Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention

A special issue of Safety (ISSN 2313-576X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 April 2024) | Viewed by 8370

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chemical, Polymer and Composite Materials Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 39161, Pakistan
Interests: mineral carbonation; concurrent grinding; CCUS; emission reduction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Engineering and Technology, BCG Chowk, Multan 60000, Pakistan
Interests: process safety and risk assessment; safety assessment in process design applications; safety improvement for process industries; process simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increased production demands have deepened the complexity of industrial processes, thus, making their control very difficult, or even impossible at times. This has increased the number of accidents in process industries that have resulted in thousands of causalities, e.g., the methyl isocyanate leakage in the Bhopal accident. Other accidents in various industries have also resulted in thousands of deaths or billions of dollars of loss, both of which may have been prevented through accident prevention strategies and the proper implementation of safety principles. The increased world population has increased the mobility of air, sea and land vehicles, thus, leading to more traffic accidents, which also cause significant human suffering and various losses. This is of vital importance to report accidents, analyze them to determine their possible root causes, and prevent their reoccurrence, in order to protect human lives.

This Special Issue aims to collect papers on worldwide accidents, their trends, their investigation and their prevention; industrial as well as traffic accidents will be covered. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: industrial accidents; process industries accidents; traffic accidents; accidents trends; accidents investigations; accidents preventions; accidents causation models.

Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid
Dr. Muhammad Athar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • accidents
  • industrial accidents
  • process industries accidents
  • traffic accidents
  • accidents trends
  • accidents investigations and causes
  • accident prevention strategies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Hydrogen Value Chain Events: Implications for Hydrogen Refueling Stations’ Safety
by Eulàlia Badia, Joaquín Navajas, Roser Sala, Nicola Paltrinieri and Hitomi Sato
Safety 2024, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety10020044 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Renewable hydrogen is emerging as the key to a sustainable energy transition with multiple applications and uses. In the field of transport, in addition to fuel cell vehicles, it is necessary to develop an extensive network of hydrogen refueling stations (hereafter HRSs). The [...] Read more.
Renewable hydrogen is emerging as the key to a sustainable energy transition with multiple applications and uses. In the field of transport, in addition to fuel cell vehicles, it is necessary to develop an extensive network of hydrogen refueling stations (hereafter HRSs). The characteristics and properties of hydrogen make ensuring the safe operation of these facilities a crucial element for their successful deployment and implementation. This paper shows the outcomes of an analysis of hydrogen incidents and accidents considering their potential application to HRSs. For this purpose, the HIAD 2.0 was reviewed and a total of 224 events that could be repeated in any of the major industrial processes related to hydrogen refueling stations were analyzed. This analysis was carried out using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative techniques, considering the following hydrogen value chain: production, storage, delivery and industrial use. The results provide general information segmented by event frequency, damage classes and failure typology. The analysis shows the main processes of the value chain allow the identification of key aspects for the safety management of refueling facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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20 pages, 11013 KiB  
Article
Going beyond Chat: Designing Connotative Meaningful Line Stickers to Promote Road Safety in Thailand through Participatory Design
by Thawatphong Phithak, Pawanrat Surasangprasert and Sorachai Kamollimsakul
Safety 2023, 9(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040087 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Road accidents are a leading cause of death in Thailand, with increasing fatalities. Despite road safety campaigns during holidays, consistent communication is lacking in daily life. This research aimed to create Line application stickers, a top chat platform for Thailand, using the participatory [...] Read more.
Road accidents are a leading cause of death in Thailand, with increasing fatalities. Despite road safety campaigns during holidays, consistent communication is lacking in daily life. This research aimed to create Line application stickers, a top chat platform for Thailand, using the participatory design (PD) approach. PD was implemented in two steps. Firstly, 100 participants outlined character types, moods, tones, and communication objectives. They recommended lively animal characters with diverse texts, such as greetings, work, travel, and emotions. Then, through a focus group, the tortoise was identified to represent cautious drivers who follow traffic rules, the rabbit to represent fast and risky drivers, and the zebra to represent vigilant and disciplined traffic police officers as characters for Line stickers. Subsequently, using the semiotics approach, 40 Line stickers were designed, and embedded with denotative and connotative road safety messages. Secondly, feedback from the focus group, integral to the PD process, led to refinements. After launching, a survey of 50 users showed “Benefits Received”, “Text and Messages”, and “Meaning” dimensions received “Very Satisfied/Strongly Agree” ratings. The “Character” dimension received a “Satisfied” rating. The results for “Benefits Received” can also be analyzed in the context of the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) theory, which revealed that K and A were at the highest level, while P was at a high level. This suggests that the Line stickers designed in this study effectively conveyed road safety messages to the receivers. This research constitutes the pioneering exploration within the realm of Line stickers concerning road safety, signifying the originality and unique contribution of our research to the existing body of knowledge in this domain. The PD process in this research can serve as a guideline for creating safety-promoting media in diverse fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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19 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effects of Highway Geometric Design Features on the Frequency of Truck-Involved Rear-End Crashes Using the Random Effect Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Model
by Thanapong Champahom, Chamroeun Se, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Rattanaporn Kasemsri and Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
Safety 2023, 9(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9040076 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Statistical data indicate that trucks are more prone to rear-end crashes, making this an area of concern. The objective of this study is to create a model that analyzes the factors influencing the frequency of rear-end crashes involving trucks (TIRC). To achieve this, [...] Read more.
Statistical data indicate that trucks are more prone to rear-end crashes, making this an area of concern. The objective of this study is to create a model that analyzes the factors influencing the frequency of rear-end crashes involving trucks (TIRC). To achieve this, researchers identified the most appropriate model as Spatial Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression (SZINB). This model takes into account spatial correlation, which plays a significant role in the occurrences of TIRC on different road segments supervised by each highway ward. The estimation of parameters in the SZINB model has led to key findings that shed light on the factors contributing to a higher likelihood of TIRC. These findings include the increased probability of TIRC on curved roads compared to straight ones, roads that feature open middle islands, six lanes per direction, a slope, right-of-way shoulder width, pavement type, lane width, and a post speed limit. Based on these key findings, this study developed policy recommendations and sample measures aimed at reducing the frequency of TIRC. Implementing measures such as improving the road design on curved sections, optimizing middle islands, and enhancing traffic management on wider roads can help mitigate the risk of crashes involving trucks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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17 pages, 4011 KiB  
Article
Natech Accidents Triggered by Heat Waves
by Federica Ricci, Valeria Casson Moreno and Valerio Cozzani
Safety 2023, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9020033 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
Natech accidents have an increasing relevance due to the growing number of such events and to their severe consequences. Climate change and global warming are intensifying the occurrence and the magnitude of climate-related natural events, further increasing the risk of cascading sequences triggered [...] Read more.
Natech accidents have an increasing relevance due to the growing number of such events and to their severe consequences. Climate change and global warming are intensifying the occurrence and the magnitude of climate-related natural events, further increasing the risk of cascading sequences triggered by natural disasters impacting industrial installations. The present study focuses on Natech triggered by heat waves. The features of this specific category of Natech events were investigated by past accident analysis, collecting an extended dataset of past events. The dataset analysis allowed the identification of the key factors that characterize these accident scenarios, such as the direct causes, the technological scenario that occurred, the substance categories, and the equipment items more frequently involved. The main direct cause of accidents resulted in an internal pressure increase, exceeding equipment design limits. Fire scenarios represent the most important category of technological scenarios that occurred. Besides equipment items handling liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, waste storage and processing systems also resulted frequently in accidents, due to the self-decomposition and self-ignition phenomena. The analysis of past accidents also allowed identifying some lessons learned, useful to identify specific actions aimed at preventing and/or mitigating the possible occurrence of these accident scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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13 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
Predicting Intoxication Using Motorcycle and Head Movements of Riders Wearing Alcohol Intoxication Goggles
by Rosemary Seva, Imanuel Luir del Rosario, Lorenzo Miguel Peñafiel, John Michael Young and Edwin Sybingco
Safety 2023, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9020029 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1744
Abstract
The movement of a motorcycle is one of the critical factors that influences the stability of the ride. It has been established that the gait patterns of drunk and sober people are distinct. However, drunk motorcycle (MC) drivers’ balance has not been investigated [...] Read more.
The movement of a motorcycle is one of the critical factors that influences the stability of the ride. It has been established that the gait patterns of drunk and sober people are distinct. However, drunk motorcycle (MC) drivers’ balance has not been investigated as a predictor of intoxication. This paper characterized and used MC and head movements, such as pitch and roll, to predict intoxication while riding. Two separate experiments were conducted to monitor MC and head movement. Male participants were recruited between the ages of 23 and 50 to participate in the study. Participants used alcohol intoxication goggles (AIG) to simulate blood alcohol content (BAC) while driving on a straight path. Placebo goggles were used for control. Results showed that pitch and roll amplitudes of the MC could distinguish drivers wearing placebo and AIGs, as well as the pitch and roll frequency of the head. Deep learning can be used to predict the intoxication of MC riders. The predictive accuracy of the algorithm shows a viable opportunity for the use of movement to monitor drunk riders on the road. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Accidents: Trends, Investigation and Prevention)
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