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Safety, Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 13 articles

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14 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Occupational Safety and Health Disclosure Practices: Insights from 8 Years in Taiwan’s Construction Industry
by Chieh-Wen Chang, Tomohisa Nagata, Louise E. Anthony and Ro-Ting Lin
Safety 2024, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020046 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The construction industry has been identified as a major contributor to occupational accidents that can lead to fatalities. As a result, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of new safety and health regulations and revised guidelines in improving safety and health disclosures [...] Read more.
The construction industry has been identified as a major contributor to occupational accidents that can lead to fatalities. As a result, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of new safety and health regulations and revised guidelines in improving safety and health disclosures and performance within the construction industry. We retrieved safety and health disclosure reports from 25 Taiwanese construction companies between 2013 and 2020 using the Market Observation Post System website. We analyzed the data using the Kaplan–Meier method to assess the timing of disclosures and differences between larger (≥300 employees) and smaller (<300 employees) companies. We found that construction companies reported safety indicators more promptly than health indicators and that larger companies disclosed earlier compared to smaller ones. Only 45% of companies provide detailed reviews and preventative measures in their sustainability reports despite 64% disclosing occupational accidents. We found that from 2013 to 2020, more companies improved their occupational safety and health (OSH) reporting. This improvement coincided significantly with the adoption of international standards and Taiwan’s government regulations. In summary, the study found that larger companies were more likely to disclose OSH data compared to smaller ones. This suggests that company size and available resources could have an impact on reporting practices. While some progress was made, companies still struggle to provide detailed reports on major accidents, balancing transparency with competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Building a Sustainable Construction Workforce)
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22 pages, 1822 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Road Safety Decision-Making through Analysis of Youth Survey Data: A Descriptive Statistical Approach
by Zohra Bohdidi, El Khalil Cherif, Hamza El Azhari, Ayman Bnoussaad and Aziz Babounia
Safety 2024, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020045 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Unsafe roads have posed a significant threat to public health, economic stability, societal well-being, and national interests for numerous decades. Road traffic accidents constitute the primary cause of death among Morocco’s youth population. This study facilitates a comprehensive exploration of the opinions held [...] Read more.
Unsafe roads have posed a significant threat to public health, economic stability, societal well-being, and national interests for numerous decades. Road traffic accidents constitute the primary cause of death among Morocco’s youth population. This study facilitates a comprehensive exploration of the opinions held by youth in Morocco with regard to decision-making in road safety. Through a rigorous analysis of their perspectives, the research endeavors to scientifically categorize these opinions. 97.8% of the surveyed youth strongly agree that road safety holds national importance and 58% recognize road safety as a personal responsibility. The overarching aim is to provide decision-makers with valuable insights to enhance the implementation of effective strategies and actively involve youth in shaping future road safety initiatives. Full article
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24 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Hydrogen Value Chain Events: Implications for Hydrogen Refueling Stations’ Safety
by Eulàlia Badia, Joaquín Navajas, Roser Sala, Nicola Paltrinieri and Hitomi Sato
Safety 2024, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020044 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Renewable hydrogen is emerging as the key to a sustainable energy transition with multiple applications and uses. In the field of transport, in addition to fuel cell vehicles, it is necessary to develop an extensive network of hydrogen refueling stations (hereafter HRSs). The [...] Read more.
Renewable hydrogen is emerging as the key to a sustainable energy transition with multiple applications and uses. In the field of transport, in addition to fuel cell vehicles, it is necessary to develop an extensive network of hydrogen refueling stations (hereafter HRSs). The characteristics and properties of hydrogen make ensuring the safe operation of these facilities a crucial element for their successful deployment and implementation. This paper shows the outcomes of an analysis of hydrogen incidents and accidents considering their potential application to HRSs. For this purpose, the HIAD 2.0 was reviewed and a total of 224 events that could be repeated in any of the major industrial processes related to hydrogen refueling stations were analyzed. This analysis was carried out using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative techniques, considering the following hydrogen value chain: production, storage, delivery and industrial use. The results provide general information segmented by event frequency, damage classes and failure typology. The analysis shows the main processes of the value chain allow the identification of key aspects for the safety management of refueling facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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13 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Fire Safety Management for Special Needs Schools in South Africa
by Tlou D. Raphela and Ndivhuwo Ndaba
Safety 2024, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020043 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The safety and well-being of learners with special educational needs in South Africa remain a paramount concern, significantly impacting their constitutional rights and dignity. Despite legislative commitments aimed at fostering inclusive education, a pervasive absence of adequate fire safety measures in special needs [...] Read more.
The safety and well-being of learners with special educational needs in South Africa remain a paramount concern, significantly impacting their constitutional rights and dignity. Despite legislative commitments aimed at fostering inclusive education, a pervasive absence of adequate fire safety measures in special needs schools (SNSs) in South Africa has persisted, leading to the vulnerability of these learners. Tragic incidents, such as fatal fires in these schools, as reported in the literature, underscore the urgent need for immediate intervention to ensure the safety and security of these learners, especially with regards to fire hazards. This study, conducted within the Northwest Province of South Africa, assessed the state of fire safety management in SNSs by applying a series of chi-squared (χ2) tests of independence for categorical variables, descriptive statistics, and regression analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Version 20 and found that limited access to power is the potential root cause of fires in these schools; also, the limited amount of fire safety initiatives was a problem. In addition, the ordinal regression showed a statistically significant relationship when the question of to what extent the learners in the sampled schools are involved in fire safety programs was regressed with the questions of whether management and stakeholders were involved in fire safety programs and also on taking part in the physical fire safety programs (χ2 = 47.412; df = 2; p < 0.001; R2 = 70.5%). Furthermore, fire safety management was not sufficiently implemented in the sampled schools and the safety legislations of the country were not implemented accordingly when it came to fire safety. This study identified root causes of fire risks, gauged stakeholders’ awareness and involvement in fire safety management, and advocated for more stringent safety policies and practices within the SNS based on the above findings. Full article
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49 pages, 3104 KiB  
Article
Navigating the Power of Artificial Intelligence in Risk Management: A Comparative Analysis
by Mohammad Yazdi, Esmaeil Zarei, Sidum Adumene and Amin Beheshti
Safety 2024, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020042 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 812
Abstract
This study presents a responsive analysis of the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in risk management, contrasting traditional approaches with those augmented by AI and highlighting the challenges and opportunities that emerge. AI, intense learning methodologies such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have [...] Read more.
This study presents a responsive analysis of the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in risk management, contrasting traditional approaches with those augmented by AI and highlighting the challenges and opportunities that emerge. AI, intense learning methodologies such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have been identified as pivotal in extracting meaningful insights from image data, a form of analysis that holds significant potential in identifying and managing risks across various industries. The research methodology involves a strategic selection and processing of images for analysis and introduces three case studies that serve as benchmarks for evaluation. These case studies showcase the application of AI, in place of image processing capabilities, to identify hazards, evaluate risks, and suggest control measures. The comparative evaluation focuses on the accuracy, relevance, and practicality of the AI-generated findings alongside the system’s response time and comprehensive understanding of the context. Results reveal that AI can significantly enhance risk assessment processes, offering rapid and detailed insights. However, the study also recognises the intrinsic limitations of AI in contextual interpretation, advocating for a synergy between technological and domain-specific expertise. The conclusion underscores the transformative potential of AI in risk management, supporting continued research to further integrate AI effectively into risk assessment frameworks. Full article
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22 pages, 2574 KiB  
Article
A Risk Assessment Framework Based on Fuzzy Logic for Automotive Systems
by Francesco Merola, Cinzia Bernardeschi and Giuseppe Lami
Safety 2024, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020041 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Recent advancements in the automotive field have significantly increased the level of complexity and connectivity of modern vehicles. In this context, the topic of cybersecurity becomes extremely relevant, as a successful attack can have an impact in terms of safety on the car [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in the automotive field have significantly increased the level of complexity and connectivity of modern vehicles. In this context, the topic of cybersecurity becomes extremely relevant, as a successful attack can have an impact in terms of safety on the car navigation, potentially leading to harmful behavior. Risk assessment is typically performed using discrete input and output scales, which can often lead to an identical output in terms of risk evaluation despite the inputs presenting non-negligible differences. This work presents a novel fuzzy-logic-based methodology to assess cybersecurity risks which takes attack feasibility and safety impact as input factors. This technique allows us explicitly model the uncertainty and ambiguousness of input data, which is typical of the risk assessment process, providing an output on a more detailed scale. The fuzzy inference engine is based on a set of control rules expressed in natural language, which is crucial to maintaining the interpretability and traceability of the risk calculation. The proposed framework was applied to a case study extracted from ISO/SAE 21434. The obtained results are in line with the traditional methodology, with the added benefit of also providing the scatter around the calculated value, indicating the risk trend. The proposed method is general and can be applied in the industry independently from the specific case study. Full article
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13 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
Occupational Safety Assessment for Surface Mine Systems: The Case in Jordan
by Samir K. Khrais, Tamer Elia Yared, Noor Majid Saifan, Tarek H. Al-Hawari and Fikri Dweiri
Safety 2024, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020040 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Surface mining is one of the hazardous industries that have several risky operations, including transportation, treatment, and mineral extraction. To avoid the risk of disaster, it is important to evaluate safety procedures and determine expected hazards. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Surface mining is one of the hazardous industries that have several risky operations, including transportation, treatment, and mineral extraction. To avoid the risk of disaster, it is important to evaluate safety procedures and determine expected hazards. The aim of this study is to develop a thorough safety evaluation model for the surface mining industry based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one important multi-criteria decision-making approach. A total of 11 criteria and 36 sub-criteria that are both independent and homogeneous were involved in the decision problem. Further, a deep sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the stability of the ranking preference. The findings indicate that four out of the eleven criteria are particularly significant. To test the model’s applicability and effectiveness, a case study was conducted involving three surface mining companies located in the north of Jordan. The results demonstrate that the model is reliable, applicable, and effective in addressing real-world problems. Full article
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6 pages, 171 KiB  
Communication
Nose-Over and Nose-Down Accidents in General Aviation: Tailwheels and Aging Airplanes
by Alex de Voogt and Kayla Louteiro
Safety 2024, 10(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020039 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Safety in General Aviation has been a continuous concern. About 12% of all airplane accidents in General Aviation involve nose-overs and nose-down events. A total of 134 accidents reported by the National Transportation Safety Board that include nose-overs and nose-downs were analyzed for [...] Read more.
Safety in General Aviation has been a continuous concern. About 12% of all airplane accidents in General Aviation involve nose-overs and nose-down events. A total of 134 accidents reported by the National Transportation Safety Board that include nose-overs and nose-downs were analyzed for their main causes. It was found that 35% of the defining events involved a loss of control on the ground while 58% of the total dataset involved tailwheel-type aircraft. A relatively high proportion of aircraft built before 1950 were found, which are also aircraft that have tailwheel-type landing gear, and thereby a higher propensity for ground loops and nose-overs. It is shown that the high accident rate in General Aviation, especially for accidents that did not result in a fatality, was, to an important extent, explained by tailwheel and older aircraft in the US General Aviation airplane fleet struggling with controlling the aircraft on the ground. Attention to this group of aircraft in future studies may help to more effectively address the relatively high accident rates in General Aviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Safety—Accident Investigation, Analysis and Prevention)
11 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Altered Haematological Parameters in Gasoline Station Workers Due to Benzene Exposure
by Sunisa Chaiklieng, Umakorn Tongsantia, Pornnapa Suggaravetsiri and Herman Autrup
Safety 2024, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020038 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Benzene is harmful to human health and early detection of haematological alterations is important in preventing adverse health effects. This study aimed to investigate the biomarkers of benzene exposure and its effects due to haematological alterations. Gasoline station workers with potential risks according [...] Read more.
Benzene is harmful to human health and early detection of haematological alterations is important in preventing adverse health effects. This study aimed to investigate the biomarkers of benzene exposure and its effects due to haematological alterations. Gasoline station workers with potential risks according to the biomatrix concerning benzene exposure underwent blood and urine evaluation for the biological monitoring of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA), and haematological and biochemical parameter evaluation. The results were analysed for correlations between biological and haematological effects. The tt-MA biomarker was detected in some workers and approximately 50% of workers had a blood profile that showed abnormal parameters with respect to the haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct) and white blood cell parameters, which were outside the normal range. A significant correlation was observed between the tt-MA biomarker’s level and the levels of the haematological and biochemical parameters, which were Hb, Hct, eosinophil, neutrophil, SGOT and blood creatinine. The level of urinary tt-MA as a marker of benzene exposure correlated with haematological and biochemical changes in the blood, suggesting that the gasoline station workers were affected by benzene exposure. Moreover, the current study suggests that early detection of haematological abnormalities may be possible by analysing biomarkers of their effects through regular health surveillance of workers. Full article
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14 pages, 3777 KiB  
Article
Tailored Incident Investigation Protocols: A Critically Needed Practice
by Ahmed Jalil Al-Bayati
Safety 2024, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020037 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Construction scholars and practitioners have identified a repetitive pattern of direct causes leading to both fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers. Over the years, direct causes such as falls, electrocutions, and being struck have consistently represented a substantial proportion of recorded and [...] Read more.
Construction scholars and practitioners have identified a repetitive pattern of direct causes leading to both fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers. Over the years, direct causes such as falls, electrocutions, and being struck have consistently represented a substantial proportion of recorded and reported injuries in the United States. One potential factor contributing to this repetition is the absence of root cause investigations for incidents. Incident investigations should focus on system deficiencies and shortcomings instead of individual behaviors. While the identification of incident root causes provides the needed information to eliminate the direct causes, it is inherently complex. Recently, the use of tailored incident investigation protocols as a practical and systematically conducted method was suggested to uncover the root causes of incidents, subsequently assisting in reducing their recurrence. To illustrate the feasibility of such an approach, this article provides a step-by-step guide to creating a tailored investigation protocol for revealing the root causes of arc flash incidents by utilizing a panel of safety experts. In addition, this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing tailored investigation protocols for other common causes, such as falls and electrocutions. Tailored investigation protocols streamline the identification of potential root causes to a manageable number, relying on subject matter experts. Consequently, they enhance learning from incidents by mitigating investigators’ biases and potential lack of experience. Safety practitioners can use the method presented in this article to create tailored investigation protocols based on their working environment to improve learning for occupational injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Performance Assessment and Management in Construction)
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13 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Bio-Risk Management Systems: Biosafety Assessment in COVID-19 Referral Hospitals in Indonesia
by Windri Handayani, Anom Bowolaksono, Fatma Lestari, Abdul Kadir, Saraswati Andani Satyawardhani, Duta Liana, Alyssa Zahwa Ananda and Saravanan Gunaratnam
Safety 2024, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020036 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Numerous hospital laboratories in Indonesia need to implement improved bio-risk management (BRM) systems. There are many potential biohazards in laboratory activities that can impact health and the environment, leading to laboratory incidents. To minimize the impact and occurrence of such incidents, it is [...] Read more.
Numerous hospital laboratories in Indonesia need to implement improved bio-risk management (BRM) systems. There are many potential biohazards in laboratory activities that can impact health and the environment, leading to laboratory incidents. To minimize the impact and occurrence of such incidents, it is necessary to evaluate the implementation of BRM in every hospital laboratory that uses biological agents. This study was conducted in eight COVID-19 reference hospitals in Indonesia in the regions of Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Java, which have committed to implementing BRM systems in their laboratory activities. This research employed a descriptive study design and quantitative methods, with the aim of analyzing and evaluating the implementation of BRM systems in laboratories by assessing the achievements and gap analysis obtained from each laboratory. This research utilized primary data in the form of checklist forms referencing ISO 35001:2019 for the laboratory BRM system. Then, the assessments were based on virtual interviews conducted by the researcher with laboratory personnel as the primary data. The evaluation conducted on gap analysis from the seven clauses in ISO 35001:2019 across all hospitals revealed large gaps, particularly in three clauses: leadership, support, and performance. However, the aspects concerning organization, improvement, and performance evaluation were relatively satisfactory. Hence, there is a need for further improvement in leadership, support, and performance evaluation clauses. Additionally, it is essential to highlight the importance of comprehensive performance assessment, including proactive audits and continuous enhancements to achieve optimal bio-risk management. Full article
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9 pages, 415 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Occupational Radiation Dose in Radiography Students: Implications for Safety and Training
by Mohamed Abuzaid, Zarmeena Noorajan, Wiam Elshami and Manal Ibham
Safety 2024, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020035 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate the occupational exposure of undergraduate radiography students to ionising radiation and evaluate the effectiveness of safety protocols and training in reducing radiation exposure. Methods: This study tracked undergraduate radiography students from the University of Sharjah, UAE, using [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to investigate the occupational exposure of undergraduate radiography students to ionising radiation and evaluate the effectiveness of safety protocols and training in reducing radiation exposure. Methods: This study tracked undergraduate radiography students from the University of Sharjah, UAE, using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) from 2015 to 2023. TLD readings were conducted every 15 weeks during 384 h of clinical placement. This study encompassed various radiographic procedures, and the TLDs were used to measure shallow (HP (0.07)) and deep doses (HP (10)). Results: A data analysis from 599 dosimeters revealed an average of 74 students annually. The average effective doses for HP (10) and HP (0.07) were 0.227 mSv and 0.222 mSv, respectively. These doses were well-below the recommended annual limits. Conclusion: This study’s results indicated that radiography students’ occupational radiation exposure during clinical training was within the safe limits, demonstrating the effectiveness of training and safety protocols. A comparison with international data corroborated the low exposure levels. Clinical training is essential for radiography students, and this study highlights the success of safety protocols in minimising occupational radiation exposure. Continuous monitoring and education are crucial to sustaining these positive outcomes. Full article
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21 pages, 2367 KiB  
Article
The BowTie as a Digital Twin: How a BowTie Looks Different from a Data Perspective
by Paul Singh, Coen van Gulijk and Neil Sunderland
Safety 2024, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020034 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
This work follows from a research project for safety management system re-engineering that turned a safety BowTie into a digital twin. A digital twin is a model embedded in software that mirrors a specific aspect of a real system; the aspect in this [...] Read more.
This work follows from a research project for safety management system re-engineering that turned a safety BowTie into a digital twin. A digital twin is a model embedded in software that mirrors a specific aspect of a real system; the aspect in this case is the risk space associated with a process. The well-known BowTie is the model that turns out to be singularly well suited as a digital twin from the risk perspective as it maps out the risk space together with real-life controls. However, for a BowTie to be a high-fidelity digital twin of a real system, the rules and processes for designing and operating a BowTie are changed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Risk Management in Process Industries)
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