Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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22 pages, 3781 KiB  
Review
Safety of Automated Agricultural Machineries: A Systematic Literature Review
by Guy R. Aby and Salah F. Issa
Safety 2023, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010013 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4194
Abstract
Automated agricultural machinery has advanced significantly in the previous ten years; however, the ability of such robots to operate safely will be critical to their commercialization. This study provides a holistic evaluation of the work carried out so far in the field of [...] Read more.
Automated agricultural machinery has advanced significantly in the previous ten years; however, the ability of such robots to operate safely will be critical to their commercialization. This study provides a holistic evaluation of the work carried out so far in the field of automated agricultural machines’ safety, as well as a framework for future research considerations. Previous automated agricultural machines’ safety-related studies are analyzed and grouped into three categories: (1) environmental perception, (2) risk assessment as well as risk mitigation, and (3) human factors as well as ergonomics. The key findings are as follows: (1) The usage of single perception, multiple perception sensors, developing datasets of agricultural environments, different algorithms, and external solutions to improve sensor performance were all explored as options to improve automated agricultural machines’ safety. (2) Current risk assessment methods cannot be efficient when dealing with new technology, such as automated agricultural machines, due to a lack of pre-existing knowledge. Full compliance with the guidelines provided by the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO 18497) cannot ensure automated agricultural machines’ safety. A regulatory framework and being able to test the functionalities of automated agricultural machines within a reliable software environment are efficient ways to mitigate risks. (3) Knowing foreseeable human activity is critical to ensure safe human–robot interaction. Full article
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21 pages, 1766 KiB  
Article
Fatigue and Secondary Media Impacts in the Automated Vehicle: A Multidimensional State Perspective
by Catherine E. Neubauer, Gerald Matthews and Erika P. De Los Santos
Safety 2023, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010011 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Safety researchers increasingly recognize the impacts of task-induced fatigue on vehicle driving behavior. The current study (N = 180) explored the use of a multidimensional fatigue measure, the Driver Fatigue Questionnaire (DFQ), to test the impacts of vehicle automation, secondary media use, and [...] Read more.
Safety researchers increasingly recognize the impacts of task-induced fatigue on vehicle driving behavior. The current study (N = 180) explored the use of a multidimensional fatigue measure, the Driver Fatigue Questionnaire (DFQ), to test the impacts of vehicle automation, secondary media use, and driver personality on fatigue states and performance in a driving simulator. Secondary media included a trivia game and a cellphone conversation. Simulated driving induced large-magnitude fatigue states in participants, including tiredness, confusion, coping through self-comforting, and muscular symptoms. Consistent with previous laboratory and field studies, dispositional fatigue proneness predicted increases in state fatigue during the drive, especially tiredness, irrespective of automation level and secondary media. Similar to previous studies, automation slowed braking response to the emergency event following takeover but did not affect fatigue. Secondary media use relieved subjective fatigue and improved lateral control but did not affect emergency braking. Confusion was, surprisingly, associated with faster braking, and tiredness was associated with impaired control of lateral position of the vehicle. These associations were not moderated by the experimental factors. Overall, data support the use of multidimensional assessments of both fatigue symptoms and information-processing components for evaluating safety impacts of interventions for fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Road Safety and Mobility)
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20 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
Determination of Requirements for the Improvement of Occupational Safety in the Cleaning of Vertical Tanks of Petroleum Products
by Magdalena Ramírez-Peña, Alberto Cerezo-Narváez, Andrés Pastor-Fernández, Manuel Otero-Mateo and Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez
Safety 2023, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010006 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Since the beginning of the second industrial revolution, the use of tanks for the storage of petroleum products ensured the permanent supply of equipment that depended on fossil fuel derived from petroleum, either for direct consumption or as an element for power generation. [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the second industrial revolution, the use of tanks for the storage of petroleum products ensured the permanent supply of equipment that depended on fossil fuel derived from petroleum, either for direct consumption or as an element for power generation. For correct operation, periodic cleaning of these confined spaces was required, being a common practice for the direct exposure of operators to explosive atmospheres. Currently, there are many industries that keep this kind of deposit, and cleaning works are considered of high occupational risk. In this context, the question arises as to whether human–machine collaboration thanks to the technologies that compose Industry 5.0 can mitigate these risks while generating a sustainable balance by optimizing costs and protecting the environment. In the present work, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is used to prioritize the requirements that should be compiled to establish safe protocols in tank cleaning works, solving the multi-criteria problem. Results prove that a couple of alternatives improve the working conditions of the people involved in this process: the chemical cleaning and the robotic cleaning, which approximately accounts for two thirds of the decision. These requirements are aligned with the Industry 5.0 paradigm, encouraging the use of robots for high-risk processes, and influencing human behavior. In addition, cost reduction is achieved without compromising on quality of service or delivery schedule, thus enabling a circular economy that promotes occupational safety in company policies. Full article
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14 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Driving Style on Responses to Unexpected Vehicle Cyberattacks
by Fangda Zhang, Meng Wang, Jah’inaya Parker and Shannon C. Roberts
Safety 2023, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010005 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Vehicle cybersecurity is a serious concern, as modern vehicles are vulnerable to cyberattacks. How drivers respond to situations induced by vehicle cyberattacks is safety critical. This paper sought to understand the effect of human drivers’ risky driving style on response behavior to unexpected [...] Read more.
Vehicle cybersecurity is a serious concern, as modern vehicles are vulnerable to cyberattacks. How drivers respond to situations induced by vehicle cyberattacks is safety critical. This paper sought to understand the effect of human drivers’ risky driving style on response behavior to unexpected vehicle cyberattacks. A driving simulator study was conducted wherein 32 participants experienced a series of simulated drives in which unexpected events caused by vehicle cyberattacks were presented. Participants’ response behavior was assessed by their change in velocity after the cybersecurity events occurred, their post-event acceleration, as well as time to first reaction. Risky driving style was portrayed by scores on the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Half of the participants also received training regarding vehicle cybersecurity before the experiment. Results suggest that when encountering certain cyberattack-induced unexpected events, whether one received training, driving scenario, participants’ gender, DBQ-Violation scores, together with their sensation seeking measured by disinhibition, had a significant impact on their response behavior. Although both the DBQ and sensation seeking have been constantly reported to be linked with risky and aberrant driving behavior, we found that drivers with higher sensation seeking tended to respond to unexpected driving situations induced by vehicle cyberattacks in a less risky and potentially safer manner. This study incorporates not only human factors into the safety research of vehicle cybersecurity, but also builds direct connections between drivers’ risky driving style, which may come from their inherent risk-taking tendency, to response behavior to vehicle cyberattacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Road Safety and Mobility)
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11 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
Objective Evaluation of the Somatogravic Illusion from Flight Data of an Airplane Accident
by Eric L. Groen, Torin K. Clark, Mark M. J. Houben, Jelte E. Bos and Randall J. Mumaw
Safety 2022, 8(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040085 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
(1) Background: It is difficult for accident investigators to objectively determine whether spatial disorientation may have contributed to a fatal airplane accident. In this paper, we evaluate three methods to reconstruct the possible occurrence of the somatogravic illusion based on flight data recordings [...] Read more.
(1) Background: It is difficult for accident investigators to objectively determine whether spatial disorientation may have contributed to a fatal airplane accident. In this paper, we evaluate three methods to reconstruct the possible occurrence of the somatogravic illusion based on flight data recordings from an airplane accident. (2) Methods: The outputs of two vestibular models were compared with the “standard” method, which uses the unprocessed gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA). (3) Results: All three methods predicted that the changing orientation of the GIA would lead to a somatogravic illusion when no visual references were available. However, the methods were not able to explain the first pitch-down control input by the pilot flying, which may have been triggered by the inadvertent activation of the go-around mode and a corresponding pitch-up moment. Both vestibular models predicted a few seconds delay in the illusory tilt from GIA due to central processing and sensory integration. (4) Conclusions: While it is difficult to determine which method best predicted the somatogravic illusion perceived during the accident without data on the pilot’s pitch perception, both vestibular models go beyond the GIA analysis in taking into account validated vestibular dynamics, and they also account for other vestibular illusions. In that respect, accident investigators would benefit from a unified and validated vestibular model to better explain pilot actions in accidents related to spatial disorientation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Safety—Accident Investigation, Analysis and Prevention)
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27 pages, 1472 KiB  
Review
Augmented Reality for Vehicle-Driver Communication: A Systematic Review
by Liam Kettle and Yi-Ching Lee
Safety 2022, 8(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040084 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3360
Abstract
Capabilities for automated driving system (ADS)-equipped vehicles have been expanding over the past decade. Research has explored integrating augmented reality (AR) interfaces in ADS-equipped vehicles to improve drivers’ situational awareness, performance, and trust. This paper systematically reviewed AR visualizations for in-vehicle vehicle-driver communication [...] Read more.
Capabilities for automated driving system (ADS)-equipped vehicles have been expanding over the past decade. Research has explored integrating augmented reality (AR) interfaces in ADS-equipped vehicles to improve drivers’ situational awareness, performance, and trust. This paper systematically reviewed AR visualizations for in-vehicle vehicle-driver communication from 2012 to 2022. The review first identified meta-data and methodological trends before aggregating findings from distinct AR interfaces and corresponding subjective and objective measures. Prominent subjective measures included acceptance, trust, and user experience; objective measures comprised various driving behavior or eye-tracking metrics. Research more often evaluated simulated AR interfaces, presented through windshields, and communicated object detection or intended maneuvers, in level 2 ADS. For object detection, key visualizations included bounding shapes, highlighting, or symbols. For intended route, mixed results were found for world-fixed verse screen-fixed arrows. Regardless of the AR design, communicating the ADS’ actions or environmental elements was beneficial to drivers, though presenting clear, relevant information was more favorable. Gaps in the literature that yet to be addressed include longitudinal effects, impaired visibility, contextual user needs, system reliability, and, most notably, inclusive design. Regardless, the review supports that integrating AR interfaces in ADS-equipped vehicles can lead to higher trust, acceptance, and safer driving performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Road Safety and Mobility)
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18 pages, 2787 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Failure Risk Assessment of Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation Plant: An Industrial Case Study
by Razieh Analouei, Masoud Taheriyoun and Md Tanjin Amin
Safety 2022, 8(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040079 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
Due to the growing scarcity of water resources, wastewater reuse has become one of the most effective solutions for industrial consumption. However, various factors can detrimentally affect the performance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which is considered a risk of not fulfilling [...] Read more.
Due to the growing scarcity of water resources, wastewater reuse has become one of the most effective solutions for industrial consumption. However, various factors can detrimentally affect the performance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which is considered a risk of not fulfilling the effluent requirements. Thus, to ensure the quality of treated wastewater, it is essential to analyze system failure causes and their potential outcomes and mitigation measures through a systematic dynamic risk assessment approach. This work shows how a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) can be effectively used in this context. Like the conventional Bayesian network (BN), the DBN can capture complex interactions between failure contributory factors. Additionally, it can forecast the upcoming failure likelihood using a prediction inference. This proposed methodology was applied to a WWTP of the Moorchekhort Industrial Complex (MIC), located in the center of Iran. A total of 15 years’ time frame (2016–2030) has been considered in this work. The first six years’ data have been used to develop the DBN model and to identify the crucial risk factors that are further used to reduce the risk in the remaining nine years. The risk increased from 21% to 42% in 2016–2021. Applying the proposed risk mitigation measures can decrease the failure risk from 33% to 9% in 2022–2030. The proposed model showed the capability of the DBN in risk management of a WWTP system which can help WWTPs’ managers and operators achieve better performance for higher reclaimed water quality. Full article
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24 pages, 12005 KiB  
Article
Numerical Calculation and Analysis of Water Dump Distribution Out of the Belly Tanks of Firefighting Helicopters
by Tejun Zhou, Jiazheng Lu, Chuanping Wu and Shilong Lan
Safety 2022, 8(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040069 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Helicopters are more and more widely used for water dumping in fire extinguishing operations nowadays. Increasing attention is being paid to improving helicopter firefighting efficiency. Water distribution onto the ground from the helicopter tank is a key reference target to evaluate firefighting efficiency. [...] Read more.
Helicopters are more and more widely used for water dumping in fire extinguishing operations nowadays. Increasing attention is being paid to improving helicopter firefighting efficiency. Water distribution onto the ground from the helicopter tank is a key reference target to evaluate firefighting efficiency. Numerical simulations and calculations were carried out concerning water dumping out of the belly tank of a helicopter using the VOF (Volume of Fluent Model) model and mesh adaptation in ANSYS Fluent, and the effects of two parameters, the height of the tank above the ground and the wind speed, on the wake flow and water distribution were discussed. The results showed that for forward flight, the higher the forward flight speed, the less the average water depth on the ground. Similar results were obtained for flight height. The average water depth was one order of magnitude less than in the cases of the corresponding hovering helicopter for a given wind speed. As for hovering flight, the higher the wind speed, the less the average water depth on the ground. The simulation results were basically consistent with the conclusions of water dump tests of fire-fighting equipment carried by helicopters. For example, when the helicopter flew at a forward flight speed of 15 m/s and the tank bottom was 30 m above the ground, the area covered by the dumped water would be 337.5 m2, and the average water depth accumulated per square meter would be 0.3 cm. This result was close to the 0.34 cm obtained under Hayden Biggs’s test condition with a forward flight speed of 70 km/h and a height above the ground of 24 m. Full article
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18 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Psychosocial Safety Climate on Engagement and Psychological Distress: A Multilevel Study on the Healthcare Sector
by Silvia Platania, Martina Morando, Alice Caruso and Vittorio Edoardo Scuderi
Safety 2022, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8030062 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3271
Abstract
All work sectors have been affected by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The perception of risk combined with the lack of safety and fear for their own safety have caused severe psychological discomfort in workers. Of all the work sectors, the most [...] Read more.
All work sectors have been affected by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The perception of risk combined with the lack of safety and fear for their own safety have caused severe psychological discomfort in workers. Of all the work sectors, the most affected was certainly the healthcare sector. In hospitals, medical staff were at the forefront of the battle against COVID-19, providing care in close physical proximity to patients and had a direct risk of being exposed to the virus. The main objective of the study was to investigate the perception of a psychosocial safety climate and the effect on engagement and psychological stress in a sample of 606 healthcare workers (physicians 39.6%, nurses 41.3%, healthcare assistant 19.1%), belonging to six organisations and organised into 11 working groups. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate the mediating effect of workaholism at both individual and group level. The results partially confirmed our hypotheses and the mediating effect at the individual level of working compulsively. A psychosocial safety climate in healthcare workers led to a decrease in engagement through the mediation of working compulsively. The mediating effect of working compulsively might be due to a climate that did not guarantee or preserve the psychological health and safety of healthcare workers. In this research, the most important limit concerns the number of organisations and the number of groups. Full article
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11 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
Musculoskeletal Disorders among Agricultural Workers of Various Cultivation Activities in Upper Northeastern Thailand
by Worawan Poochada, Sunisa Chaiklieng and Sari Andajani
Safety 2022, 8(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8030061 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3309
Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most significant work-related health conditions that are experienced by agricultural workers. This cross-sectional study has investigated MSDs among agriculturalists in upper northeastern Thailand. We assessed the types of MSDs, their severity, and their frequency. There were 889 cultivating [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most significant work-related health conditions that are experienced by agricultural workers. This cross-sectional study has investigated MSDs among agriculturalists in upper northeastern Thailand. We assessed the types of MSDs, their severity, and their frequency. There were 889 cultivating agriculturalists from four provinces who participated in this study. The majority of the participants reported experiencing mild levels of MSDs (60.48%). Predominantly, the farmers who were working on cassava, vegetable, and sugarcane plantations reported experiencing the most severe MSDs in the knees/calves (22.40%). The rice plantation workers reported the largest number of MSDs complaints. The workers on rubber plantations and in sugarcane fields were more likely to feel knee/calf pain (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.05–2.39) and lower limb pain (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.35–2.89) than those who were working on rice and tobacco plantations. The individuals who were working on cassava, fruit, vegetable, and corn plantations were also more likely to report knee/calf pain (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.01–2.17) and lower limb pain (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.37–2.84) than those who were working on rice and tobacco plantations. The MSDs that were found among those working on agricultural activities affected many parts of their bodies. The ergonomic risk needs to be assessed in order to inform plantation workers of the implications in order to improve their health and well-being and to reduce the risks of MSDs. Full article
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20 pages, 1733 KiB  
Article
Assessing System-Wide Safety Readiness for Successful Human–Robot Collaboration Adoption
by Nicole Berx, Arie Adriaensen, Wilm Decré and Liliane Pintelon
Safety 2022, 8(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8030048 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
Despite their undisputed potential, the uptake of collaborative robots remains below expectations. Collaborative robots (cobots) are used differently from conventional industrial robots. The current safety focus of collaborative workspaces is predominantly on the technological design; additional factors also need to be considered to [...] Read more.
Despite their undisputed potential, the uptake of collaborative robots remains below expectations. Collaborative robots (cobots) are used differently from conventional industrial robots. The current safety focus of collaborative workspaces is predominantly on the technological design; additional factors also need to be considered to cope with the emerging risks associated with complex systems. Cobot technologies are characterized by an inherent tradeoff between safety and efficiency. They introduce new, emergent risks to organizations and can create psychosocial impacts on workers. This leads to a confusing body of information and an apparent contradiction about cobot safety. Combined with a lack of safety knowledge, this impedes the introduction of cobots. A multi-step methodology was used, including a literature review and conceptual modeling. This article argues for the need for a system-wide safety awareness readiness assessment in the consideration phase of cobot implementation to alleviate the knowledge deficit and confusion. This work will benefit both researchers and practitioners. In addition, it defends the appropriateness of a maturity grid model for a readiness assessment tool. The building blocks for an easy-to-use and practically applicable tool are proposed, as well as an agenda for the next steps. Full article
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20 pages, 3250 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Factors Associated with the Temporal Variability in Crash Severity before, during, and after the COVID-19 Shelter-in-Place Order
by Emmanuel Kofi Adanu, Sunday Okafor, Praveena Penmetsa and Steven Jones
Safety 2022, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020042 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
The COVID-19 travel restriction orders have significantly reduced travel and generally lowered the risk of road traffic collisions, but many accounts suggest an increase in risky driving behaviors and consequent fatal crashes during the shelter-in-place period. Risky driving behaviors including failure to wear [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 travel restriction orders have significantly reduced travel and generally lowered the risk of road traffic collisions, but many accounts suggest an increase in risky driving behaviors and consequent fatal crashes during the shelter-in-place period. Risky driving behaviors including failure to wear a seatbelt, speeding, and drunk driving were observed to be the leading contributing factors of the fatalities. Whereas the fatal crashes that characterized the shelter-in-place period has become a topical issue, the high number of crashes that occurred as a result of the panic shopping and increased travel activities in the weeks before the shelter-in-place order have not received much attention. In this study, we investigated the differences and similarities in the effects of the factors that were associated with crash injury severity before, during, and after the shelter-in-place order. The study used crash data from the state of Alabama for the 2020 calendar year. Preliminary data analysis revealed interesting variations in crash trends across the three periods. It was found that the highest weekly crash frequency occurred in the immediate week before the shelter-in-place order, and a higher proportion of crashes that occurred between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. and those that occurred in residential areas happened during the shelter-in-place period while shopping area crashes, manufacturing/industrial area crashes, rear-end collisions, and crashes involving female drivers occurred mostly before the shelter-in-place period. Three injury severity models were developed using random parameters logit with heterogeneity in means and variances approach. The results showed that major injury crashes occurred mainly in rural areas and occurred due to speeding, fatigue driving, and failure to use a seatbelt. The effects of these factors on crash outcome did not vary across the year, indicating that the shelter-in-place order did not impact the driving behaviors of the driver population that got into major injury crashes. The results further revealed that the effects of some crash factors, such as road type and manner of collision, varied across the periods. The findings of the study provide a deeper, data-driven understanding of how driving behaviors and associated crash outcomes may be affected by extreme events such as the COVID-19 shelter-in-place. Full article
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25 pages, 10915 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Monitoring Work Zones Traffic Operations Using Connected Vehicle Data
by Rahul Suryakant Sakhare, Jairaj Desai, Howell Li, Mischa A. Kachler and Darcy M. Bullock
Safety 2022, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020041 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4390
Abstract
The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse estimated there were approximately 115,000 work zone crashes with 842 fatalities in 2019. There is broad consensus that it is important for agencies to develop near real-time risk assessment of work zone traffic operations to proactively [...] Read more.
The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse estimated there were approximately 115,000 work zone crashes with 842 fatalities in 2019. There is broad consensus that it is important for agencies to develop near real-time risk assessment of work zone traffic operations to proactively identify improvement opportunities. Due to the huge spatial distribution and relatively low frequency of crashes, legacy techniques of monitoring crash locations do not scale well for identifying all but the most severe construction zone operational problems. Past research identified hard braking and congestion as strong predictors for crashes in and around work zones. This paper presents scalable methodologies that can be used to systematically analyze hard-braking and speed data obtained from connected vehicles. These techniques have been applied to over 205 billion records in Indiana since 2019. These statewide data analytics are fused into concise graphics to identify work zones with emerging anomalies in congestion and/or hard braking. Weekly screening reports, institutionalized in Indiana for the past two years, provide information for agile agency monitoring and response. Case studies show quantitative changes in work zone performance measures, and corresponding surveillance video images illustrate the significance of these changes. During this period of near real-time monitoring and agile agency response, Indiana interstate crash rates have been reduced by 31% from 2019 to 2021, even though most 2021 interstate traffic volumes have rebounded to pre-pandemic 2019 volumes. Full article
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18 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
Goal Conflicts, Classical Management and Constructivism: How Operators Get Things Done
by Leonie Boskeljon-Horst, Robert J. De Boer, Simone Sillem and Sidney W. A. Dekker
Safety 2022, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020037 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
In this study we identify the differences in goal realisation when applying two conflicting paradigms regarding rule perception and management. We gathered more than 30 scenarios where goal conflicts were apparent in a military operational unit. We found that operators repetitively utilized certain [...] Read more.
In this study we identify the differences in goal realisation when applying two conflicting paradigms regarding rule perception and management. We gathered more than 30 scenarios where goal conflicts were apparent in a military operational unit. We found that operators repetitively utilized certain routines in executing their tasks in an effort to realize several conflicting goals. These routines were not originally intended nor designed into the rules and not explicitly included in documentation. They were not necessarily at odds with the literal wording and/or the intent of rules and regulations, although we did find examples of this. Our data showed that local ingenuity was created innovatively within the frame of existing rules or kept invisible to those outside the unit. The routines were introduced and passed on informally, and we found no evidence of testing for the introduction of new risks, no migration into the knowledge base of the organisation, and no dissemination as new best practices. An explanation for this phenomenon was found in the fact that the military organisation was applying a top-down, classical, rational approach to rules. In contrast, the routines were generated by adopting a constructivist view of rules as dynamic, local, situated constructions with operators as experts. The results of this study suggest that organisations are more effective in solving goal conflicts and creating transparency on local ingenuity if they adopt a constructivist paradigm instead of, or together with, a classical paradigm. Full article
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17 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Prioritizing the Potential Smartification Measures by Using an Integrated Decision Support System with Sustainable Development Goals (a Case Study in Southern Italy)
by Giuseppe Guido, Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas, Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas, Alessandro Vitale, Vincenzo Gallelli and Vittorio Astarita
Safety 2022, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020035 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
With the increasing population of cities, expanding roads as one of the essential urban infrastructures is a necessary task; therefore, adverse effects such as increased fuel consumption, pollution, noise, and road accidents are inevitable. One of the most efficient ways to mitigate congestion-related [...] Read more.
With the increasing population of cities, expanding roads as one of the essential urban infrastructures is a necessary task; therefore, adverse effects such as increased fuel consumption, pollution, noise, and road accidents are inevitable. One of the most efficient ways to mitigate congestion-related adverse effects is to introduce effective intelligent transportation systems (ITS), using advanced technologies and mobile communication protocols to make roads smarter and reduce negative impacts such as improvement in fuel consumption and pollution, and reduction of road accidents, which leads to improving quality of life. Smart roads might play a growing role in the improved safety of road transportation networks. This study aims to evaluate and rank the potential smartification measures for the road network in Calabria, in southern Italy, with sustainable development goals. For this purpose, some potential smartification measures were selected. Experts in the field were consulted using an advanced procedure: four criteria were considered for evaluating these smartification measures. The Integrated fuzzy decision support system (FDSS), namely the fuzzy Delphi analytic hierarchy process (FDAHP) with the fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS) were used for evaluating and ranking the potential smartification measures. The results demonstrated that the repetition of signals in the vehicle has the highest rank, and photovoltaic systems spread along the road axis has the lowest rank to use as smartification measures in the roads of the case study. Full article
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18 pages, 3329 KiB  
Article
Ergonomic Design of Apron Bus with Consideration for Passengers with Mobility Constraints
by Ma. Janice J. Gumasing, Yogi Tri Prasetyo, Ardvin Kester S. Ong, Maria Rebeka Isabel M. Carcellar, John Brixter J. Aliado, Reny Nadlifatin and Satria Fadil Persada
Safety 2022, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020033 - 03 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6045
Abstract
Passengers in an apron bus are usually subjected to a standing position because of its limited seats and capacity. Due to this, passengers, especially those with mobility constraints, may expose themselves to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks such as body pain, discomfort, and non-collision [...] Read more.
Passengers in an apron bus are usually subjected to a standing position because of its limited seats and capacity. Due to this, passengers, especially those with mobility constraints, may expose themselves to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks such as body pain, discomfort, and non-collision injuries. The purpose of this study is to design an ergonomic apron bus to aid the musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by passengers with mobility constraints, specifically the elderly, pregnant women, mothers carrying infants, and persons needing wheelchair assistance. A total of 149 participants are involved in the study. Corlett’s and Bishop’s body discomfort questionnaires and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) are utilized to evaluate the respondent’s experience of discomfort in different regions of their body. The results show that passengers with mobility constraints experience body discomfort during the apron bus ride. The prevalence of body discomfort is evident in the lower back, knee, thigh, arm, shoulder, and middle back. Finally, principles of anthropometry are used in the study along with quality function deployment (QFD), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the feasibility of the recommended ergonomic design of the apron bus. To meet the requirements of people with disabilities, the ergonomic design of an apron bus is created to minimize the risk of exposure of passengers to certain musculoskeletal discomfort, maximize the space, minimize the delay time of the airlines, and be able to prioritize passengers who require mobility assistance. Full article
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13 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups
by Sadegh Arefnezhad, Arno Eichberger and Ioana Victoria Koglbauer
Safety 2022, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020030 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
This study explores how drivers are affected by automation when driving in rested and fatigued conditions. Eighty-nine drivers (45 females, 44 males) aged between 20 and 85 years attended driving experiments on separate days, once in a rested and once in a fatigued [...] Read more.
This study explores how drivers are affected by automation when driving in rested and fatigued conditions. Eighty-nine drivers (45 females, 44 males) aged between 20 and 85 years attended driving experiments on separate days, once in a rested and once in a fatigued condition, in a counterbalanced order. The results show an overall effect of automation to significantly reduce drivers’ workload and effort. The automation had different effects, depending on the drivers’ conditions. Differences between the manual and automated mode were larger for the perceived time pressure and effort in the fatigued condition as compared to the rested condition. Frustration was higher during manual driving when fatigued, but also higher during automated driving when rested. Subjective fatigue and the percentage of eye closure (PERCLOS) were higher in the automated mode compared to manual driving mode. PERCLOS differences between the automated and manual mode were higher in the fatigued condition than in the rested condition. There was a significant interaction effect of age and automation on drivers’ PERCLOS. These results are important for the development of driver-centered automation because they show different benefits for drivers of different ages, depending on their condition (fatigued or rested). Full article
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23 pages, 2196 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Contributing Factors Affecting Number of Vehicles Involved in Crashes Using Machine Learning Techniques in Rural Roads of Cosenza, Italy
by Giuseppe Guido, Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas, Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas, Alessandro Vitale, Vittorio Astarita, Yongjin Park and Zong Woo Geem
Safety 2022, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020028 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4260
Abstract
The evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the [...] Read more.
The evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the presence of a large number of effective parameters on road safety. Therefore, the evaluation and analysis of important contributing factors affecting the number of vehicles involved in crashes play a key role in increasing the efficiency of road safety. For this purpose, in this research work, two machine learning algorithms, including the group method of data handling (GMDH)-type neural network and a combination of support vector machine (SVM) and the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA), are employed. Hence, the number of vehicles involved in an accident is considered to be the output, and the seven factors affecting transport safety, including Daylight (DL), Weekday (W), Type of accident (TA), Location (L), Speed limit (SL), Average speed (AS), and Annual average daily traffic (AADT) of rural roads in Cosenza, southern Italy, are selected as the inputs. In this study, 564 data sets from rural areas were investigated, and the relevant, effective parameters were measured. In the next stage, several models were developed to investigate the parameters affecting the safety management of road transportation in rural areas. The results obtained demonstrated that the “Type of accident” has the highest level and “Location” has the lowest importance in the investigated rural area. Finally, although the results of both algorithms were the same, the GOA-SVM model showed a better degree of accuracy and robustness than the GMDH model. Full article
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18 pages, 18689 KiB  
Review
A Review of Vehicle-to-Vulnerable Road User Collisions on Limited-Access Highways to Support the Development of Automated Vehicle Safety Assessments
by Husam Muslim and Jacobo Antona-Makoshi
Safety 2022, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020026 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4199
Abstract
This study aims to provide evidence to support the development of automated vehicle (AV) safety assessments that consider the possible presence of non-motorized vulnerable road-users (VRUs) on limited-access highways. Although limited-access highways are designed to accommodate high-speed motor vehicles, collisions involving VRUs on [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide evidence to support the development of automated vehicle (AV) safety assessments that consider the possible presence of non-motorized vulnerable road-users (VRUs) on limited-access highways. Although limited-access highways are designed to accommodate high-speed motor vehicles, collisions involving VRUs on such roadways are frequently reported. A narrative review is conducted, covering the epidemiology of VRUs crashes on limited-access highways to identify typical crash patterns considering collisions severity and the underlying reasons for the VRUs to use the highway. The review results show that occupants alighting from a disabled or crashed vehicle, people seeking help or helping others, highway maintenance zones, police stops, and people crossing a highway should be given priority to ensure VRU safety on limited-access highways. The results are summarized in figures with schematic models to generate test scenarios for AV safety assessment. Additionally, the results are discussed using two examples of traffic situations relevant to the potential AV-VRU crashes on highways and the current performance of autonomous emergency braking and autonomous emergency steering systems. These findings have important implications for producing scenarios in which AV may not produce crashes lest it performs worse than human drivers in the proposed scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation System Design)
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22 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Safety Engagement in the Workplace: Text Mining Analysis
by Hyun Jeong Seo and Ah Jeong Hong
Safety 2022, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020024 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4764
Abstract
In order to derive safety engagement factors in the workplace and analyze the characteristics of the factors, we collected literature data to be analyzed by a systematic literature review and text mining analysis. We used safety, industrial, occupational, corporate, commitment, engagement, interaction, and [...] Read more.
In order to derive safety engagement factors in the workplace and analyze the characteristics of the factors, we collected literature data to be analyzed by a systematic literature review and text mining analysis. We used safety, industrial, occupational, corporate, commitment, engagement, interaction, and participation as key search terms for literature selection and used 143 literature datasets for analysis. We divided the factors of workplace safety engagement into the organizational level and the individual level. In studies after 2005, texts at the individual psychological level appeared in large numbers. Although individual factors have been studied as subfactors at the organizational level, we confirmed that the two types of factors must interact for safety engagement in the workplace. We classified safety engagement factors into cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and relational factors. In particular, relational factors were mainly composed of factors that negatively affected engagement. In the follow-up study, we identified the maturity level among safety engagement factors as divided into four dimensions needed to create a safe workplace environment and to suggest a direction for employees to engage themselves in safety. Full article
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24 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Aircraft Engine Blade Inspection Performance Using Attribute Agreement Analysis
by Jonas Aust and Dirk Pons
Safety 2022, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020023 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4902
Abstract
Background—Visual inspection is an important element of aircraft engine maintenance to assure flight safety. Predominantly performed by human operators, those maintenance activities are prone to human error. While false negatives imply a risk to aviation safety, false positives can lead to increased maintenance [...] Read more.
Background—Visual inspection is an important element of aircraft engine maintenance to assure flight safety. Predominantly performed by human operators, those maintenance activities are prone to human error. While false negatives imply a risk to aviation safety, false positives can lead to increased maintenance cost. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the human performance in visual inspection of aero engine blades, specifically the operators’ consistency, accuracy, and reproducibility, as well as the system reliability. Methods—Photographs of 26 blades were presented to 50 industry practitioners of three skill levels to assess their performance. Each image was shown to each operator twice in random order, leading to N = 2600 observations. The data were statistically analysed using Attribute Agreement Analysis (AAA) and Kappa analysis. Results—The results show that operators were on average 82.5% consistent with their serviceability decision, while achieving an inspection accuracy of 67.7%. The operators’ reproducibility was 15.4%, as was the accuracy of all operators with the ground truth. Subsequently, the false-positive and false-negative rates were analysed separately to the overall inspection accuracy, showing that 20 operators (40%) achieved acceptable performances, thus meeting the required standard. Conclusions—In aviation maintenance the false-negative rate of <5% as per Aerospace Standard AS13100 is arguably the single most important metric since it determines the safety outcomes. The results of this study show acceptable false-negative performance in 60% of appraisers. Thus, there is the desirability to seek ways to improve the performance. Some suggestions are given in this regard. Full article
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14 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Relationships among Bicycle Rider Behaviours, Anger, Aggression, and Crashes in Finland
by Steve O’Hern, Elias Willberg, Christoph Fink and Sergio Useche
Safety 2022, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010018 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4373
Abstract
Riding a bicycle is increasingly encouraged as a sustainable transport solution, especially in urban areas. However, safety concerns, both perceived and actual, can significantly lower the willingness to ride among the population. To support cycling planning and policy in the double task of [...] Read more.
Riding a bicycle is increasingly encouraged as a sustainable transport solution, especially in urban areas. However, safety concerns, both perceived and actual, can significantly lower the willingness to ride among the population. To support cycling planning and policy in the double task of increasing the levels of cycling while mitigating crash risk, there is a need to better understand the behaviours and attitudes of bicycle riders. In this manuscript, we study a cohort of Finnish bicycle riders through four questionnaires, the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ), Cyclist Risk Perception and Regulation Scale (RPRS), Cyclist Anger Scale (CAS), and Cyclist Aggression Expression Inventory (CAX). Our findings show low self-reported errors and violations, and high levels of knowledge regarding traffic rules among Finnish bicycle riders. Most participants report low levels of aggression, which is generally dealt with in constructive ways, while anger was most commonly a result of interactions with motor vehicles and less with other road users such as pedestrians. To further reduce the crash risk in cycling, our results point to the need for further separation between bicycle riders and motorised vehicles, and for the development of risk perception and positive behaviours among riders, particularly those engaging in risky behaviours. Full article
14 pages, 6097 KiB  
Article
Dangerous Overtaking of Cyclists in Montréal
by Andres Henao and Philippe Apparicio
Safety 2022, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010016 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5501
Abstract
It is largely consented that the bicycle is a sustainable mobility alternative in the city. Despite its many benefits, cycling comprises risks of injury or death. Among others, these risks are a result of unsafe overtaking manoeuvres performed by motorized vehicles against cyclists. [...] Read more.
It is largely consented that the bicycle is a sustainable mobility alternative in the city. Despite its many benefits, cycling comprises risks of injury or death. Among others, these risks are a result of unsafe overtaking manoeuvres performed by motorized vehicles against cyclists. This study aims to identify the characteristics of the road network and traffic influencing the lateral distance and duration of overtaking. Using bicycles equipped with distance sensors, GPS, and cameras, four cyclists covered 1689 km in Montréal. Hence, 3591 overtakings were identified with an average distance of 176 cm; 111 overtaking manoeuvres took place at distances less than 1 m, resulting in an unsafe event for every 32 overtakings. On average, the duration of an overtaking was 1.082 s and dangerous overtakings (less than one metre) lasted 0.57 s more than safe overtakings (one metre and over). A generalized additive logit model (GAM) is built to predict the likelihood of a dangerous lateral passing (less than 1 m). The results show that in taking a major route, the presence of parked vehicles and the time required for overtaking significantly increase the probability of experiencing a dangerous overtaking. However, the participant, type of vehicle, or presence of a bike lane have no significant effect. Therefore, the results demonstrate the importance of keeping cyclists isolated from traffic. Furthermore, providing a bike path along parking spaces seems to be a solution that does not enhance cyclist safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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14 pages, 2768 KiB  
Article
Addressing Uncertainty by Designing an Intelligent Fuzzy System to Help Decision Support Systems for Winter Road Maintenance
by Mahshid Hatamzad, Geanette Polanco Pinerez and Johan Casselgren
Safety 2022, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010014 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3899
Abstract
One of the main challenges in developing efficient and effective winter road maintenance is to design an accurate prediction model for the road surface friction coefficient. A reliable and accurate prediction model of road surface friction coefficient can help decision support systems to [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges in developing efficient and effective winter road maintenance is to design an accurate prediction model for the road surface friction coefficient. A reliable and accurate prediction model of road surface friction coefficient can help decision support systems to significantly increase traffic safety, while saving time and cost. High dynamicity in weather and road surface conditions can lead to the presence of uncertainties in historical data extracted by sensors. To overcome this issue, this study uses an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system that can appropriately address uncertainty using fuzzy logic neural networks. To investigate the ability of the proposed model to predict the road surface friction coefficient, real data were measured at equal time intervals using optical sensors and road-mounted sensors. Then, the most critical features were selected based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the dataset was split into two independent training and test datasets. Next, the input variables were fuzzified by generating a fuzzy inference system using the fuzzy c-means clustering method. After training the model, a testing set was used to validate the trained model. The model was evaluated by means of graphical and numerical metrics. The results show that the constructed adaptive neuro-fuzzy model has an excellent ability to learn and accurately predict the road surface friction coefficient. Full article
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27 pages, 800 KiB  
Review
Occupational Exposure to Mineral Dust in Mining and Earthmoving Works: A Scoping Review
by Joana Duarte, Jacqueline Castelo Branco, Fernanda Rodrigues, Mário Vaz and João Santos Baptista
Safety 2022, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010009 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6583
Abstract
Anthropogenic activity is related to several environmental imbalances, including dust. Particulate matter can also hinder humans with numerous health consequences, such as asthma, cancer, and pneumoconiosis. With a particular focus on mineral dust, this review is intended to determine in which circumstances occupational [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activity is related to several environmental imbalances, including dust. Particulate matter can also hinder humans with numerous health consequences, such as asthma, cancer, and pneumoconiosis. With a particular focus on mineral dust, this review is intended to determine in which circumstances occupational exposure occurs in the mining and earthmoving industries. Research followed the guidelines provided by the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and its extension for scoping reviews. Of the 8993 records identified, only 24 passed both exclusion and inclusion criteria. Within the pool of results, it was possible to identify the following variables related to dust exposure: job-related (activity, job category, and site), engineering (equipment, transport system), technical (distance), and physical (season and weather) variables. Due to the significant variance in protocol settings, it was challenging to perform a general analysis, resulting in a study-by-study approach. The most significant conclusion of this study is not related to the setting of occupational exposure, although it derives from it. The necessity of adopting standard procedures for data collection, independent of research objective, was demonstrated within the context of occupational exposure to mineral dust. Full article
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17 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Ergonomic Task Analysis for Prioritization of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Mango-Harvesting Farmers
by Phonnipha Boriboonsuksri, Sasitorn Taptagaporn and Teeraphun Kaewdok
Safety 2022, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010006 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7064
Abstract
This paper proposes a mixed ergonomic tool analysis algorithm to prioritize work-related musculoskeletal problems. This study is a cross-sectional study assessing the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) with associated risk factors among 14 male mango-harvesting farmers (all right-handed) with the mean age [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a mixed ergonomic tool analysis algorithm to prioritize work-related musculoskeletal problems. This study is a cross-sectional study assessing the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) with associated risk factors among 14 male mango-harvesting farmers (all right-handed) with the mean age of 52.28 ± 7.75 years. Four tasks following mango-harvesting processes were analyzed: (1) mango harvesting, (2) mango transporting, (3) mango size sorting, and (4) mango weighing and transporting to the truck. The perceived physical exertion while working on a mango-harvesting farm was based on the Borg CR-10 with a modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire. Physical risk level due to awkward posture was evaluated by the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and risk due to whole-body posture in association with the level of WMSDs risk was evaluated by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) score sheets. The subjective feelings of fatigue and posture analysis were normalized and combined using the theorem of power superposition to establish the fatigue effective index (FEI) for determining priorities to solve ergonomics-based task problems. This study indicated clearly that WMSDs are highly prevalent in mango-harvesting farmers, whereas the highest prevalence of WMSDs was reported in the right shoulder, right upper arm and lower back. The result provided the FEI of mango-harvesting farmers, ranked as follows: (1) size-sorting task, (2) weight-lifting task, (3) harvesting task, and (4) transporting task. The authors concluded that mango size sorting should be the first task to be improved to resolve the muscle fatigue problems among male mango-harvesting farmers. Full article
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13 pages, 3615 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Associations between Forward Collision Warning Severity and Driving Context
by Sean Seaman, Pnina Gershon, Linda Angell, Bruce Mehler and Bryan Reimer
Safety 2022, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010005 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4815
Abstract
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems typically employ forward sensing technologies to identify possible forward collisions and provide an alert to the driver in the event they have not recognized a threat. These systems have demonstrated safety benefits. However, because the base rate of [...] Read more.
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems typically employ forward sensing technologies to identify possible forward collisions and provide an alert to the driver in the event they have not recognized a threat. These systems have demonstrated safety benefits. However, because the base rate of collisions is low, sensitive FCW systems can provide a high rate of alarms in situations with no or low probability of collision, which may negatively impact driver responsiveness and satisfaction. We examined over 2000 naturally occurring FCWs in two modern vehicles as a part of a naturalistic driving study investigation into advanced vehicle technologies. Analysts used cabin and forward camera footage, as well as environmental characteristics, to judge the likelihood of a crash during each alert, which were used to model the likelihood of an alert representing a possible collision. Only nine FCWs were considered “crash possible and imminent”. Road-type, speed, traffic density, and deceleration profiles distinguished between alert severity. Modeling outcomes provide clues for reducing nuisance and false alerts, and the method of using subjective video annotation combined with vehicle kinematics shows promise for investigating FCW alerts in the real world. Full article
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15 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Reversing Poor Safety Records: Identifying Best Practices to Improve Fleet Safety
by Matthew C. Camden, Jeffrey S. Hickman and Richard J. Hanowski
Safety 2022, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010002 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4367
Abstract
Commercial motor vehicle safety is of utmost importance, as crashes involving commercial motor vehicles often result in significant property damage, injuries, fatalities, and financial loss for fleets. However, fleet managers are often unsure what strategies other fleets have used to successfully improve safety. [...] Read more.
Commercial motor vehicle safety is of utmost importance, as crashes involving commercial motor vehicles often result in significant property damage, injuries, fatalities, and financial loss for fleets. However, fleet managers are often unsure what strategies other fleets have used to successfully improve safety. To identify best practices, researchers completed case studies with nine commercial motor vehicle fleets that successfully improved their safety performance. A content analysis was performed, and the successful strategies were organized into the Haddon Matrix. Results showed that there was no one single strategy that fleets used to improve safety. Instead, fleets relied on a comprehensive approach focusing on pre-crash countermeasures, including addressing hiring practices, driver training, fleet safety culture, safety technologies, scheduling, and maintenance. However, an enhanced safety culture and advanced safety technology were identified as critical components to their safety improvement. Results from this study may help fleets understand what their peers have used to successfully improve safety and which strategies may not be as helpful. Full article
21 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Safety and Reliability Analysis of an Ammonia-Powered Fuel-Cell System
by Nikoletta L Trivyza, Michail Cheliotis, Evangelos Boulougouris and Gerasimos Theotokatos
Safety 2021, 7(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040080 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6010
Abstract
Recently, the shipping industry has been under increasing pressure to improve its environmental impact with a target of a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, compared to the 2008 levels. For this reason, great attention has been placed on alternative zero-carbon [...] Read more.
Recently, the shipping industry has been under increasing pressure to improve its environmental impact with a target of a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, compared to the 2008 levels. For this reason, great attention has been placed on alternative zero-carbon fuels, specifically ammonia, which is considered a promising solution for shipping decarbonisation. In this respect, a novel ammonia-powered fuel-cell configuration is proposed as an energy-efficient power generation configuration with excellent environmental performance. However, there are safety and reliability concerns of the proposed ammonia-powered system that need to be addressed prior to its wider acceptance by the maritime community. Therefore, this is the first attempt to holistically examine the safety, operability, and reliability of an ammonia fuel-cell-powered ship, while considering the bunkering and fuel specifications. The proposed methodology includes the novel combination of a systematic preliminary hazard identification process with a functional and model-based approach for simulating the impact of various hazards. Furthermore, the critical faults and functional failures of the proposed system are identified and ranked according to their importance. This work can be beneficial for both shipowners and policymakers by introducing technical innovation and for supporting the future regulatory framework. Full article
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15 pages, 2942 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Safety Profile of Sweet Chestnut Wood Distillate Employed in Agriculture
by Arianna Filippelli, Valerio Ciccone, Stefano Loppi and Lucia Morbidelli
Safety 2021, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040079 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4120
Abstract
In organic agriculture, synthetic pesticides and treatments are substituted by natural remedies with interesting success for product yield and environmental outcomes, but the safety of these bio-based products needs to be assessed in vertebrate and human models. Therefore, in this paper we assessed [...] Read more.
In organic agriculture, synthetic pesticides and treatments are substituted by natural remedies with interesting success for product yield and environmental outcomes, but the safety of these bio-based products needs to be assessed in vertebrate and human models. Therefore, in this paper we assessed the safety profile of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) wood distillate (WD) on the different cellular components of tissues implied in transcutaneous absorption. We investigated the viability of different cell lines mimicking the skin (HaCaT keratinocytes), mucosa (A431), connective (normal human dermal fibroblasts, NHDF) and vascular (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC) tissues after exposure to increasing concentrations (0.04–0.5%, v/v, corresponding to 1:2800–1:200 dilutions) of WD. A short exposure to increasing doses of WD was well tolerated up to the highest concentration. Instead, following a prolonged treatment, a concentration dependent cytotoxic effect was observed. Notably, a different behavior was found with the various cell lines, with higher sensitivity to cytotoxicity by the cells with higher proliferation rate and reduced doubling time (human keratinocytes). Moreover, to exclude an inflammatory effect at the not cytotoxic WD concentrations, the expression of the main inducible markers of inflammation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), were assessed, and no improvement was found both after brief and prolonged exposure. In conclusion, our data exclude any inflammatory and cytotoxic effect at the lowest WD concentrations, namely 0.07% and 0.04%, mimicking some recommended dilutions of the product and the potential exposure doses for the operators in agriculture. Nevertheless, higher concentrations showed a safe profile for short time usage, but caution should be used by farmers following persistent product exposure. Full article
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20 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
Decision-Making Framework for Implementing Safer Human-Robot Collaboration Workstations: System Dynamics Modeling
by Guilherme Deola Borges, Angélica Muffato Reis, Rafael Ariente Neto, Diego Luiz de Mattos, André Cardoso, Hatice Gonçalves, Eugenio Merino, Ana Colim, Paula Carneiro and Pedro Arezes
Safety 2021, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040075 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4864
Abstract
Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) systems are often implemented seeking for reducing risk of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) development and increasing productivity. The challenge is to successfully implement an industrial HRC to manage those factors, considering that non-linear behaviors of complex systems can produce counterintuitive [...] Read more.
Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) systems are often implemented seeking for reducing risk of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) development and increasing productivity. The challenge is to successfully implement an industrial HRC to manage those factors, considering that non-linear behaviors of complex systems can produce counterintuitive effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design a decision-making framework considering the key ergonomic methods and using a computational model for simulations. It considered the main systemic influences when implementing a collaborative robot (cobot) into a production system and simulated scenarios of productivity and WMSD risk. In order to verify whether the computational model for simulating scenarios would be useful in the framework, a case study in a manual assembly workstation was conducted. The results show that both cycle time and WMSD risk depend on the Level of Collaboration (LoC). The proposed framework helps deciding which cobot to implement in a context of industrial assembly process. System dynamics were used to understand the actual behavior of all factors and to predict scenarios. Finally, the framework presented a clear roadmap for the future development of an industrial HRC system, drastically reducing risk management in decision-making. Full article
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16 pages, 2269 KiB  
Review
Ergonomics and Human Factors as a Requirement to Implement Safer Collaborative Robotic Workstations: A Literature Review
by André Cardoso, Ana Colim, Estela Bicho, Ana Cristina Braga, Marino Menozzi and Pedro Arezes
Safety 2021, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040071 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 6857
Abstract
There is a worldwide interest in implementing collaborative robots (Cobots) to reduce work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) risk. While prior work in this field has recognized the importance of considering Ergonomics & Human Factors (E&HF) in the design phase, most works tend to highlight [...] Read more.
There is a worldwide interest in implementing collaborative robots (Cobots) to reduce work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) risk. While prior work in this field has recognized the importance of considering Ergonomics & Human Factors (E&HF) in the design phase, most works tend to highlight workstations’ improvements due to Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). Based on a literature review, the current study summarises studies where E&HF was considered a requirement rather than an output. In this article, the authors are interested in understanding the existing studies focused on Cobots’ implementation with ergonomic requirements, and the methods applied to design safer collaborative workstations. This review was performed in four prominent publications databases: Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Google Scholar, searching for the keywords ‘Collaborative robots’ or ‘Cobots’ or ‘HRC’ and ‘Ergonomics’ or ‘Human factors’. Based on the inclusion criterion, 20 articles were reviewed, and the main conclusions of each are provided. Additionally, the focus was given to the segmentation between studies considering E&HF during the design phase of HRC systems and studies applying E&HF in real-time on HRC systems. The results demonstrate the novelty of this topic, especially of the real-time applications of ergonomics as a requirement. Globally, the results of the reviewed studies showed the potential of E&HF requirements integrated into HRC systems as a relevant input for reducing WMSD risk. Full article
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17 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
Are Traffic Announcements Really Effective? A Systematic Review of Evaluations of Crash-Prevention Communication Campaigns
by Mireia Faus, Francisco Alonso, Cesáreo Fernández and Sergio A. Useche
Safety 2021, 7(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7040066 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 8110
Abstract
Communication campaigns are commonly used in the traffic and road safety sector to raise public awareness of the importance of avoiding risky road user attitudes and behaviors. Surprisingly few of these communication campaigns evaluate their effectiveness in a formal and comprehensive manner. The [...] Read more.
Communication campaigns are commonly used in the traffic and road safety sector to raise public awareness of the importance of avoiding risky road user attitudes and behaviors. Surprisingly few of these communication campaigns evaluate their effectiveness in a formal and comprehensive manner. The core aim of the present systematic review is to identify the type of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of campaigns in this sector, in order to identify and contrast their main findings. This systematic review followed the PRISMA methodology, by means of which the relevant articles based on the search term were identified. A total of 613 indexed articles were filtered, and a final set of 27 articles directly addressing the issue was analyzed. Search strategies were developed and conducted in WOS, Scopus, NCBI, Google Scholar and APA databases. The selected articles point out that, although advertisements alone have a certain positive effect, their effectiveness is substantially increased if they are accompanied by other preventive measures such as legislation or road safety education. In any case, more evaluations of traffic campaigns are needed to identify which techniques are effective and which are not, and which should therefore be replaced by new methods of behavior modification in future communication campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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18 pages, 37744 KiB  
Article
Ride in Peace: How Cycling Infrastructure Types Affect Traffic Conflict Occurrence in Montréal, Canada
by Vincent Jarry and Philippe Apparicio
Safety 2021, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7030063 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7565
Abstract
Urban cycling is increasingly common in many North American cities and has the potential to address key challenges of urban mobility, congestion, air pollution and health. However, lack of safety is often cited by potential bike users as the most important deterrent to [...] Read more.
Urban cycling is increasingly common in many North American cities and has the potential to address key challenges of urban mobility, congestion, air pollution and health. However, lack of safety is often cited by potential bike users as the most important deterrent to cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cycling facility type on traffic conflict likelihood. Four participants recorded a total of 87 h (1199 km) of video, which was reviewed by trained observers to identify and characterize traffic conflicts, yielding 465 conflicts with vehicles and 209 conflicts with pedestrians. Bootstrapped generalized additive logit regressions (GAM) were built to predict traffic conflict likelihood. Results show that while cycling on an off-street bike path effectively reduces the likelihood of conflict with a vehicle, it increases the probability of conflict with a pedestrian. Bike lanes were associated with an increase in the likelihood of a conflict with a vehicle. Decision makers should favor physically segregated and clearly marked cyclist-only facilities to ensure safe and efficient conditions for commuter cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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11 pages, 2187 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Analysis of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure during Soil Tillage Operation
by Amandeep Singh, Siby Samuel, Harwinder Singh, Yash Kumar and Chander Prakash
Safety 2021, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7030061 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3992
Abstract
This study investigated whole-body vibration (WBV) response in real field harrowing operations at different tractor ride conditions i.e., average speed, front harrow pin angle (FHPA), and rear harrow pin distance (RHPD). Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array was used to formulate a systematic design [...] Read more.
This study investigated whole-body vibration (WBV) response in real field harrowing operations at different tractor ride conditions i.e., average speed, front harrow pin angle (FHPA), and rear harrow pin distance (RHPD). Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array was used to formulate a systematic design of experiments. WBV exposure was measured along the three translational axes to compute overall daily vibration magnitude i.e., A(8). Tractor’s seat isolation capacity was assessed in terms of Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility i.e., SEAT%. Raw acceleration data was analysed to obtain dominant frequencies using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A(8) was found to range between 0.43 to 0.87 m/s2 in the experimental trials. Seat isolation capacity was found to be poor in 89% of the experiments i.e., SEAT% > 100%. Average speed and FHPA was found to have a significant impact (p ≤ 0.05) on A(8) and SEAT%. FFT response showed a range of primary and secondary dominant peaks within a frequency range of 0.2 to 11 Hz. In conclusion, the majority of experimental trials (67%) exceeded the Directive2002/44EU recommended exposure action value (EAV) limit i.e., 0.5 m/s2. The harrowing operation was found to exhibit vibration exposure at low frequencies in the vicinity of natural frequencies of the human body and may consequently affect ride comfort. Full article
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16 pages, 4509 KiB  
Article
Visual Perception and Understanding of Variable Message Signs: The Influence of the Drivers’ Age and Message Layout
by Gianfranco Fancello, Patrizia Serra and Claudia Pinna
Safety 2021, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7030060 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4606
Abstract
Variable message signs (VMS) are used to display messages providing up-to-date traffic-relevant information so that drivers can safely adapt their behavior in real time. The information reported in a VMS should be brief but comprehensive to minimize perception time. The latter can be [...] Read more.
Variable message signs (VMS) are used to display messages providing up-to-date traffic-relevant information so that drivers can safely adapt their behavior in real time. The information reported in a VMS should be brief but comprehensive to minimize perception time. The latter can be influenced by the way the message is displayed. This study investigates how the different ways of displaying the same message can influence reading time and the information perception process at different driving speeds. Specifically, the following message characteristics are investigated: (i) use of uppercase and lowercase letters; (ii) use of familiar pictograms; and (iii) use of less familiar pictograms. Furthermore, as perception time typically changes with ageing, drivers belonging to three different age classes are tested. The experimentation was performed by simulating a vehicle passing along a straight road upon which a VMS displaying different messages was placed. Experimentation results are analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Friedman rank-sum test and Welch one-way ANOVA, showing that: (i) the use of uppercase or lowercase does not seem to significantly affect reading times; (ii) the use of pictograms that are not very familiar to habitual road-users can be counterproductive for the perception process; (iii) elderly drivers always have greater difficulty in perceiving the message than young or middle-aged drivers. The findings of this study can be of help for traffic authorities to design the most suitable structure for a VMS so that its information can be unequivocally and immediately conveyed to drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour 2021)
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21 pages, 3115 KiB  
Article
Safety Climate and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Investigation on Safety Perceptions among Farmers in Italy
by Mario Fargnoli and Mara Lombardi
Safety 2021, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7030052 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6059
Abstract
The diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated numerous interventions aimed at reducing the contagion by means of specific prevention measures, also characterized by stricter occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures at the workplace. To better understand how this novel working context has [...] Read more.
The diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic has generated numerous interventions aimed at reducing the contagion by means of specific prevention measures, also characterized by stricter occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures at the workplace. To better understand how this novel working context has impacted on farmers’ safety behavior and attitude, a safety climate assessment was carried out by means of the Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50), which was augmented to include specific items related to the modifications of working conditions due to COVID-19. This allowed us to analyze changes in safety climate perceptions, pointing out worker-manager discrepancies in safety behavior and attitude. Additionally, the COVID-19 questionnaire contributed to analyzing the effects of the specific OHS measures due to the pandemic from the workers’ standpoint. Results showed that concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic have augmented the attention paid to OHS, demonstrating a correlation between the safety climate dimensions and the OHS measures due to COVID-19. Besides, farmers’ risk-taking behavior and attitude appeared still critical, highlighting the need for more specific and contextual interventions in terms of safety information and training. Overall, this study aims to expand knowledge on shared safety awareness and perceptions in the COVID-19 period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Safety Culture)
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21 pages, 5486 KiB  
Article
Integrated IEW-TOPSIS and Fire Dynamics Simulation for Agent-Based Evacuation Modeling in Industrial Safety
by Wattana Chanthakhot and Kasin Ransikarbum
Safety 2021, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020047 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6427
Abstract
Emergency events in the industrial sector have been increasingly reported during the past decade. However, studies that focus on emergency evacuation to improve industrial safety are still scarce. Existing evacuation-related studies also lack a perspective of fire assembly point’s analysis. In this research, [...] Read more.
Emergency events in the industrial sector have been increasingly reported during the past decade. However, studies that focus on emergency evacuation to improve industrial safety are still scarce. Existing evacuation-related studies also lack a perspective of fire assembly point’s analysis. In this research, location of assembly points is analyzed using the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique based on the integrated information entropy weight (IEW) and techniques for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to support the fire evacuation plan. Next, we propose a novel simulation model that integrates fire dynamics simulation coupled with agent-based evacuation simulation to evaluate the impact of smoke and visibility from fire on evacuee behavior. Factors related to agent and building characteristics are examined for fire perception of evacuees, evacuees with physical disabilities, escape door width, fire location, and occupancy density. Then, the proposed model is applied to a case study of a home appliance factory in Chachoengsao, Thailand. Finally, results for the total evacuation time and the number of remaining occupants are statistically examined to suggest proper evacuation planning. Full article
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20 pages, 7012 KiB  
Article
Retrofitting Agricultural Self-Propelled Machines with Roll-Over and Tip-Over Protective Structures
by Leonardo Vita, Davide Gattamelata and Domenico Pessina
Safety 2021, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020046 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6344
Abstract
In the agricultural sector, the loss of stability related to the use of self-propelled agricultural machinery (SPAM) has caused and continues to cause accidents, often with fatal outcomes. The probability of occurrence of this risk can be reduced by acting on various aspects, [...] Read more.
In the agricultural sector, the loss of stability related to the use of self-propelled agricultural machinery (SPAM) has caused and continues to cause accidents, often with fatal outcomes. The probability of occurrence of this risk can be reduced by acting on various aspects, but above all the presence of a protective structure is necessary. Depending on the machine, the protective structure can be a roll-over protective structure (ROPS), or a tip-over protective structure (TOPS). Hence, to reduce this gap, a reverse engineering approach and virtual engineering methods were applied starting from the analysis of harmonized standards actually in force, with the goal of providing both a reference procedure to be used in the risk assessment analysis of SPAM’s protective structures and technical information to manufacture and install protective structure on old agricultural machinery. Two representative case studies were used to validate the procedure by means of finite element method (FEM) analyses and computer aided design (CAD) prototyping. Results show that the proposed approach can represent a useful indication for the safety update of this type of machinery. Full article
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13 pages, 2363 KiB  
Article
Impact of Construction Safety Culture and Construction Safety Climate on Safety Behavior and Safety Motivation
by Ahmed Jalil Al-Bayati
Safety 2021, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020041 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 10924
Abstract
The construction industry is known for its disappointing safety performance. Therefore, rethinking current safety management frameworks is crucial. This study assesses a newly proposed construction safety culture and climate framework that aims to overcome the present ambiguity in the definitions and measurement of [...] Read more.
The construction industry is known for its disappointing safety performance. Therefore, rethinking current safety management frameworks is crucial. This study assesses a newly proposed construction safety culture and climate framework that aims to overcome the present ambiguity in the definitions and measurement of construction safety culture and construction safety climate. The goal is to provide a practical construction safety culture and safety climate framework that fits the construction industry’s needs. A survey was designed to validate the proposed framework and assess its influence on safety behavior and safety motivation. The survey was completed by 275 construction practitioners. The findings suggest that the construction safety culture initiates and maintains the construction safety climate. Similarly, the construction safety culture, which is represented by the actions of upper management and safety personnel, significantly contributes to higher levels of safety behavior and safety motivation, whereas the construction safety climate does not. Accordingly, this study highlights the importance of the construction safety culture’s influence on overall workplace culture. This study’s contribution to the body of knowledge is critical to improving construction workplaces’ overall safety performance. The findings can be strategically used by construction firms to address the construction industry’s higher rates of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Finally, the results obtained support the newly proposed framework of construction safety culture and climate, which, in turn, helps the industry better manage overall site safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Safety Culture)
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36 pages, 7793 KiB  
Article
Cooperation between Roads and Vehicles: Field Validation of a Novel Infrastructure-Based Solution for All Road Users’ Safety
by Maria Gkemou, Francesco Biral, Ioannis Gkragkopoulos, Giammarco Valenti, Ioannis Tsetsinas, Evangelos Bekiaris and Andrea Steccanella
Safety 2021, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020039 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5414
Abstract
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are expected to considerably influence road safety, traffic efficiency and comfort. Nevertheless, their market penetration is still limited, on the one hand due to the high costs of installation and maintenance of the infrastructures and, on the other [...] Read more.
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are expected to considerably influence road safety, traffic efficiency and comfort. Nevertheless, their market penetration is still limited, on the one hand due to the high costs of installation and maintenance of the infrastructures and, on the other hand, due to the price of support automated driving functions. A breakthrough C-ITS technological solution was studied, designed, built and tested that is based on the implementation of custom low-cost on-road platforms (named “strips”) that embed micro/nano sensors, communication technologies and energy harvesting to shift intelligence from the vehicle to the road infrastructure. The strips, through a V2X and LTE communication gateway, transmit real-time, reliable and accurate information at lane level about the environmental and road condition, the traffic and the other road users’ position and speed. The exchanged information supports a series of C-ITS functions and services extending equipped vehicles capabilities and providing similar functions to non-equipped ones (including powered two wheelers). The general framework and the technological solution proposed is presented and the results of the field trials, conducted in three pilot sites around Europe, quantify the promising system performance as well as the positive effects of the C-ITS applications developed and tested on driver/rider’s behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver Behavior Safety Research in Road Transportation)
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23 pages, 2491 KiB  
Article
A Combinatorial Safety Analysis of Cruise Ship Diesel–Electric Propulsion Plant Blackout
by Victor Bolbot, Gerasimos Theotokatos, Evangelos Boulougouris, George Psarros and Rainer Hamann
Safety 2021, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020038 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5984
Abstract
Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) has been widely used for the propulsion of various ship types including cruise ships. Considering the potential consequences of blackouts, especially on cruise ships, it is essential to design and operate the ships’ power plants for avoiding and preventing such [...] Read more.
Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) has been widely used for the propulsion of various ship types including cruise ships. Considering the potential consequences of blackouts, especially on cruise ships, it is essential to design and operate the ships’ power plants for avoiding and preventing such events. This study aims at implementing a comprehensive safety analysis for a cruise ship Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) plant focusing on blackout events. The Combinatorial Approach to Safety Analysis (CASA) method is used to develop Fault Trees considering the blackout as the top event, and subsequently estimate the blackout frequency as well as implement importance analysis. The derived results demonstrate that the overall blackout frequency is close to corresponding values reported in the pertinent literature as well as estimations based on available accident investigations. This study deduces that the blackout frequency depends on the number of operating Diesel Generator (DG) sets, the DG set’s loading profile, the amount of electrical load that can be tripped during overload conditions and the plant operation phase. In addition, failures of the engine auxiliary systems and the fast-electrical load reduction functions, as well as the power generation control components, are identified as important. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CASA method to complex marine systems and reveals the parameters influencing the investigated system blackout frequency, thus providing better insights for these systems’ safety analysis and enhancement. Full article
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17 pages, 3295 KiB  
Article
Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers
by Melanie Karthaus, Edmund Wascher and Stephan Getzmann
Safety 2021, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020036 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5852
Abstract
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. [...] Read more.
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. Experiments in a driving simulator are a good choice to eliminate the risk for crashes and to present highly standardized stimulus combinations. In the present study, 72 subjects from four age groups completed a driving task that required occasional responses to the brake lights of a car in front. In addition, in certain experimental conditions, subjects had to respond to distracting visual or auditory stimuli. In addition to behavioral data, electrophysiological correlates of stimulus processing were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). In the two older groups, braking response times increased even in a simple task condition when visual distraction stimuli occurred. In more complex task conditions braking response times increased with acoustic and visual distractors in the middle-aged group as well. In these complex task conditions braking error rates, especially the missing of braking reaction in favor of the distracting task, increased under visual distraction with increasing age. Associated with this, a reduced P3b component in the event-related potential indicated an unfavorable allocation of mental resources. The study demonstrates the potential of driving simulators for studying effects of distraction, but also their limitations with respect to the interpretability of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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22 pages, 1674 KiB  
Review
Occupational Accidents Related to Heavy Machinery: A Systematic Review
by J. Duarte, A. Torres Marques and J. Santos Baptista
Safety 2021, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010021 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 8707
Abstract
Surface and underground mining, due to its technical challenges, is considered a hazardous industry. The great majority of accidents and fatalities are frequently associated with ineffective or inappropriate training methods. Knowing that knowledge of occupational accident causes plays a significant role in safety [...] Read more.
Surface and underground mining, due to its technical challenges, is considered a hazardous industry. The great majority of accidents and fatalities are frequently associated with ineffective or inappropriate training methods. Knowing that knowledge of occupational accident causes plays a significant role in safety management systems, it is important to systematise this kind of information. The primary objective of this systematic review was to find evidence of work-related accidents involving machinery and their causes and, thus, to provide relevant data available to improve the mining project (design). The Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement methodology was used to conduct the review. This paper provides the main research results based on a systematic review protocol registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), where the research strategy, information sources, and eligibility criteria are provided. From the 3071 articles identified, 16 were considered eligible and added to the study. Results are presented in a narrative-based form, with additional data provided in descriptive tables. The data analysed showed that the equipment often related to mining accidents are conveyor belts, haul trucks, and dumpers, especially during maintenance or repair activities. Attention should be paid to powered tools. Effective monitoring and machine operation control are some of the stated measures to minimise accidents. Particular attention should be paid to less experienced and senior workers, mainly through fatigue control, workload management, and appropriate training programs. Full article
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21 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
The Italian Validation of OSCI: The Organizational and Safety Climate Inventory
by Silvia Platania, Anna Paolillo and Silvia A. Silva
Safety 2021, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010022 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5393
Abstract
Although safety climate has been the object of multiple studies in the last thirty years, the relationship between safety climate and organizational climate has been scarcely investigated. The Organizational and Safety Climate Inventory (OSCI) was the first and only validated instrument to allow [...] Read more.
Although safety climate has been the object of multiple studies in the last thirty years, the relationship between safety climate and organizational climate has been scarcely investigated. The Organizational and Safety Climate Inventory (OSCI) was the first and only validated instrument to allow the assessment of organizational and safety climates simultaneously and by using the same theoretical framework. The present work investigated the psychometric properties of OSCI in an Italian sample at the group level; study 1 (N = 745) examined the factor structure of the scale by using confirmatory factor analyses. Study 2 (N = 471) advanced the original Portuguese validation by testing its measurement equivalence across gender and company sector through multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. Results confirmed one higher-order factor structure with four first-order factors for both Organizational Climate and Safety Climate, with Organizational Climate predicting Safety Climate. Moreover, the scale was found to be invariant between men and women and between different types of company. Reliability, discriminant, and criterion validities of the scale showed very good values. Overall, the findings strengthened the original claim of the OSCI to be a valid and innovative instrument, which allows the identification of specific dimensions of safety climate, starting from a more general model of organizational climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Instruments for Evaluating and Measuring Safety)
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18 pages, 4124 KiB  
Article
Are Double-Lane Roundabouts Safe Enough? A CHAID Analysis of Unsafe Driving Behaviors
by Giulia Pulvirenti, Natalia Distefano, Salvatore Leonardi and Tomaz Tollazzi
Safety 2021, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010020 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5321
Abstract
This study investigated the nature and causes of unsafe driving behavior at roundabouts through an on-road study. Four urban double-lane roundabouts with different layouts were selected for an on-road study. Sixty-six drivers (41 males and 25 females) aged 18–65 years took part in [...] Read more.
This study investigated the nature and causes of unsafe driving behavior at roundabouts through an on-road study. Four urban double-lane roundabouts with different layouts were selected for an on-road study. Sixty-six drivers (41 males and 25 females) aged 18–65 years took part in the study. Unsafe behaviors observed during the in situ survey were divided into three different categories: entry unsafe behaviors, circulation unsafe behaviors, and exit unsafe behaviors. Three chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses were developed in order to analyze the influence of roundabout characteristics and maneuvers on unsafe behaviors at double-lane roundabouts. The results confirmed the awareness that double-lane roundabouts are unsafe and inadvisable. More than half of unsafe driving behaviors were found to be entry unsafe behaviors. Moreover, the entry radius was found to be the geometric variable most influencing unsafe driving behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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18 pages, 1457 KiB  
Article
Research on the Use of Mobile Devices and Headphones on Pedestrian Crossings—Pilot Case Study from Slovakia
by Miroslava Mikusova, Joanna Wachnicka and Joanna Zukowska
Safety 2021, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010017 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6949
Abstract
The topic of the use of mobile devices and headphones on pedestrian crossings is much less explored in comparison to the use of the mobile phone while driving. Recent years have seen many discussions on this issue, especially in foreign countries. The Slovak [...] Read more.
The topic of the use of mobile devices and headphones on pedestrian crossings is much less explored in comparison to the use of the mobile phone while driving. Recent years have seen many discussions on this issue, especially in foreign countries. The Slovak Republic, however, has not been giving it enough attention (and it is not mentioned in the National Road Safety Plan for the Slovak Republic from 2011 to 2020). This paper aims to draw attention to this issue. It presents basic outputs of a pilot study on pedestrian safety, with a focus on the use of mobile devices and headphones at selected non-signalized pedestrian crossings in three Slovak cities. Overall, 9% of pedestrians used headphones or mobile devices at observed pedestrian crossings (4% of them used headphones, 1% used headphones and at same time used their mobile phone, 2% made phone calls and 2% used their mobile phones). While these numbers can be considered relatively low, the study proved that during weekdays every 2 min someone was using the crossing without fully focusing on crossing the road safely. Another main finding was that although the safety risk at pedestrian crossings is increased by factors such as rush hour traffic or reduced visibility, pedestrian behavior related to the use of mobile phones and headphones does not change. A safety assessment was also carried out at the crossings. The results show that pedestrian behavior is not affected by the level of safety of the crossing (e.g., visibility of the crossing for drivers). The results of the presented analysis suggest that action is needed to change that. Due to the lack of information about accidents involving pedestrians using mobile phones and headsets when crossing the road, no relevant statistical data could be analyzed. The dataset collected can be used as a basis for further investigation or comparisons with other countries of the relevant indicators. In future work, we would like to include a pedestrian–driver interaction factor focusing on driver speed behavior in relation to pedestrians (who are on or are about to step onto a pedestrian crossing) and identify critical situations caused by improper behavior of drivers and/or pedestrians. This will help to understand speed adjustment problems related to pedestrian crossings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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18 pages, 9174 KiB  
Article
Physical Ergonomic Improvement and Safe Design of an Assembly Workstation through Collaborative Robotics
by Ana Colim, Carlos Faria, João Cunha, João Oliveira, Nuno Sousa and Luís A. Rocha
Safety 2021, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010014 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7235
Abstract
One of the key interesting features of collaborative robotic applications is the potential to lighten the worker workload and potentiate better working conditions. Moreover, developing robotics applications that meets ergonomic criteria is not always a straightforward endeavor. We propose a framework to guide [...] Read more.
One of the key interesting features of collaborative robotic applications is the potential to lighten the worker workload and potentiate better working conditions. Moreover, developing robotics applications that meets ergonomic criteria is not always a straightforward endeavor. We propose a framework to guide the safe design and conceptualization of ergonomic-driven collaborative robotics workstations. A multi-disciplinary approach involving robotics and ergonomics and human factors shaped this methodology that leads future engineers through the digital transformation of a manual assembly (with repetitive and hazardous operations) to a hybrid workstation, focusing on the physical ergonomic improvement. The framework follows four main steps, (i) the characterization of the initial condition, (ii) the risk assessment, (iii) the definition of requirements for a safe design, and (iv) the conceptualization of the hybrid workstation with all the normative implications it entails. We applied this methodology to a case study in an assembly workstation of a furniture manufacturing company. Results show that the methodology adopted sets an adequate foundation to accelerate the design and development of new human-centered collaborative robotic workstations. Full article
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18 pages, 2917 KiB  
Article
Securing Schools against Terrorist Attacks
by Šárka Hošková-Mayerová, Svajone Bekesiene and Petra Beňová
Safety 2021, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010013 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6137
Abstract
The population is nowadays increasingly threatened by events that have an immediate impact on their health and lives. One of the most endangered targets are the so-called soft targets. These are such targets that are characterized by a high population concentration, and low [...] Read more.
The population is nowadays increasingly threatened by events that have an immediate impact on their health and lives. One of the most endangered targets are the so-called soft targets. These are such targets that are characterized by a high population concentration, and low or even no level of security against violent or even terrorist attacks. The research carried out by the authors clearly showed that one of the important and easily vulnerable soft targets are schools. This article focuses on the safety of schools and their facilities. The authors focused on finding out the safety of schools as soft targets in the Czech Republic. The security level of schools was measured at selected nursery, elementary, and secondary schools in the city of Brno. As well as technical elements, other factors contributing to the overall safety of schools were also verified. It was found that although a large number of schools have at least basic elements of security available, systemic and organizational measures are not sufficient for technical measures to be important. Full article
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19 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
When the Tension Is Rising: A Simulation-Based Study on the Effects of Safety Incentive Programs and Behavior-Based Safety Management
by Sebastian Brandhorst and Annette Kluge
Safety 2021, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010009 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6002
Abstract
When an organization’s management creates a goal conflict between workplace safety and the profitability of the organization, workers perceive work-safety tension. This leads to reduced safety-related behavior, culminating in higher rates of occupational injuries. In this study, we explored design components of behavior-based [...] Read more.
When an organization’s management creates a goal conflict between workplace safety and the profitability of the organization, workers perceive work-safety tension. This leads to reduced safety-related behavior, culminating in higher rates of occupational injuries. In this study, we explored design components of behavior-based safety programs: audit results and process communication, reward and punishment, and the framing of production goals as gains or losses. This allowed us to directly observe the effects of the goal conflicts and of the countermeasures that we designed in this study. We examined the perceived work-safety tension using a simulated water treatment plant in a laboratory study with 166 engineering students. Participants had the task of conducting a start-up procedure. The operators’ goal conflict was created by a choice between a safe and mandatory (less productive) procedure and an unsafe and forbidden (more productive) one. As participants were told that their payment for the study would depend on their performance, we expected that rule violations would occur. We found acceptance of measures and their design as important for rule related behavior. Work-safety tension emerged as a strong driver for violating safety rules. We conclude that safety incentive programs can become ineffective if goal conflicts create work-safety tension. Full article
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