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C, Volume 10, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A method for the continuous generation of CNT forests stably anchored on stainless-steel surfaces is achieved using a reactive-roll-to-roll system without catalyst nanoparticles or solution processing. This enables very large surfaces to be covered with CNT forests individually anchored to the metal support. Applied to wires, this alters surface wettability, thereby enhancing their use as fog-harvesting media. Full or partial CNT forest coverage provides tuning of the ratio and shape of hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones on the surface, optimizing droplet capture and water drainage. Using harp-type harvesters enhanced with CNTs allowed fog capture at rates up to 2.2 g/cm2·h. The strong CNT anchoring provides a robust composite structure compatible with functionalization at large scales. View this paper
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17 pages, 5304 KiB  
Article
A Coordination Polymer Based on Nickel(II)–Cyamelurate: A Robust Catalyst with Highly Dispersed Nickel Sites for Nitrophenol Reduction under Ambient Conditions
by Taís dos Santos da Cruz, Walker Vinícius Ferreira do Carmo Batista, Eduarda Ferreira de Oliveira, Wanessa Lima de Oliveira, Dilton Martins Pimentel, Gabriel Ali Atta Diab, Ivo Freitas Teixeira, Marcio César Pereira and João Paulo de Mesquita
C 2024, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010027 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Cyamelurate anions obtained from the hydrolysis of polymeric graphitic carbon nitride were used for the preparation of a water-stable and crystalline coordination polymer based on nickel(II)–cyamelurate. The polymer was prepared and applied as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in [...] Read more.
Cyamelurate anions obtained from the hydrolysis of polymeric graphitic carbon nitride were used for the preparation of a water-stable and crystalline coordination polymer based on nickel(II)–cyamelurate. The polymer was prepared and applied as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of borohydride under ambient conditions. The catalyst was prepared by a simple and environmentally friendly method in an aqueous medium, and it was completely characterized by a variety of techniques, including FTIR, UV–Vis, XRD, TGA, TEM, and STEM. The obtained catalyst was able to catalyze the reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with a good kinetic constant. In addition, the catalyst proved to be significantly robust, maintaining a conversion rate greater than 80% after five minutes of reaction for eight consecutive catalytic cycles. In addition, the catalytic activity of the coordination polymer was much higher than that observed for a homogeneous catalyst based on aqueous Ni2+ ions, suggesting the importance of the structure of the coordination sphere formed by the cyamelurate anions. The results presented here can contribute to the application of other coordination polymers anchored with cyamelurate-like ligands and derivatives, as well as to new catalyst designs based on this coordination site formed by oxygen and nitrogen donor atoms. Full article
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20 pages, 5972 KiB  
Article
Date Palm Leaflet-Derived Carbon Microspheres Activated Using Phosphoric Acid for Efficient Lead (II) Adsorption
by Saeed Alhawtali, Mohanad El-Harbawi, Lahssen El Blidi, Maher M. Alrashed, Abdulrahman Alzobidi and Chun-Yang Yin
C 2024, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010026 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 759
Abstract
The removal of lead metals from wastewater was carried out with carbon microspheres (CMs) prepared from date palm leaflets using a hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC). The prepared CMs were subsequently activated with phosphoric acid using the incipient wetness impregnation method. The prepared sample [...] Read more.
The removal of lead metals from wastewater was carried out with carbon microspheres (CMs) prepared from date palm leaflets using a hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC). The prepared CMs were subsequently activated with phosphoric acid using the incipient wetness impregnation method. The prepared sample had a low Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area of 2.21 m2·g−1, which increased substantially to 808 m2·g−1 after the activation process. Various characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and elemental analysis (CHNS), were used to evaluate the morphological structure and physico-chemical properties of the CMs before and after activation. The increase in surface area is an indicator of the activation process, which enhances the absorption properties of the material. The results demonstrated that the activated CMs had a notable adsorption capacity, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 136 mg·g−1 for lead (II) ions. This finding suggests that the activated CMs are highly effective in removing lead pollutants from water. This research underscores the promise of utilizing activated carbon materials extracted from palm leaflets as an eco-friendly method with high potential for water purification, specifically in eliminating heavy metal pollutants, particularly lead (II), contributing to sustainability through biomass reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Carbon Materials and Their Composites)
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16 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Let Us Get Regional: Exploring Prospects for Biomass-Based Carbon Dioxide Removal on the Ground
by Danny Otto and Nils Matzner
C 2024, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010025 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
In recent years, research on carbon dioxide removal (CDR) has significantly increased. Numerous studies have analyzed demonstration projects, outlined scenarios, modeled pathways, or focused on CDR’s national or international governance. However, regional case studies investigating the dynamics that may facilitate or impede the [...] Read more.
In recent years, research on carbon dioxide removal (CDR) has significantly increased. Numerous studies have analyzed demonstration projects, outlined scenarios, modeled pathways, or focused on CDR’s national or international governance. However, regional case studies investigating the dynamics that may facilitate or impede the broader adoption of CDR methods in spatially explicit settings are critically absent. Understanding implementation contexts on the ground is vital, and comparing them across different removal methods is essential for effectively scaling up CDR. This paper aims to address this research gap by comparatively examining the development of biomass-based CDR in three regions of Germany. Taking an exploratory approach, we conducted surveys in these regions to gain insight into stakeholder perceptions of the following six CDR methods: forest management, agriculture and soil carbon, long-lasting building materials, rewetting of peatlands and paludiculture, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. In this article, we present the results of the stakeholder survey, which offers multiple perspectives that can shape future studies of regional implementation and yield policy-relevant guidance. Although our research primarily focuses on the regional level in Germany, it sheds light on various conflicts, uncertainties, and potentials that are likely to be relevant for the rollout of CDR in other countries. By examining these aspects, we contribute to the broader discourse on CDR and its potential implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Cycle, Capture and Storage)
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21 pages, 6477 KiB  
Article
Nonlocal-Strain-Gradient-Based Anisotropic Elastic Shell Model for Vibrational Analysis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
by Matteo Strozzi, Isaac E. Elishakoff, Michele Bochicchio, Marco Cocconcelli, Riccardo Rubini and Enrico Radi
C 2024, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010024 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
In this study, a new anisotropic elastic shell model with a nonlocal strain gradient is developed to investigate the vibrations of simply supported single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The Sanders–Koiter shell theory is used to obtain strain–displacement relationships. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity and Mindlin’s strain [...] Read more.
In this study, a new anisotropic elastic shell model with a nonlocal strain gradient is developed to investigate the vibrations of simply supported single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The Sanders–Koiter shell theory is used to obtain strain–displacement relationships. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity and Mindlin’s strain gradient theories are adopted to derive the constitutive equations, where the anisotropic elasticity constants are expressed via Chang’s molecular mechanics model. An analytical method is used to solve the equations of motion and to obtain the natural frequencies of SWCNTs. First, the anisotropic elastic shell model without size effects is validated through comparison with the results of molecular dynamics simulations reported in the literature. Then, the effects of the nonlocal and material parameters on the natural frequencies of SWCNTs with different geometries and wavenumbers are analyzed. From the numerical simulations, it is confirmed that the natural frequencies decrease as the nonlocal parameter increases, while they increase as the material parameter increases. As new results, the reduction in natural frequencies with increasing SWCNT radius and the increase in natural frequencies with increasing wavenumber are both amplified as the material parameter increases, while they are both attenuated as the nonlocal parameter increases. Full article
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17 pages, 7110 KiB  
Article
Application of L-FDM Technology to the Printing of Tablets That Release Active Substances—Preliminary Research
by Ewa Gabriel, Anna Olejnik, Bogna Sztorch, Miłosz Frydrych, Olga Czerwińska, Robert Pietrzak and Robert E. Przekop
C 2024, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010023 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
The following work presents a method for obtaining PLA composites with activated carbon modified using the liquid for fused deposition modeling (L-FDM) method in which two different compounds, i.e., rhodamine and antipyrine, are introduced. Tablets saturated with substances were obtained. Microscopic tests were [...] Read more.
The following work presents a method for obtaining PLA composites with activated carbon modified using the liquid for fused deposition modeling (L-FDM) method in which two different compounds, i.e., rhodamine and antipyrine, are introduced. Tablets saturated with substances were obtained. Microscopic tests were carried out, and these confirmed the presence of substances that had been introduced into the polymer structure. UV-Vis spectra and observation of the active substance release process confirmed the relationship between the printing speed and the amounts of the compounds liberated from the tablets. Additionally, the contact angle of the PLA with activated carbon composites was characterized. The hydrophilic nature of the obtained composites favors an increase in the amounts of compounds released during the release process, which is a desirable effect. The surfaces and pores of the obtained materials were also analyzed. The incorporation of activated carbon into PLA results in a significant increase in its surface area. Investigations indicate that a novel approach for introducing chemicals into polymer matrices through the L-FDM method holds promise for the prospective fabrication of tablets capable of a controlled and customized release of substances tailored to individual requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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20 pages, 5130 KiB  
Review
Comparison of Modified Peels: Natural Peels or Peels-Based Activated Carbons for the Removal of Several Pollutants Found in Wastewaters
by Athanasia K. Tolkou, Konstantinos N. Maroulas, Dimitrios Theologis, Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis and George Z. Kyzas
C 2024, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010022 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Wastewater treatment has attracted much attention in recent years as a potential source of water, and there are some concerns about its safety for human use. Eco-friendly and cost-effective adsorbent materials were successfully synthesized from several peels, such as orange, banana, pomegranate, avocado, [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment has attracted much attention in recent years as a potential source of water, and there are some concerns about its safety for human use. Eco-friendly and cost-effective adsorbent materials were successfully synthesized from several peels, such as orange, banana, pomegranate, avocado, kiwi, etc., and were used as natural adsorbents or as activated carbons derived from these peels for water and wastewater treatment. In this review, the latest research focusing on the effective modification of these peels for the removal of several pollutants found in wastewaters are summarized and compared, such as pharmaceuticals, dyes, heavy metals, and anions that are released in waste and have a negative impact on human and animal health. In this review, focus is given to activated carbon produced from fruit peels. Moreover, fruit peels as adsorbent materials, without previously being converted to activated carbon, are of limited use in the recent literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adsorption on Carbon-Based Materials)
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15 pages, 22033 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Electromagnetic Shielding Properties of Cement-Based Composites with Biochar and PVC as Fillers
by Giuseppe Ruscica, Fabio Peinetti, Isabella Natali Sora and Patrizia Savi
C 2024, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010021 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Biochar (bio-charcoal) is a low-cost and eco-friendly material. It can be obtained by thermochemical conversion of different biomass sources, for example, in the total absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) or in oxygen-limited atmosphere (gasification). The porous carbonaceous structure of biochar, resulting from the thermal [...] Read more.
Biochar (bio-charcoal) is a low-cost and eco-friendly material. It can be obtained by thermochemical conversion of different biomass sources, for example, in the total absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) or in oxygen-limited atmosphere (gasification). The porous carbonaceous structure of biochar, resulting from the thermal treatment, can be exploited in cement-based composite production. By introducing biochar powder or other fillers in the cement paste, it is possible to enhance the shielding properties of the cement paste. The environmental impact of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be reduced by reusing it as a filler in cement-based composites. In this work, cement-based composites filled with different percentages of biochar and PVC are fabricated. The scattering parameters of samples with 4mm thickness are measured by mean of a rectangular waveguide in the C-band. The shielding effectiveness of reference samples without any filler and samples with biochar and PVC is analyzed. A combination of 10 wt.% biochar and 6 wt.% PVC provides the best shielding performance (around 16 dB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes)
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14 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
Effects of Polydopamine Incorporation on the Nanostructure and Electrochemical Performance of Electrodeposited Polypyrrole Films
by James A. Behan and Frédéric Barrière
C 2024, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010020 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Polypyrrole films are commonly prepared as conductive electrode surfaces for a variety of applications. Recently, there has been increasing interest in improving the adhesive properties and biocompatibility of polypyrrole electrodes via the incorporation of bioinspired polydopamine within the polymer scaffold. However, very little [...] Read more.
Polypyrrole films are commonly prepared as conductive electrode surfaces for a variety of applications. Recently, there has been increasing interest in improving the adhesive properties and biocompatibility of polypyrrole electrodes via the incorporation of bioinspired polydopamine within the polymer scaffold. However, very little is currently known about the structural effects of polydopamine incorporation during the electropolymerisation of hybrid films. In this work, we combine electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies, fundamental electrochemical characterisation, atomic force microscopy, and a suite of spectroscopic techniques in order to correlate changes in the structure and performance of polypyrrole–polydopamine films to the structural modifications of the nanostructure induced by polydopamine incorporation. The results indicate that polydopamine incorporation greatly increases the rate of hybrid film deposition, as well as improving adhesion, surface homogeneity, and wettability, with no compromise in charge transfer properties. Polydopamine incorporation is strongly suggested to occur in non-connected domains within a predominantly polypyrrole-like scaffold. We propose a two-step model of co-polymerisation and the subsequent surface adhesion of hybrid films. Results are expected to be of broad general interest to researchers utilizing polypyrrole and polydopamine to prepare tailor-made electrodes for biosensing and catalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Skeleton)
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18 pages, 12219 KiB  
Article
Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solutions through Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Fabrics
by Batuhan Mulla, Kyriacos Ioannou, Gkerman Kotanidis, Ioannis Ioannidis, Georgios Constantinides, Mark Baker, Steven Hinder, Christian Mitterer, Ioannis Pashalidis, Nikolaos Kostoglou and Claus Rebholz
C 2024, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010019 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
The removal of contaminants from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto carbonaceous materials has attracted increasing interest in recent years. In this study, pristine and oxidized activated carbon (AC) fabrics with different surface textures and porosity characteristics were used for the removal of crystal [...] Read more.
The removal of contaminants from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto carbonaceous materials has attracted increasing interest in recent years. In this study, pristine and oxidized activated carbon (AC) fabrics with different surface textures and porosity characteristics were used for the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the CV adsorption performance of the AC fabrics in terms of contact time, temperature, adsorbate concentration and adsorbent amount. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters and the adsorption performance of the AC fabrics in ground water and sea water solutions were also carried out. Langmuir isotherm model, pseudo first and pseudo second order kinetics models were utilized to analyze and fit the adsorption data. The introduction of oxygen-based functional groups on the surface of AC fabrics was carried out through a nitric acid treatment. This oxidation process resulted in a significant reduction in the surface area and pore volume, along with a small increase in the average pore size and a significant enhancement in the CV adsorption capacity, indicating that the dye molecules are mainly adsorbed on the external surface of the carbon fabrics. The herein evaluated 428 mg/g adsorption capacity at 55 °C for the oxidized non-woven AC fabric is one of the highest adsorption capacity values reported in the literature for CV removal using AC materials. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption occurs spontaneously and is an endothermic and entropy-driven reaction. Furthermore, pristine and oxidized non-woven AC fabrics displayed more than 90% CV uptake from sea water samples, underlining the great potential these fabrics possess for the removal of dyes from natural/multicomponent waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes)
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18 pages, 1833 KiB  
Article
Introducing Corrections to the Reflectance of Graphene by Light Emission
by Ken-ichi Sasaki, Kenichi Hitachi, Masahiro Kamada, Takamoto Yokosawa, Taisuke Ochi and Tomohiro Matsui
C 2024, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010018 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Monolayer graphene absorbs 2.3 percent of the incident visible light. This “small” absorption has been used to emphasize the visual transparency of graphene, but it in fact means that multilayer graphene absorbs a sizable fraction of incident light, which causes non-negligible fluorescence. In [...] Read more.
Monolayer graphene absorbs 2.3 percent of the incident visible light. This “small” absorption has been used to emphasize the visual transparency of graphene, but it in fact means that multilayer graphene absorbs a sizable fraction of incident light, which causes non-negligible fluorescence. In this paper, we formulate the light emission properties of multilayer graphene composed of tens to hundreds of layers using a transfer matrix method and confirm the method’s validity experimentally. We quantitatively explain the measured contrasts of multilayer graphene on SiO2/Si substrates and find sizable corrections, which cannot be classified as incoherent light emissions, to the reflectance of visible light. The new component originates from coherent emission caused by absorption at each graphene layer. Multilayer graphene thus functions as a partial coherent light source of various wavelengths, and it may have surface-emitting laser applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes)
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25 pages, 15545 KiB  
Article
Pristine and Coated Carbon Nanotube Sheets—Characterization and Potential Applications
by Prakash Giri, Irwin Gill, Morgan Swensgard, Alexandra Kaiser, Audrey Rust, Brian Stuparyk, Andrew Fisher, Justice Williams, Katie Renoit, Eleanor Kreeb, Corentin Lavenan and Mark J. Schulz
C 2024, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010017 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
A carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet is a nonwoven fabric that is being evaluated for use in different textile applications. Several properties of pristine CNT sheets and CNT sheets coated with a polysilazane sealant and coating were measured and compared in the paper. The [...] Read more.
A carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet is a nonwoven fabric that is being evaluated for use in different textile applications. Several properties of pristine CNT sheets and CNT sheets coated with a polysilazane sealant and coating were measured and compared in the paper. The polysilazane coating is used to reduce the shedding of CNT fibers from the sheet when the sheet is in contact with surfaces. Most fabrics show some shedding of fibers during the washing or abrasion of the fabric. This study showed that the coating reduces the shedding of fibers from CNT fabric. The coating also increased the flame resistance of the fabric. The pristine and coated sheets both have low strength but high strain to failure. The pristine and coated CNT sheet densities are 0.48 g/cc and 0.65 g/cc, respectively. The pristine CNT sheet is approximately 27 μ thick. The coated sheet is approximately 24 μ thick. The coating may have densified the sheet, making it thinner. The thickness of the compliant sheets was difficult to measure and is a source of error in the properties. Characterization results are given in this paper. The results are for comparison purposes and not to establish material properties data. Possible applications for CNT sheets are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Novel Applications of Carbon Nanotube-Based Materials)
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16 pages, 5473 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Study on Carbon-Coated Silver for Improved Tribo-Electrical and Wetting Performance
by Bruno Alderete, Frank Mücklich and Sebastian Suarez
C 2024, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010016 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
The rise in electrification has considerably increased the demand for high-efficiency and durable electrical contact materials. Carbon nanoparticles (CNP) are a promising coating material due to their intrinsic transport properties (thus minimizing the impact on conductivity), their proven solid lubricity (potentially improving tribological [...] Read more.
The rise in electrification has considerably increased the demand for high-efficiency and durable electrical contact materials. Carbon nanoparticles (CNP) are a promising coating material due to their intrinsic transport properties (thus minimizing the impact on conductivity), their proven solid lubricity (potentially improving tribological performance), and their hydrophobic wetting behavior (potentially providing atmospheric protection). In this study, carbon nanotube and nanohorn coatings are produced via electrophoretic deposition on silver-plated surfaces, followed by tribo-electrical and wetting characterization. The proposed coatings do not negatively affect the conductivity of the substrate, showing resistance values on par with the uncoated reference. Tribo-electrical characterization revealed that the coatings reduce adhesive wear during fretting tests while maintaining stable and constant electrical contact resistance. Furthermore, CNP-coated surfaces show a hydrophobic wetting behavior toward water, with graphite and carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings approaching super-hydrophobicity. Prolonged exposure to water droplets during sessile drop tests caused a reduction in contact angle (CA) measurement; however, CNT coatings’ CA reduction after five minutes was only approximately 5°. Accordingly, CNP (specifically CNT) coatings show auspicious results for their application as wear and atmospheric protective barriers in electrical contacts. Full article
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21 pages, 2270 KiB  
Review
Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Risks from Supply Chain Perspective: A Review of the Literature and Conceptual Framework Development
by Md Ainul Kabir, Sharfuddin Ahmed Khan and Golam Kabir
C 2024, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010015 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1487
Abstract
The technology called carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is important for capturing CO2 emissions before they enter the air. Because everyone wants to stop global warming by reducing CO2 emissions, CCUS is an important and emerging technology that can help [...] Read more.
The technology called carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is important for capturing CO2 emissions before they enter the air. Because everyone wants to stop global warming by reducing CO2 emissions, CCUS is an important and emerging technology that can help slow down climate change, lower emissions in many areas, and support the move toward a sustainable and carbon-neutral future. As CCUS technology and its adaptation increases, it is very important to pay attention to the CCUS risks from a supply chain (SC) point of view. The goal of this study was to identify CCUS supply chain risks and develop a conceptual framework (CF) that provides a structured approach to ensure safe and reliable CCUS supply chain operations. Therefore, this study analyzed the literature related to the SCs of different sectors and identified the SC risks, which was the foundation for CCUS SC risk identification. This study demonstrates that there is no research article that provides a comprehensive CCUS SC risk management framework that connects with risk management strategies. The conceptual framework that is proposed in this study connects CCUS SC functions, risks, and risk management strategies to construct a complete CCUS supply chain risk management system. Moreover, the CF provides guidelines for future research, which will enrich the CCUS supply chain risk management system as well as fight climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Carbon in the Circular Economy)
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15 pages, 3565 KiB  
Article
Path for Room-Temperature Superconductivity in Q-Carbon-Related Materials
by Jagdish Narayan
C 2024, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010014 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
We present the atomic structures and nonequilibrium synthesis of a new class of materials, where the basic structural unit is a diamond tetrahedron. When units of one, two, and three tetrahedra are randomly packed, we create distinct phases of amorphous Q-carbon. Four tetrahedra [...] Read more.
We present the atomic structures and nonequilibrium synthesis of a new class of materials, where the basic structural unit is a diamond tetrahedron. When units of one, two, and three tetrahedra are randomly packed, we create distinct phases of amorphous Q-carbon. Four tetrahedra in two adjacent layers lead to crystalline diamond lattice, which has four missing tetrahedra alternately. When these four missing tetrahedra are filled, we create subunit cell of crystalline Q-diamond. Theoretical calculations show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in 50 atomic % B-doped Q-diamond can reach room temperature at ambient pressures. This is consistent with our earlier results using low-loss EELS measurements in 50 atomic % B-doped Q-carbon, which had mostly amorphous QB3 phase mixed with some crystalline Q-diamond phase. These EELS results showed that the Tc for these samples was between 90 K and 300 K. Theoretical calculations of density of states, Eliashberg function, electron–phonon interaction parameter, and root-mean-square and logarithmic average of frequency in crystalline Q-diamond show Tc in the range of 268 K to 300 K, which is in complete agreement with our EELS results in QB3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes)
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10 pages, 11433 KiB  
Article
Metal-Free Catalytic Conversion of Veratryl and Benzyl Alcohols through Nitrogen-Enriched Carbon Nanotubes
by Neeraj Gupta, Ilaria Barlocco, Oleksiy Khavryuchenko and Alberto Villa
C 2024, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010013 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Nitrogen-rich carbon nanotubes NCNT700 and NCNT800 were prepared using the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD). The catalysts were characterized via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Both the catalysts were found to have an inverted cup-stack-like morphology. The [...] Read more.
Nitrogen-rich carbon nanotubes NCNT700 and NCNT800 were prepared using the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD). The catalysts were characterized via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Both the catalysts were found to have an inverted cup-stack-like morphology. The XPS analysis revealed that the catalysts are rich in pyridinic sites with variable amounts of nitrogen on their surface. The NCTN700, with a higher nitrogen content and more pyridinic sites on its surface, was found to be a good catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl and veratryl alcohols into respective aldehydes. It was observed that toluene and 4-methyl veratrole were also produced in this reaction. The amount of toluene produced was as high as 21%, with 99% conversion of benzaldehyde in the presence of NCNTs-700. The mechanistic pathway was revealed through DFT studies, where the unusual product formation of aromatic alkanes such as toluene and 4-methyl veratrole was explained during the reaction. It was astonishing to observe the reduced product in the reaction that proceeds in the forward direction in presence of a peroxide (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, TBHP). During the computational analysis, it was revealed that the reduced product observed in the reaction did not appear to proceed through a direct disproportionation reaction. Rather, the benzyl alcohol (the reactant) used in the reaction may undergo oxidation by releasing the hydrogen radicals. The hydrogen atoms released during the oxidation reaction appear to have been trapped on pyrrolic sites on the surface of catalyst and later transferred to the reactant molecules to produce toluene as a side product. Full article
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13 pages, 4585 KiB  
Article
Amorphous Metallic Cobalt-Based Organophosphonic Acid Compounds as Novel Photocatalysts to Boost Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction
by Chengwei Zhou, Fan Wu, Yonggong Tang, Boyuan Chai, Jiaxin Liang, Jiangang Han, Weinan Xing, Yudong Huang and Guangyu Wu
C 2024, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010012 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Photocatalytic carbon dioxide conversion is a promising method for generating carbon fuels, in which the most important thing is to adjust the catalyst material to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and selectivity to conversion products, but it is still very challenging. In order to [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic carbon dioxide conversion is a promising method for generating carbon fuels, in which the most important thing is to adjust the catalyst material to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and selectivity to conversion products, but it is still very challenging. In order to enhance the efficiency of CO2 photoreduction, it is important to develop an appropriate photocatalyst. The present study focuses on developing a simple and effective hydrothermal reaction treatment to improve the catalytic efficiency of transition metal cobalt (Co) and organophosphonates. Photoexcited charge carriers are separated and transferred efficiently during this treatment, which enhances CO2 chemisorption. Under visible light exposure, the best performing catalyst, CoP-4, showed 2.4 times higher activity than Co3O4 (19.90 μmol h−1 g−1) for reducing CO2 into CO, with rates up to 47.16 μmol h−1 g−1. This approach provides a viable route to enhancing the efficiency of CO2 photoreduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section CO2 Utilization and Conversion)
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10 pages, 2659 KiB  
Article
Novel Morphology for NiWMo Carbides Obtained by Mechanical Alloying and Quenching
by Jesús Noé Rivera Olvera, Luis Hernández Maya and Lucia Graciela Diaz Barriga Arceo
C 2024, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010011 - 14 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
In the present work, the synthesis and decomposition of low-dimensional materials from a Ni15Mo25W10C50 system produced by mechanical alloying was reported. During the milling process, the resultant phases were WMoC and NiC, and after sintering and [...] Read more.
In the present work, the synthesis and decomposition of low-dimensional materials from a Ni15Mo25W10C50 system produced by mechanical alloying was reported. During the milling process, the resultant phases were WMoC and NiC, and after sintering and quenching, MoNi3, WMo, Ni4W, WC, MoNi and Mo2C were found. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanotubes with the lengths ranging from 500 nm to 2 μm, spheres and novelty globular particles with sizes ranging from 40 to 600 nm as well as “petal-like” estructure were observed. The results revealed the formation of a microstructure with morphology similar to spinodal decomposition followed by a sequence of invariant reactions leading the production of modulated and novel branched structures. We proposes a theoretical mechanism of formation that is associated with the modulated structure observed after quenching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes)
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20 pages, 4309 KiB  
Communication
Prediction of Biochar Yield and Specific Surface Area Based on Integrated Learning Algorithm
by Xiaohu Zhou, Xiaochen Liu, Linlin Sun, Xinyu Jia, Fei Tian, Yueqin Liu and Zhansheng Wu
C 2024, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010010 - 12 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Biochar is a biomaterial obtained by pyrolysis with high porosity and high specific surface area (SSA), which is widely used in several fields. The yield of biochar has an important effect on production cost and utilization efficiency, while SSA plays a key role [...] Read more.
Biochar is a biomaterial obtained by pyrolysis with high porosity and high specific surface area (SSA), which is widely used in several fields. The yield of biochar has an important effect on production cost and utilization efficiency, while SSA plays a key role in adsorption, catalysis, and pollutant removal. The preparation of biochar materials with better SSA is currently one of the frontiers in this research field. However, traditional methods are time consuming and laborious, so this paper developed a machine learning model to predict and study the properties of biochar efficiently for engineering through cross-validation and hyper parameter tuning. This paper used 622 data samples to predict the yield and SSA of biochar and selected eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) as the model due to its excellent performance in terms of performance (yield correlation coefficient R2 = 0.79 and SSA correlation coefficient R2 = 0.92) and analyzed it using Shapley Additive Explanation. Using the Pearson correlation coefficient matrix revealed the correlations between the input parameters and the biochar yield and SSA. Results showed the important features affecting biochar yield were temperature and biomass feedstock, while the important features affecting SSA were ash and retention time. The XGBoost model developed provides new application scenarios and ideas for predicting biochar yield and SSA in response to the characteristic input parameters of biochar. Full article
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19 pages, 7449 KiB  
Article
Continuous Reactive-Roll-to-Roll Growth of Carbon Nanotubes for Fog Water Harvesting Applications
by Jean-Luc Meunier, Jeanne Ouellet, Kaustubh Basu, Alessio Aufoujal, Richard Boudreault and Jason Robert Tavares
C 2024, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010009 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
A simple method is presented for the continuous generation of carbon nanotube forests stably anchored on stainless-steel surfaces using a reactive-roll-to-roll (RR2R) configuration. No addition of catalyst nanoparticles is required for the CNT-forest generation; the stainless-steel substrate itself is tuned to generate the [...] Read more.
A simple method is presented for the continuous generation of carbon nanotube forests stably anchored on stainless-steel surfaces using a reactive-roll-to-roll (RR2R) configuration. No addition of catalyst nanoparticles is required for the CNT-forest generation; the stainless-steel substrate itself is tuned to generate the catalytic growth sites. The process enables very large surfaces covered with CNT forests to have individual CNT roots anchored to the metallic ground through primary bonds. Fog water harvesting is demonstrated and tested as one potential application using long CNT-covered wires. The RR2R is performed in the gas phase; no solution processing of CNT suspensions is used, contrary to usual R2R CNT-based technologies. Full or partial CNT-forest coverage provides tuning of the ratio and shape of hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones on the surface. This enables the optimization of fog water harvesters for droplet capture through the hydrophobic CNT forest and water removal from the hydrophilic SS surface. Water recovery tests using small harp-type harvesters with CNT-forest generate water capture of up to 2.2 g/cm2·h under ultrasound-generated fog flow. The strong CNT root anchoring on the stainless-steel surfaces provides opportunities for (i) robustness and easy transport of the composite structure and (ii) chemical functionalization and/or nanoparticle decoration of the structures, and it opens the road for a series of applications on large-scale surfaces, including fog harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Novel Applications of Carbon Nanotube-Based Materials)
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36 pages, 2740 KiB  
Review
Harnessing Activated Hydrochars: A Novel Approach for Pharmaceutical Contaminant Removal
by Manish Kumar Gautam, Tamal Mondal, Rupashri Nath, Bidhan Mahajon, Mukesh Chincholikar, Anirbandeep Bose, Dibya Das, Rakesh Das and Sandip Mondal
C 2024, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010008 - 08 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Water contamination is a pervasive global crisis, affecting over 2 billion people worldwide, with pharmaceutical contaminants emerging as a significant concern due to their persistence and mobility in aquatic ecosystems. This review explores the potential of activated hydrochars, sustainable materials produced through biomass [...] Read more.
Water contamination is a pervasive global crisis, affecting over 2 billion people worldwide, with pharmaceutical contaminants emerging as a significant concern due to their persistence and mobility in aquatic ecosystems. This review explores the potential of activated hydrochars, sustainable materials produced through biomass pyrolysis, to revolutionize the removal of pharmaceutical contaminants from water sources. These materials possess high surface area, porous structure, and exceptional adsorption capabilities, making them a promising solution. The impact of pharmaceutical contaminants on aquatic ecosystems and human health is far-reaching, affecting biodiversity, water quality, and public health. To address this complex issue, a diverse range of techniques, including adsorption, biodegradation, and advanced oxidation processes, are employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Activated hydrochars offer substantial adsorption capacity, sustainable feedstock origins, and a minimal carbon footprint. This review highlights their potential in pharmaceutical contaminant removal and their broader applications in improving soil and air quality, resource recovery, and sustainable waste management. Interdisciplinary collaboration and the development of intelligent treatment systems are essential to fully unlock the potential of activated hydrochars. Regulatory support and policy frameworks will facilitate their responsible and widespread application, promising a cleaner and more sustainable future. This paper aims to inform scientists, environmental experts, policymakers, and industry stakeholders about the promising role of activated hydrochars in addressing pharmaceutical contaminant challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Carbon Materials and Their Composites)
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40 pages, 10572 KiB  
Review
A Review of Advances in Graphene Quantum Dots: From Preparation and Modification Methods to Application
by Yibo Cui, Luoyi Liu, Mengna Shi, Yuhao Wang, Xiaokai Meng, Yanjun Chen, Que Huang and Changcheng Liu
C 2024, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010007 - 08 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Graphene quantum dot (GQD) is a new type of carbon nanometer material. In addition to the excellent properties of graphene, it is superior due to the quantum limit effect and edge effect. Because of its advantages such as water solution, strong fluorescent, small [...] Read more.
Graphene quantum dot (GQD) is a new type of carbon nanometer material. In addition to the excellent properties of graphene, it is superior due to the quantum limit effect and edge effect. Because of its advantages such as water solution, strong fluorescent, small size, and low biological toxicity, it has important application potential in various fields, especially in sensors and biomedical areas, which are mainly used as optical electrical sensors as well as in biological imaging and tumor therapy. In addition, GQDs have very important characteristics, such as optical and electrical properties. There are many preparation methods, divided into top-down and bottom-up methods, which have different advantages and disadvantages, respectively. In addition, the modification methods include heterogeneous doping, surface heterogeneity, etc. There are still many challenges in developing GQDs. For example, the synthesis steps are still hard to conduct, but as the inquiry continues to deepen, GQDs will be revolutionary materials in the future. In this work, the literature concerning research progress on GQDs has been reviewed and summarized, while the key challenges of their application have been pointed out, which may bring new insights to the application of GQDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Carbon Nanomaterials and Hybrids)
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15 pages, 1901 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Organic Contaminant Removal from Wool Scouring Wastewater Using Chemically Modified Biochars
by Simeng Li, Desarae Tasnady, Shannon Skelley, Blanca Calderon and Sherine Jiang
C 2024, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010006 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1679
Abstract
In recent times, biochar has emerged as a promising and sustainable solution for COD reduction in wastewater treatment. This study explores the potential of chemically modified biochars as efficient adsorbents for the removal of organic contaminants, specifically oils, fats, and grease (OFG), from [...] Read more.
In recent times, biochar has emerged as a promising and sustainable solution for COD reduction in wastewater treatment. This study explores the potential of chemically modified biochars as efficient adsorbents for the removal of organic contaminants, specifically oils, fats, and grease (OFG), from wool scouring wastewater. Proximate analysis revealed distinct properties among the biochars, with KOH-treated biochar demonstrating the most promising characteristics, including lower volatile matter, higher fixed carbon content, and reduced ash content, indicating a stable and carbon-rich structure. A meticulous examination of the KOH-treated biochar’s surface characteristics revealed the presence of elevated carbon and nitrogen content, complemented by an expansive surface area measuring 724.4 m2/g. This surface area was at least twice as extensive as that observed in the other post-treated biochar samples. The kinetic adsorption of COD and soluble COD was well fitted by the pseudo-first-order model, with equilibrium achieved in approximately 200 min. The KOH-treated biochar exhibited the highest equilibrium adsorption capacities for both COD and soluble COD in both Dorset wool (Dorset) and Bluefaced Leicester (BFL) wastewater, highlighting its efficacy in OFG removal. Despite these promising results, further research is needed to explore biochar’s surface characteristics, pore structure, and performance under diverse conditions, as well as its integration with existing treatment processes and potential for regeneration and reuse. This study contributes to advancing sustainable wastewater treatment methods using chemically modified biochars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adsorption on Carbon-Based Materials)
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12 pages, 2205 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Stability and Electronic Properties of Graphene Nanoflakes
by Raffaella Soave, Fausto Cargnoni and Mario Italo Trioni
C 2024, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010005 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
We conducted a large set of ab initio density functional theory computations to model a variety of hammer-terminated graphene nanoflakes—finite counterparts of armchair graphene nanoribbons. We focused on the relationships among the length and width of the nanoflakes, the stoichiometry and the [...] Read more.
We conducted a large set of ab initio density functional theory computations to model a variety of hammer-terminated graphene nanoflakes—finite counterparts of armchair graphene nanoribbons. We focused on the relationships among the length and width of the nanoflakes, the stoichiometry and the conformation of the hydrogen saturation of the caps, and the resulting electronic structure. The energetics and the thermodynamic stability of the nanoflakes were investigated as well. Based on this study, we provide a recipe for determining the most stable saturation of the dangling bonds at the caps, which is generally disregarded in theoretical studies, and we prove that this step is crucial for a reliable description of the electronic structure of these systems. Data analysis proved that flakes far from the most stable C–H pattern exhibited electronic properties that were typical of an unsaturated bonding structure. Based on thermodynamics, we also proved that, for any given flake, there was a well-defined hydrogen content and a conformation of H atoms at the caps, which were favored across a wide range of environmental conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 9570 KiB  
Article
Annealing Effects of ZnO Thin Film on Photocatalytic Performances of Graphene Composites
by Jobair Al Rafi, Yu Kanda, Mitsuhiro Honda and Yo Ichikawa
C 2024, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010004 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1655
Abstract
The hybrid structure of Graphene and ZnO (Graphene/ZnO) is emerging as a novel material used to achieve the high performance of photocatalysis. In this study, we examined the ZnO characteristics that affect the photocatalytic activity of graphene/ZnO using a lamellar structure of graphene [...] Read more.
The hybrid structure of Graphene and ZnO (Graphene/ZnO) is emerging as a novel material used to achieve the high performance of photocatalysis. In this study, we examined the ZnO characteristics that affect the photocatalytic activity of graphene/ZnO using a lamellar structure of graphene and ZnO thin films. Graphene samples were synthesized via chemical vapor deposition, and a typical wet process was applied to transfer them on sputter-deposited ZnO thin films with and without annealing. We confirmed that graphene-deposited ZnO demonstrated more efficient photocatalytic behavior toward the decomposition of methylene blue (as a model organic compound) with ordinary sputtered ZnO thin films. Again, ZnO thin films annealed at 1000 °C in an N2 gas atmosphere with graphene performed better than unannealed films. XRD analysis confirmed that pre-thermal treatment of a ZnO thin film promoted re-crystallization, which had less impact on the photocatalytic improvement. The attachment of graphene to the film is considered to contribute to the enhancement. Raman analysis revealed that the graphene coverage areas on the post-annealed ZnO increased by two times compared to that of an unannealed film where the unannealed film had a higher graphene layer. The results presented in this study demonstrate that an annealed ZnO thin film forms a better attachment with graphene, resulting in a larger graphene coverage area with fewer multilayers, which effectively improves the photocatalytic activity in composite structures. Full article
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15 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
High Energy Density Primary Lithium Battery with Fluorinated S-Doped Graphene
by Marie Colin, Hani Farhat, Sam Chen, Elodie Petit, Emmanuel Flahaut, Katia Guérin and Marc Dubois
C 2024, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010003 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Sulphur-doped graphene was fluorinated using molecular fluorine (F2). First, the fluorination conditions were adapted in order to be mild enough to maintain S in the carbon lattice and form S-F bonds. An unusually weakened C-F bonding for an F/C ratio of [...] Read more.
Sulphur-doped graphene was fluorinated using molecular fluorine (F2). First, the fluorination conditions were adapted in order to be mild enough to maintain S in the carbon lattice and form S-F bonds. An unusually weakened C-F bonding for an F/C ratio of 0.71 was then achieved, which allowed enhanced performances when used as a cathode in primary lithium batteries. The material prepared at a moderate fluorination temperature of 70 °C for a period of 60 min exhibits a high mid-discharge reduction potential of 3.11 V at 10 mA/g and a power density of 3605 W/kg at a discharge rate of 2C. These electrochemical properties make the fluorine/sulfur co-doped graphene a promising material. Full article
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21 pages, 2817 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Factors Influencing Cadmium Removal in Aquatic Environments by Chlorella vulgaris-Derived Solids
by Jafar Sufian, Mohammad Babaakbari Sari, Filippo Marchelli, Luca Fiori, Armen Avanes and Salahedin Moradi
C 2024, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010002 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Chlorella vulgaris is an inexpensive microalga that could be employed for environmental remediation, but further investigations are needed to assess its suitability and optimal treatment methodology. With this aim in mind, this study focused on the raw biomass and the biochar and hydrochar [...] Read more.
Chlorella vulgaris is an inexpensive microalga that could be employed for environmental remediation, but further investigations are needed to assess its suitability and optimal treatment methodology. With this aim in mind, this study focused on the raw biomass and the biochar and hydrochar obtained from it, analyzing their physicochemical properties and testing them to capture cadmium from an aqueous environment. The adsorption/absorption tests assessed the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, Cd concentration, and contact time, and the results were analyzed through a structural equation model. Biochar and hydrochar performed similarly and better than the raw biomass, with the highest Cd removal observed at an adsorbent dosage of 0.8 g L−1, an initial concentration of Cd solution of 30 mg L−1, a pH of 6, and a contact time of 30 min. The adsorption isotherm data for Cd could be well-described by the Langmuir and Temkin models. The results from the structural equation modeling revealed that the variables material type, dosage, and concentration all contributed to Cd removal in water, with time mediating these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adsorption on Carbon-Based Materials)
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17 pages, 6325 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Using Alberta Oilsands Asphaltene with Microwave Plasma Assistance
by Lin Ge, Sharath Chandra, Talha Zafar and Simon S. Park
C 2024, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010001 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The considerable expenses associated with carbon fiber (CF) production have imposed limitations on its widespread application across diverse industries, primarily due to the costs of precursor materials and energy−intensive post−treatment procedures. This research explores the potential utilization of Alberta oilsands asphaltenes (AOAs), a [...] Read more.
The considerable expenses associated with carbon fiber (CF) production have imposed limitations on its widespread application across diverse industries, primarily due to the costs of precursor materials and energy−intensive post−treatment procedures. This research explores the potential utilization of Alberta oilsands asphaltenes (AOAs), a carbon−rich by−product derived from oilsands extraction, as a more cost−effective precursor for CF production. Polystyrene and poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) were also used as polymer additives. In addition to conventional thermal post−treatment, microwave plasma was employed for the carbonization process. The CFs generated through this approach were subjected to a comprehensive analysis involving SEM, FTIR, TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. The best tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the AOA carbon fibers when using conventional thermal post−treatment were 600 MPa and 70 GPa, respectively. The microwave plasma process indicates the higher temperature and promise of eliminating heteroatoms of AOA carbon fibers. The temperature for microwave plasma modelling was set using COMSOLTM, with the modelling temperature and detection temperature being established at 1600 K and 1568 K, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Carbon Materials and Their Composites)
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