AW 2024T3 aluminum alloy were used for this purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Fracture of Traditional and Advanced Structural Alloys)
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