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Safety, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The study described here aims to understand the influence of each of a set of four Lean tools used in an industrial context with a strong manual labor component, seeking to determine the influence of each of these Lean tools on the increase in safety obtained through their application. For this purpose, four Lean tools that are quite commonly applied are selected, taking into account previously presented work that pointed to the positive influence of the application of each of these tools on worker safety: total productive maintenance system, Gemba walk, visual management and Yokoten. This study aims to apply these Lean tools and to analyze their impact on productivity and then on the safety of a company selected as a target in order to validate the concept. View this paper
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20 pages, 1827 KiB  
Article
Improving Functional Exercises Based on Experts’ Evaluation Weights for Emergency Responses
by Hung Le Tien, Nam Pham Van and Takaaki Kato
Safety 2023, 9(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040092 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Social and economic changes in Southeast Asia have caused significant changes to Vietnam’s national emergency management structure, including expanding the role of firefighters from firefighting to rescue activities in various situations. It is essential to develop methods for designing exercises to identify and [...] Read more.
Social and economic changes in Southeast Asia have caused significant changes to Vietnam’s national emergency management structure, including expanding the role of firefighters from firefighting to rescue activities in various situations. It is essential to develop methods for designing exercises to identify and address the gaps in competencies related to the new roles assigned to Vietnamese firefighters. This study aimed to develop a quantitative method to effectively arrange exercise injects. It applies the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weights of response actions in functional exercises and uses comparison methods to establish the relationship between the weights of the action types, players’ capability targets, and disaster types. The results indicate that the action type weights change when the disaster type changes, whereas the capability weights within each action type remain constant. In this study, we developed a method to adjust the exercise structure based on response action weights and to optimize the number of injects that represent each action type. This innovative approach holds great significance in exercise design, increasing the likelihood of achieving the exercise capability targets, not only in Vietnam, but also in other countries. Full article
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26 pages, 886 KiB  
Review
The Role of Deep Learning Models in the Detection of Anti-Social Behaviours towards Women in Public Transport from Surveillance Videos: A Scoping Review
by Marcella Papini, Umair Iqbal, Johan Barthelemy and Christian Ritz
Safety 2023, 9(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040091 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
Increasing women’s active participation in economic, educational, and social spheres requires ensuring safe public transport environments. This study investigates the potential of machine learning-based models in addressing behaviours impacting the safety perception of women commuters. Specifically, we conduct a comprehensive review of the [...] Read more.
Increasing women’s active participation in economic, educational, and social spheres requires ensuring safe public transport environments. This study investigates the potential of machine learning-based models in addressing behaviours impacting the safety perception of women commuters. Specifically, we conduct a comprehensive review of the existing literature concerning the utilisation of deep learning models for identifying anti-social behaviours in public spaces. Employing a scoping review methodology, our study synthesises the current landscape, highlighting both the advantages and challenges associated with the automated detection of such behaviours. Additionally, we assess available video and audio datasets suitable for training detection algorithms in this context. The findings not only shed light on the feasibility of leveraging deep learning for recognising anti-social behaviours but also provide critical insights for researchers, developers, and transport operators. Our work aims to facilitate future studies focused on the development and implementation of deep learning models, enhancing safety for all passengers in public transportation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Issues in Safety)
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28 pages, 6369 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Near-Miss Incidents and Risky Riding Behavior in Thailand: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Areas
by Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Natthaporn Hantanong, Thanapong Champahom, Chamroeun Se and Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
Safety 2023, 9(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040090 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Preventing near-miss incidents is considered a proactive measure, as it aims to prevent events that have a risk of resulting in accidents. This is regarded as a vital component of building a sustainable and secure society within communities. In the present day, low- [...] Read more.
Preventing near-miss incidents is considered a proactive measure, as it aims to prevent events that have a risk of resulting in accidents. This is regarded as a vital component of building a sustainable and secure society within communities. In the present day, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often experience the highest fatality rates from motorcycle accidents, which frequently involve mixed traffic scenarios with other vehicles. The distinct physical characteristics and environmental conditions of roads in urban and rural areas significantly contribute to different riding behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a behavioral model related to near-miss incidents among motorcycle riders in both urban and rural regions using multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM). Data collected from six Thai regions via adapted MRBQ assessed control errors, violations, and safety equipment use in a sample of 2002 riders (1066 urban, 936 rural). Through parameter invariance testing, differences in factor loadings, intercepts, and structural paths were identified between urban and rural areas. All three of these factors significantly influenced near-miss incidents among motorcycle riders in both urban and rural areas. The policy recommendations resulting from this study can contribute to enhancing safety measures for motorcycle riders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety Culture)
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20 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Safety Climate and Safety Behavior in Company X in Indonesia
by Arief Hertanto, Dadan Erwandi, Baiduri Widanarko and Mila Tejamaya
Safety 2023, 9(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040089 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Throughout 2019–2021, there was a considerable rise in total work accident cases in Indonesia, increasing from 210,789 to 234,370. According to the location of the incident, accident cases in the workplace also escalated from 139,999 to 144,929. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
Throughout 2019–2021, there was a considerable rise in total work accident cases in Indonesia, increasing from 210,789 to 234,370. According to the location of the incident, accident cases in the workplace also escalated from 139,999 to 144,929. The purpose of this study was to measure the maturity level of the safety climate at Company X in Indonesia and analyze its relationship with safety behavior. This was a quantitative study on a total of 200 respondents using a questionnaire as the data collection method. A structured questionnaire was used to capture the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, the safety climate, and safety behavior. Respondents participated in this study by responding to the items in the questionnaire distributed. The findings of this study indicated that the maturity level of the safety climate at Company X was at the adequate level with a very strong relationship between the sub-dimensional variables and safety climate. The relationship between safety climate and safety behavior was quite strong. This study emphasized that an increase in the level of safety climate could improve safety behavior. Therefore, increasing safety climate level is effective to reduce the incidence of occupational accidents. Full article
17 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
Linking Deployment Outcomes to Program Impacts for Mobile Photo Enforcement
by Samaa Agina, Faeze Momeni Rad and Karim El-Basyouny
Safety 2023, 9(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040088 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Previous research has delved into the effectiveness of Mobile Photo Enforcement (MPE) in curbing speed violations and enhancing road safety. This present study extends this investigation to explore the potential influence of MPE deployment efforts on subsequent collision occurrences. Specifically, the research team [...] Read more.
Previous research has delved into the effectiveness of Mobile Photo Enforcement (MPE) in curbing speed violations and enhancing road safety. This present study extends this investigation to explore the potential influence of MPE deployment efforts on subsequent collision occurrences. Specifically, the research team applied survival analysis techniques to examine the connection between MPE deployment variables and the duration between collisions. K-M survival estimates were employed to assess the survivability of classified groups, categorized based on deployment hours, visits, the ratio of hours to visits, and traffic count. The findings illuminated that the ratio of hours to visits emerged as the most impactful variable in prolonging the time interval between collisions and diminishing the likelihood of collisions. Notably, the anticipated reduction in collision hazards, signifying the occurrence of collisions, exhibited variations ranging from 22% to 52%. The most substantial decreases were observed when deployment occurred in high-traffic locations. These outcomes reinforce the positive impact of deployed MPE hours and visits in extending the duration between consecutive collisions, thus reducing the risk of collision occurrences. Full article
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20 pages, 11013 KiB  
Article
Going beyond Chat: Designing Connotative Meaningful Line Stickers to Promote Road Safety in Thailand through Participatory Design
by Thawatphong Phithak, Pawanrat Surasangprasert and Sorachai Kamollimsakul
Safety 2023, 9(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040087 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Road accidents are a leading cause of death in Thailand, with increasing fatalities. Despite road safety campaigns during holidays, consistent communication is lacking in daily life. This research aimed to create Line application stickers, a top chat platform for Thailand, using the participatory [...] Read more.
Road accidents are a leading cause of death in Thailand, with increasing fatalities. Despite road safety campaigns during holidays, consistent communication is lacking in daily life. This research aimed to create Line application stickers, a top chat platform for Thailand, using the participatory design (PD) approach. PD was implemented in two steps. Firstly, 100 participants outlined character types, moods, tones, and communication objectives. They recommended lively animal characters with diverse texts, such as greetings, work, travel, and emotions. Then, through a focus group, the tortoise was identified to represent cautious drivers who follow traffic rules, the rabbit to represent fast and risky drivers, and the zebra to represent vigilant and disciplined traffic police officers as characters for Line stickers. Subsequently, using the semiotics approach, 40 Line stickers were designed, and embedded with denotative and connotative road safety messages. Secondly, feedback from the focus group, integral to the PD process, led to refinements. After launching, a survey of 50 users showed “Benefits Received”, “Text and Messages”, and “Meaning” dimensions received “Very Satisfied/Strongly Agree” ratings. The “Character” dimension received a “Satisfied” rating. The results for “Benefits Received” can also be analyzed in the context of the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) theory, which revealed that K and A were at the highest level, while P was at a high level. This suggests that the Line stickers designed in this study effectively conveyed road safety messages to the receivers. This research constitutes the pioneering exploration within the realm of Line stickers concerning road safety, signifying the originality and unique contribution of our research to the existing body of knowledge in this domain. The PD process in this research can serve as a guideline for creating safety-promoting media in diverse fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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12 pages, 445 KiB  
Article
Nurses’ Perceptions of the Clinical Decision Support System Effect on Patient Safety
by Reem N. AL-Dossary
Safety 2023, 9(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040086 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Study purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of CDSS on patient safety through the experiences of nursing staff. Methods: As the study intends to arrive at specific conclusions on the perceptions of nurses on the impact of CDSS on patients’ safety, [...] Read more.
Study purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of CDSS on patient safety through the experiences of nursing staff. Methods: As the study intends to arrive at specific conclusions on the perceptions of nurses on the impact of CDSS on patients’ safety, a cross-sectional quantitative survey design is adopted in this study. The Hospital Survey of Patients’ Safety Culture (HSOPSC) was used in this study to assess the influence of CDSS on various factors of patient safety. A total of 473 nurses from eight hospitals in Saudi Arabia participated in this study. Results: The PRR of ‘team work within units’ was identified to be the highest (65.9%), followed by ‘hands-off and transitions’ (64.7%), ‘overall patents safety’ (64.1%), and ‘frequency of reports’ that were corrected (61.1%). Communication openness (27.9%) achieved the lowest PRR; while team work across units (2.82) achieved the lowest mean score. Conclusion: The CDSS needs to be integrated with other interventions that promote communication and develop a supportive and cooperative culture among the nurses for ensuring a positive patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals. Full article
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12 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Chronic Sufferers and Environmental Conditions
by Sotiria Vrouva, Varvara Sopidou, Emmanouil Sifakis, Ilias Ntoulaveris, Georgios Papamarkos, Gesthimani Tse, Konstantinos Chanopoulos and George Koumantakis
Safety 2023, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040085 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Environmental conditions are associated with the onset of pain or the recurrence of symptoms of chronic sufferers either with musculoskeletal pathologies or neurological diseases. Recent research has indicated that physiotherapy also appears to be helpful in dealing with the symptoms of climate change. [...] Read more.
Environmental conditions are associated with the onset of pain or the recurrence of symptoms of chronic sufferers either with musculoskeletal pathologies or neurological diseases. Recent research has indicated that physiotherapy also appears to be helpful in dealing with the symptoms of climate change. The purpose of this study was to investigate how temperature and precipitation are associated with referrals for physical therapy. All the data were collected retrospectively for three years, 2020–2022. A total of 2164 referrals were studied, 78% of which were female cases. Our results highlighted that (a) referrals with musculoskeletal problems are associated with the weather indicators of temperature and precipitation, (b) this relation was found to be stronger for females, and (c) there were slightly differentiated trends between them and those with neurological problems. These results suggest that low temperatures and high precipitation are strongly associated with increased referrals for chronic musculoskeletal pain and that females are more vulnerable to precipitation. Moreover, the increased number of referrals with chronic neurological problems was found to be associated with extreme temperatures. Considering these findings, rehabilitation centers and healthcare systems have the opportunity to immediately provide reliable and qualitative services, guided always by the safety and maximum relief of chronic sufferers. Full article
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17 pages, 3573 KiB  
Article
A Case Study for an Assessment of Fire Station Selection in the Central Urban Area
by An-Chi Huang, Chung-Fu Huang and Chi-Min Shu
Safety 2023, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040084 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
With the continual acceleration of urbanization, the amount of urban infrastructure and the quality of public services are increasing in many cities. A pressing concern in this context is the growing problem of incompatible fire protection construction, indicating a need for urban fire [...] Read more.
With the continual acceleration of urbanization, the amount of urban infrastructure and the quality of public services are increasing in many cities. A pressing concern in this context is the growing problem of incompatible fire protection construction, indicating a need for urban fire stations with well-planned layouts. However, research on optimizing the layout and placement of fire stations by considering the various factors affecting station layouts is lacking. The current study addressed this gap by establishing an optimal fire station layout by using a geographic information system (GIS) and elucidated the trends of GIS application in firefighting and rescue operations. The study’s findings reveal the benefits of avoiding blind spots, enhancing the selection of fire station sites, and optimizing service coverage. Furthermore, this study optimized the layout of CZ city’s downtown fire stations, which could enhance CZ city’s firefighting capabilities. Full article
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15 pages, 2832 KiB  
Article
Explainable Boosting Machine: A Contemporary Glass-Box Model to Analyze Work Zone-Related Road Traffic Crashes
by Raed Alahmadi, Hamad Almujibah, Saleh Alotaibi, Ali. E. A. Elshekh, Mohammad Alsharif and Mudthir Bakri
Safety 2023, 9(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040083 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Examining the factors contributing to work zone crashes and implementing measures to reduce their occurrence can significantly improve road safety. In this research, we utilized the explainable boosting machine (EBM), a modern glass-box machine learning (ML) model, to categorize and predict work zone-related [...] Read more.
Examining the factors contributing to work zone crashes and implementing measures to reduce their occurrence can significantly improve road safety. In this research, we utilized the explainable boosting machine (EBM), a modern glass-box machine learning (ML) model, to categorize and predict work zone-related crashes and to interpret the various contributing factors. The issue of data imbalance was also addressed by utilizing work zone crash data from the state of New Jersey, comprising data collected over the course of two years (2017 and 2018) and applying data augmentation strategies such synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), borderline-SMOTE, and SVM-SMOTE. The EBM model was trained using augmented data and Bayesian optimization for hyperparameter tuning. The performance of the EBM model was evaluated and compared to black-box ML models such as combined kernel and tree boosting (KTBoost, python 3.7.1 and KTboost package version 0.2.2), light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM version 3.2.1), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost version 1.7.6). The EBM model, using borderline-SMOTE-treated data, demonstrated greater efficacy with respect to precision (81.37%), recall (82.53%), geometric mean (75.39%), and Matthews correlation coefficient (0.43). The EBM model also allows for an in-depth evaluation of single and pairwise factor interactions in predicting work zone-related crash severity. It examines both global and local perspectives, and assists in assessing the influence of various factors. Full article
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24 pages, 3154 KiB  
Review
Estimation of Human Casualties Due to Earthquakes: Overview and Application of Literature Models with Emphasis on Occupancy Rate
by Vincenzo Manfredi, Giuseppe Nicodemo and Angelo Masi
Safety 2023, 9(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040082 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
In the field of seismic risk assessment, the estimation of human casualties is an important task for medical and relief agencies to develop preparedness and emergency management actions. The process of calculating casualties involves several factors along with the associated uncertainties. Despite its [...] Read more.
In the field of seismic risk assessment, the estimation of human casualties is an important task for medical and relief agencies to develop preparedness and emergency management actions. The process of calculating casualties involves several factors along with the associated uncertainties. Despite its complexity and the limited quality and availability of data, many studies have been devoted to this topic in recent decades, but additional effort is required to better analyze these studies by also comparing the results they provide. In the present paper, an extensive literature overview of the main models proposed to estimate casualties is reported. Further, the main factors involved in the available Casualty Estimation Models are also analyzed by analyzing loss scenarios related to two strong Italian earthquakes (1980 Irpinia–Basilicata and 2009 L’Aquila). Comparing estimated vs. collected data, it is found that, in addition to the damage level, both the building material and the occupancy rate at the time of the event significantly impact the estimation of human casualties. As for the occupancy rate, based on the data on the daily life of citizens collected by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the occupancy rate functions for Italian residential building stock are derived and discussed. Full article
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11 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Occupational Exposure to Biological Agents in a Typical Restaurant Setting: Is a Photocatalytic Air Purifier Helpful?
by Matteo Ratti, Daniele Ceriotti, Rabia Bibi, Andrea Conti and Massimiliano Panella
Safety 2023, 9(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040081 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
According to many national legislations, biological agents represent an occupational hazard that must be managed in order to ensure safety at workplace. Bioaerosols have been associated to many pathological conditions but, despite many efforts, precise threshold limit values (TLV) are still undefined. We [...] Read more.
According to many national legislations, biological agents represent an occupational hazard that must be managed in order to ensure safety at workplace. Bioaerosols have been associated to many pathological conditions but, despite many efforts, precise threshold limit values (TLV) are still undefined. We planned and conducted an environmental study concerning a typical restaurant that aimed to evaluate: (1) the occupational exposure to bacterial and fungal bioaerosol; (2) the efficacy of a photocatalytic air purifier device in mitigating such exposure. This observational study evaluated two dining rooms (Area 1 and Area 2) of a restaurant which can be considered typical during two consecutive weeks. Based on a national protocol, we monitored total bacterial and mycotic loads searching for two typologies of bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria (environmental contamination) along with mesophilic bacteria (human or animal origin source), and two types of fungi, mold and yeast. Baseline total bacterial load was 346.8 CFU/m3 for Area 1 and 412.9 CFU/m3 for Area 2. When the sanitizing device was operative, the total bacterial load decreased to 202.7 CFU/m3 (−41.50%—p value: <0.01) for Area 1 and to 342.2 CFU/m3 (17.10%—p value: 0.06) for Area 2. Considering the fungal load, the mean baseline value was 189.7 CFU/m3 for Area 1 and 141.1 CFU/m3 for Area 2. When the device was kept on, the total fungal load was 108.0 CFU/m3 (43.10%—p value: 0.055) for Area 1 and 205.0 CFU/m3 (+45.30%—p value: 0.268) for Area 2. Our findings supported the conclusion that, concerning the occupational risk derived from biological agents, a typical restaurant should be considered relatively safe. In order to mitigate or limit any possible increase of such risk, a photocatalytic device may be helpful, but not against the pollution caused by mold or yeasts. Our research also reaffirmed the need of further research assessing the kind of relationship between diseases and exposure levels, before considering the need of setting precise threshold limit values. Full article
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17 pages, 1517 KiB  
Review
Updated Aspects of Safety Regulations for Biomedical Applications of Aerogel Compounds—Compendia-Like Evaluation
by Monica Neagu, Fabia Grisi, Alfio Pulvirenti, Rosana Simón-Vázquez, Carlos A. García-González and Antonella Caterina Boccia
Safety 2023, 9(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040080 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Aerogels have recently started to be considered as “advanced materials”; therefore, as a general consideration, aerogels’ toxicity testing should focus on their functionality which resides in their nanoscale open internal porosity. To assess the hazards of organic aerogels, testing at three levels may [...] Read more.
Aerogels have recently started to be considered as “advanced materials”; therefore, as a general consideration, aerogels’ toxicity testing should focus on their functionality which resides in their nanoscale open internal porosity. To assess the hazards of organic aerogels, testing at three levels may characterize their biophysical, in vitro and in vivo toxicity, defining distinct categories of aerogels. At the first level of testing, their abiotic characteristics are investigated, and the best aerogel(s) is forwarded to be tested at level 2, wherein in vitro methodologies may mainly evaluate the aerogels’ cellular behavior. Within level 2 of testing, the main characteristics of toxicity are investigated and the selected aerogels are introduced to in vivo animal models at level 3. In the animal model testing, target organs are investigated along with systemic parameters of toxicity. Some study cases are presented for organic or anorganic aerogels. Within this tiered workflow, aerogels-based materials can be tested in terms of human health hazard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosafety)
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11 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
There Is Hope in Safety Promotion! How Can Resources and Demands Impact Workers’ Safety Participation?
by Simona Margheritti, Alessia Negrini and Sílvia Agostinho da Silva
Safety 2023, 9(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040079 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Promoting workplace safety is crucial in occupational health and safety (OHS). However, existing studies have primarily concentrated on accident prevention, overlooking the role of resources in encouraging safety. This research investigates the impact of a personal resource, namely hope, on safety participation, considering [...] Read more.
Promoting workplace safety is crucial in occupational health and safety (OHS). However, existing studies have primarily concentrated on accident prevention, overlooking the role of resources in encouraging safety. This research investigates the impact of a personal resource, namely hope, on safety participation, considering its interaction with job resources and job demands using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the context of safety. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large company managing European shopping centers (N = 262). Of the sample, 52.3% of participants were female. Data were collected through an online questionnaire and analyzed using model 92 of Andrew F. Hayes’ Process Macro to test the hypothesized moderate serial mediation model. Our results highlighted that (1) hope directly correlates with safety participation, (2) hope and job dedication mediate the relationship between autonomy and safety participation, and (3) high job demands can undermine the beneficial effects of resources (i.e., autonomy, hope, and job dedication) on safety participation. These results suggest that workers with personal resources like hope are more likely to engage in safety practices, displaying increased dedication and focus on safety. However, excessive job demands can challenge the effectiveness of these resources in promoting safety participation. This study offers a novel perspective by integrating safety participation into the JD-R model framework. Full article
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25 pages, 3370 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Risk Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Virus Transmission in Hospital Buildings
by Thaysa V. da Cunha, Laryssa F. C. Willcox, Bruno B. F. da Costa, Mohammad Najjar, Carlos A. P. Soares and Assed N. Haddad
Safety 2023, 9(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040078 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Considering the impact of COVID-19 on hospital facilities and the relevance of risk management and occupational health and safety within this context, this study introduces a method to assess the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission risk in a toilet. The proposed method is based on [...] Read more.
Considering the impact of COVID-19 on hospital facilities and the relevance of risk management and occupational health and safety within this context, this study introduces a method to assess the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission risk in a toilet. The proposed method is based on a risk tripod involving environmental, human, and transmission factors. For this, risk assessment methodologies were applied, such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA), which allowed the identification of risk indicators, and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), which allowed the identification of transmission routes of COVID-19 in toilets. Subsequently, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to find each transmission route weighting for calculating the Risk Score. The results indicated that the design of sanitary equipment, with an emphasis on washbasins and toilets, especially in health or large circulation establishments, is of paramount importance in the dissemination of pathogens. Safe habits and the use of protective gear must be continuously encouraged, but greater attention must be paid to technical and engineering issues. Furthermore, the developed method proved to be an applicable tool to identify the main sources of risk and prioritize the implementation of control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Assessment—Health and Safety)
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18 pages, 1422 KiB  
Article
Promoting Veteran-Centric Transportation Options through Exposure to Autonomous Shuttles
by Sherrilene Classen, Isabelle C. Wandenkolk, Justin Mason, Nichole Stetten, Seung Woo Hwangbo and Kelsea LeBeau
Safety 2023, 9(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040077 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Veterans face difficulties accessing vital health and community services, especially in rural areas. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) can revolutionize transportation by enhancing access, safety, and efficiency. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how Veterans perceive AVs. This study fills this gap by assessing Veterans’ [...] Read more.
Veterans face difficulties accessing vital health and community services, especially in rural areas. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) can revolutionize transportation by enhancing access, safety, and efficiency. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how Veterans perceive AVs. This study fills this gap by assessing Veterans’ AV perceptions before and after exposure to an autonomous shuttle (AS). Using a multi-method approach, 23 participants completed pre- and post-AS Autonomous Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS), with 10 participants also taking part in post-AS focus groups. Following exposure to the AS, differences were observed for three out of the four AVUPS domains: an increase in Intention to Use (p < 0.01), a decrease in Perceived Barriers (p < 0.05), and an increase in Total Acceptance (p = 0.01); Well-being remained unchanged (p = 0.81). Feedback from focus groups uncovered six qualitative themes: Perceived Benefits (n = 70), Safety (n = 66), Shuttle Experience (n = 47), AV Adoption (n = 44), Experience with AVs (n = 17), and Perception Change (n = 10). This study underscores AVs’ potential to alleviate transportation challenges faced by Veterans, contributing to more inclusive transportation solutions. The research offers insights for future policies and interventions aimed at integrating AV technology into the transportation system, particularly for mobility-vulnerable Veterans in rural and urban settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vehicle Safety and Automated Driving)
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19 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effects of Highway Geometric Design Features on the Frequency of Truck-Involved Rear-End Crashes Using the Random Effect Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Model
by Thanapong Champahom, Chamroeun Se, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Rattanaporn Kasemsri and Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
Safety 2023, 9(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040076 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Statistical data indicate that trucks are more prone to rear-end crashes, making this an area of concern. The objective of this study is to create a model that analyzes the factors influencing the frequency of rear-end crashes involving trucks (TIRC). To achieve this, [...] Read more.
Statistical data indicate that trucks are more prone to rear-end crashes, making this an area of concern. The objective of this study is to create a model that analyzes the factors influencing the frequency of rear-end crashes involving trucks (TIRC). To achieve this, researchers identified the most appropriate model as Spatial Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression (SZINB). This model takes into account spatial correlation, which plays a significant role in the occurrences of TIRC on different road segments supervised by each highway ward. The estimation of parameters in the SZINB model has led to key findings that shed light on the factors contributing to a higher likelihood of TIRC. These findings include the increased probability of TIRC on curved roads compared to straight ones, roads that feature open middle islands, six lanes per direction, a slope, right-of-way shoulder width, pavement type, lane width, and a post speed limit. Based on these key findings, this study developed policy recommendations and sample measures aimed at reducing the frequency of TIRC. Implementing measures such as improving the road design on curved sections, optimizing middle islands, and enhancing traffic management on wider roads can help mitigate the risk of crashes involving trucks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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14 pages, 1035 KiB  
Article
Identifying and Assessing Perceived Cycling Safety Components
by Michelle Duren, Bryce Corrigan, Ryan David Kennedy, Keshia M. Pollack Porter and Johnathon Ehsani
Safety 2023, 9(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040075 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Perceived safety is recognized throughout the mode choice literature as a key barrier to cycling, yet its constructs are poorly understood. Although commonly understood to relate to crash and injury risk and sometimes vulnerability to crime, health impact assessments identify numerous other pathways [...] Read more.
Perceived safety is recognized throughout the mode choice literature as a key barrier to cycling, yet its constructs are poorly understood. Although commonly understood to relate to crash and injury risk and sometimes vulnerability to crime, health impact assessments identify numerous other pathways through which cycling can negatively impact health. This study leverages a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults in 2022 to assess a set of eleven factors as potential components of perceived cycling safety. We use principal component analysis to identify components of perceived cycling safety and then employ principal component regression to assess these components in relation to predicting unsafe cycling perception. We identify five key dimensions of perceived safety. Specifically, we found that perceived bicycling safety can be encompassed in the following components: (1) contaminant exposure, (2) injurious collision risk, (3) street conditions, (4) weather conditions, and (5) crime risk. In evaluating each identified component, we found that injurious collision risk and street conditions were the most predictive of considering cycling as unsafe. We further develop an understanding of how differences in cycling behavior, such as using cycling for commuting purposes, may contribute to differences in how cycling safety components coalesce into perceived safety. Full article
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11 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Pain Treatment in Polish Emergency Medical Teams—Is the Pain Management Entitlement Being Used?—A Retrospective Study
by Bartosz Pryba, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska and Anna Małecka-Dubiela
Safety 2023, 9(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040074 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Introduction: Pain has been identified as the most common reason for emergency medical service (EMS) calls. Despite many years of pain research, it is still true that oligoanalgesia is an ongoing phenomenon. This demonstrates the need for the implementation of new solutions and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Pain has been identified as the most common reason for emergency medical service (EMS) calls. Despite many years of pain research, it is still true that oligoanalgesia is an ongoing phenomenon. This demonstrates the need for the implementation of new solutions and for further analyses on the causes of inadequate pain treatment. The study was undertaken to analyze analgesic treatment implemented in specialist “S” and basic “P” Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs). Methods: This retrospective study was based on the analysis of medical records using the emergency medical service card. A total of 1333 medical files were analyzed, of which 539 cases were qualified for the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The analysis has shown that the majority of interventions were undertaken by basic emergency medical teams and that acute pain was the most common reason for contacting the EMS. However, only 62.52% of patients received analgesia. It was shown that the frequency of administering paracetamol, metamizole, and ketoprofen was proportional to the increase in pain intensity. Similar correlations were identified in the cases of morphine, fentanyl, and drotaverine, which were most often administered to patients with the most severe pain. Conclusions: The nature and location of pain, as well as its intensity, affected the choice of analgesia. Opioids were administered more frequently with more extensive injuries and at greater pain intensity. Significant differences were found in the frequency at which acetylsalicylic acid was administered more often in “S” EMTs and drotaverine more often in “P” EMTs. The intravenous route was found to be the most common route of analgesia administration in EMTs. Full article
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16 pages, 3875 KiB  
Article
Key Considerations in Assessing the Safety and Performance of Camera-Based Mirror Systems
by Amy Moore, Jinghui Yuan, Shiqi (Shawn) Ou, Jackeline Rios Torres, Vivek Sujan and Adam Siekmann
Safety 2023, 9(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040073 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Camera-based mirror systems (CBMSs) are a relatively new technology in the automotive industry, and much of the United States’ medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet has been reluctant to convert from standard glass, or “west coast”, mirrors to CBMSs. CBMSs have the potential to [...] Read more.
Camera-based mirror systems (CBMSs) are a relatively new technology in the automotive industry, and much of the United States’ medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet has been reluctant to convert from standard glass, or “west coast”, mirrors to CBMSs. CBMSs have the potential to reduce the number of truck and passenger vehicle incidents, improving overall fleet safety. CBMSs also have the potential to improve operational efficiency by improving aerodynamics and reducing drag, resulting in better fuel economy, and improving maneuverability. Improvements in overall safety are also possible; the field of view for the driver is potentially 360° with the addition of trailer cameras, allowing for visibility of the rear of the trailer and the front of the truck. These potential improvements seem promising, but the literature on driver surveys clearly shows that there is reluctance to adopt this technology for many reasons. Additionally, more robust testing in the laboratory and in the field is necessary to determine whether CBMSs are adequate to replace standard mirrors on trucks. This analysis provides an overview of key research questions for CBMS testing based on the current literature on the topic (surveys, standards, and previous testing). The purpose of this analysis is to serve as guidance in developing further testing of CBMSs, especially testing involving human subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vehicle Safety and Automated Driving)
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20 pages, 8383 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Heavy-Duty Truck Incident and Inspection Data
by Amy Moore, Vivek Sujan, Adam Siekmann, Hyeonsup Lim, Shiqi (Shawn) Ou and Sarah Tennille
Safety 2023, 9(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040072 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Vehicular incidents, especially those involving tractor trailers, are increasing in number every year. These events are extremely costly for fleets, in terms of damage or loss of property, loss of efficiency, and certainly in terms of loss of life. Although the U.S. Department [...] Read more.
Vehicular incidents, especially those involving tractor trailers, are increasing in number every year. These events are extremely costly for fleets, in terms of damage or loss of property, loss of efficiency, and certainly in terms of loss of life. Although the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is responsible for performing inspections, and fleet managers are encouraged to maintain their fleet and participate in regular inspections, it is uncertain whether these inspections are occurring at a frequency that is necessary to prevent incidents. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) of the DOT manages and maintains the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) dataset, which contains all incident and inspection data regarding commercial vehicles in the U.S. The purpose of this preliminary analysis was to explore the MCMIS dataset through spatiotemporal analyses, to uncover findings that may hint at potential improvements in the DOT inspection process and highlight location-specific trends in the dataset. These analyses are novel, as previous research using the MCMIS dataset only examined the data at the state or county level, not at a national scale. The results from the analyses pinpointed specific major metropolitan areas, namely Harris County (Houston), Texas, and three of the New York boroughs (Kings, Queens, and the Bronx), which were found to have increasing incident rates during the study period (2016–2020). An overview of potential causal factors contributing to this increase are provided as well as an overview of the inspection process, and suggestions for improvement relative to the highlighted locations in Texas and New York are also provided. Ultimately, it is suggested that the incorporation of advanced technology and automation may prove beneficial in reducing the occurrence of events that lead to incidents and may also help in the inspection process. Full article
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16 pages, 1508 KiB  
Review
Occupational Hearing Loss Associated with the Combined Exposure of Solvents and Noise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Jia Ren, Hongwei Xie, Yong Hu, Yu Hong, Hua Zou and Xiangjing Gao
Safety 2023, 9(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040071 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
To analyze the predominant frequencies of hearing threshold shift and the prevalence of hearing loss related to the co-exposure to noise and solvents. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by retrieving published articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ProQuest [...] Read more.
To analyze the predominant frequencies of hearing threshold shift and the prevalence of hearing loss related to the co-exposure to noise and solvents. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by retrieving published articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ProQuest until July 2023. Data were extracted in line with the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used to assess the studies’ quality. The meta-analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). I2 and Q statistics were used to prove the heterogeneity. A total of 22 selected studies (9948 workers), six cohort studies and 16 cross-sectional studies were included. The results revealed that 43.7%, 41.3%, and 53.6% of the participants presented with hearing loss due to noise exposure, solvent exposure, and combined exposure to noise and solvent, respectively. The workers exposed to both noise and solvents had a higher risk of hearing loss than those exposed to noise (overall weighted odds ratio [OR]: 1.76) or solvents (overall-weighted OR: 2.02) alone. The poorer hearing threshold in the combined noise and solvents exposure group was mainly at high frequencies (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz), with a peak of 29.47 dB HL at 6 kHz. The noise-exposed group’s peak hearing threshold was 28.87 dB HL at 4 kHz. The peak hearing threshold of the solvent-exposed group was 28.65 dB HL at 6 kHz. The workers exposed to noise and solvent simultaneously had a higher prevalence of hearing loss than those exposed to solvents. Co-exposure to noise and solvents increases the odds of hearing loss. The dominant hearing threshold changes occurred at 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz, and the peak value appeared at 6 kHz in workers co-exposed to noise and solvents. Full article
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16 pages, 4224 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impact of Lean Tools on the Safety of the Shoemaking Industry
by José Carlos Sá, Leonardo Soares, José Dinis-Carvalho, Francisco J. G. Silva and Gilberto Santos
Safety 2023, 9(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040070 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Both the Lean philosophy and occupational safety and health have been widely studied, although this has usually been carried out independently. However, the correlation between Lean and occupational safety and health in the industrial context is still underexplored. Indeed, Lean tools can be [...] Read more.
Both the Lean philosophy and occupational safety and health have been widely studied, although this has usually been carried out independently. However, the correlation between Lean and occupational safety and health in the industrial context is still underexplored. Indeed, Lean tools can be applied to ensure the best safety environment for workers in each kind of manufacturing process, and this deserves to be studied. The study described here aims to understand the influence of each of a set of four Lean tools used in an industrial context with a strong manual labor component, seeking to determine the influence of each of these Lean tools on the increase in safety obtained through their application. For this purpose, four Lean tools that are quite commonly applied are selected, taking into account previously presented work that pointed to the positive influence of the application of each of these tools on worker safety: total productive maintenance system, Gemba walk, visual management and Yokoten. This study aims to apply these Lean tools and to analyze their impact on productivity, and then, on the safety of a company selected as a target in order to validate the concept. For this purpose, a new tool is created. In the first instance, the tool analyzes the current state of the productive process and the safety level through the study of the risk levels detected in the plant. In terms of productivity results, a reduction between 7% and 12% in cycle time is achieved in four areas of the plant. The feedback from employees showed increased satisfaction with the processes’ simplification. To conclude, a 50% reduction in the number of work accidents per month is observed as a result of the implementation of Lean tools. The influence of the selected Lean tools on increasing both productivity and safety is clear, and our results prove the selection of tools to be largely adequate. Full article
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10 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Patient Experience during Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Examination: Anxiety, Feelings, and Safety
by Sandra Lange, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska and Anna Małecka-Dubiela
Safety 2023, 9(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040069 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Introductions: Computed tomography is one of the biggest breakthroughs in diagnostic imaging. In order to more accurately assess structures and pathological changes during the examination, it is necessary to administer a contrast agent. Patients presenting for the examination, very often only find out [...] Read more.
Introductions: Computed tomography is one of the biggest breakthroughs in diagnostic imaging. In order to more accurately assess structures and pathological changes during the examination, it is necessary to administer a contrast agent. Patients presenting for the examination, very often only find out during the examination that a contrast agent is required. This increases patients’ uncertainty when giving written consent for contrast administration, as well as anxiety about the examination. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients who have contrast-enhanced CT scans, focusing primarily on anxiety, feelings, and safety. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in diagnostic imaging offices in Pomeranian Voivodeship in 2019–2020. The survey was aimed at patients presenting for CT examinations with intravenous contrast injection. In total, 172 patients participated in the survey. A proprietary survey questionnaire was used to conduct the study. Results and Conclusions: During a CT scan, intravenous contrast agent administration is often necessary. Although there are few studies on patients’ experiences with this examination, the authors observe that some patients experience anxiety. The results of our study showed the following: (1) 30.8% of patients experience anxiety before a CT scan with intravenous contrast injection; (2) variables such as gender, previous experience, and searching for information about the examination influence the occurrence of anxiety; (3) the most common feelings experienced by patients during intravenous contrast injection are a sensation of warmth spreading throughout the body; (4) the most common source of information about the study used among patients was the Internet; (5) most patients feel safe during a CT scan. Full article
52 pages, 681 KiB  
Review
Barry Turner: The Under-Acknowledged Safety Pioneer
by Kym Bills, Leesa Costello and Marcus Cattani
Safety 2023, 9(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040068 - 02 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Barry Turner’s 1978 Man-made Disasters and Charles Perrow’s 1984 Normal Accidents were seminal books but a detailed comparison has yet to be undertaken. Doing so is important to establish content and priority of key ideas underpinning contemporary safety science. Turner’s research found socio-technical [...] Read more.
Barry Turner’s 1978 Man-made Disasters and Charles Perrow’s 1984 Normal Accidents were seminal books but a detailed comparison has yet to be undertaken. Doing so is important to establish content and priority of key ideas underpinning contemporary safety science. Turner’s research found socio-technical and systemic patterns that meant that major organisational disasters could be foreseen and were preventable. Perrow’s macro-structuralist industry focus was on technologically deterministic but unpredictable and unpreventable “system” accidents, particularly rare catastrophes. Andrew Hopkins and Nick Pidgeon respectively suggested that some prominent writers who wrote after Turner may not have been aware of, or did not properly acknowledge, Turner’s work. Using a methodology involving systematic reading and historical, biographical and thematic theory analysis, a detailed review of Turner’s and Perrow’s backgrounds and publications sheds new light on Turner’s priority and accomplishment, highlighting substantial similarities as well as clear differences. Normal Accidents did not cite Turner in 1984 or when republished with major additions in 1999. Turner became better known after a 1997 second edition of Man-made Disasters but under-acknowledgment issues by Perrow and others continued. Ethical citation and potential reasons for under-acknowledgment are discussed together with lessons applicable more broadly. It is concluded that Turner’s foundational importance for safety science should be better recognised. Full article
21 pages, 4107 KiB  
Article
State-of-the-Practice Survey: United States Departments of Transportation Worker Injuries and Safety Program Efforts
by Lana K. Marji, Wesley C. Zech and Jason T. Kirby
Safety 2023, 9(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040067 - 01 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The State-of-the-Practice Survey on United States Departments of Transportation (DOTs) Worker Injuries and Safety Program Efforts is a comprehensive report that provides valuable insights into the safety programs of state DOTs. The survey was conducted using a web-based questionnaire that was distributed to [...] Read more.
The State-of-the-Practice Survey on United States Departments of Transportation (DOTs) Worker Injuries and Safety Program Efforts is a comprehensive report that provides valuable insights into the safety programs of state DOTs. The survey was conducted using a web-based questionnaire that was distributed to all 50 state DOTs and received a response rate of 44% (22 states). The survey consisted of 40 questions that were designed to gather information about the safety programs of state DOTs, including their training and education efforts, injury analysis practices, and safety efforts. The survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a thematic analysis approach. The results highlighted contrasts in safety efforts across responding DOTs, with various methods of injury documentation, data collection, and the implementation of safety-related policies and procedures. The report offers recommendations for reducing worker injuries and illnesses, including the need for standardized injury documentation and data collection practices, the provision of regular and updated training to address new hazards that may arise due to changes in job tasks or procedures, the allocation of adequate funding and resources to support safety programs, and the development of a return-to-work program to facilitate the prompt return of injured workers. Additionally, ergonomic assessments and training should be provided to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. The report concludes that state DOTs can benefit from sharing best practices and collaborating on safety initiatives in order to improve worker safety and reduce the incidence of injuries and illnesses. The findings of this survey may be beneficial to any DOT implementing worker safety best practices within their respective agency. The limitations of the study include a lack of inferential statistical analysis due to the restricted statistical power of the sample size. Full article
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