Nanoporous Carbons for Hydrogen Sorption and Electrochemical Energy Storage

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 27 September 2024 | Viewed by 10844

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science, Montanuniversität Leoben, Leoben, Austria
Interests: nanomaterials; nanoporous materials; functionalized carbons; metal-decorated carbons; nanocomposites; nanoparticles; carbon nanostructures; few-layer graphene; carbon nanotubes; graphene oxide foams; activated carbons; boron nitride nanostructures; plasma treatment; gas adsorption; hydrogen storage; selective gas separation; electrochemical energy storage; supercapacitors; water splitting; water purification; detection of chemical and biological substances; surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
Interests: thin films and coatings; surface engineering technologies; nanostructured materials; nanoscale manufacturing technologies; thermal manufacturing and joining processes; carbon materials and energy; engineering design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoporous carbons have emerged as promising materials for a wide range of energy-oriented applications, particularly in the rapidly evolving and interconnected fields of hydrogen (H2) and electrochemical energy storage. This Special Issue brings together cutting-edge research on the design, synthesis, characterization and application of nanoporous carbons, functionalized carbon surfaces and novel carbon-based nanocomposites as H2 sorbents and as supercapacitor and battery electrodes. Research topics covered include the development of novel synthesis methods, the optimization of pore structures and surface chemistries for enhanced performance and the investigation of the fundamental mechanisms underlying H2 sorption (physical and/or chemical adsorption) and ion electrosorption in nanoporous carbons.

Studies related to experimental work, theoretical calculations and a combination of both are welcome for submission. This Special Issue will offer a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art to researchers, engineers and students working in the areas of materials science, energy storage and catalysis.

Dr. Nikolaos Kostoglou
Dr. Claus Rebholz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoporous carbons
  • nanocomposites
  • pore structure
  • surface chemistry
  • hydrogen storage
  • energy storage
  • supercapacitors
  • batteries
  • sorbents
  • electrodes

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

17 pages, 5721 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Electrocatalytic Activity of Fe,N-Glucose/Carbon Nanotube Hybrids for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction
by Rafael G. Morais, Natalia Rey-Raap, José L. Figueiredo and Manuel F. R. Pereira
C 2024, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020047 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Glucose-derived carbon hybrids were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of oxidized carbon nanotubes. Additionally, iron and nitrogen functionalities were incorporated into the carbon structure using different methodologies. The introduction of iron and nitrogen in a single step under a H2 [...] Read more.
Glucose-derived carbon hybrids were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of oxidized carbon nanotubes. Additionally, iron and nitrogen functionalities were incorporated into the carbon structure using different methodologies. The introduction of iron and nitrogen in a single step under a H2 atmosphere favored the formation of quaternary nitrogen and oxidized nitrogen, whereas the incorporation of nitrogen under an N2 atmosphere after doping the hybrids with iron mainly produced pyridinic nitrogen. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, adsorption isotherms, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of iron and nitrogen in the carbons increases the onset potential toward oxygen reduction in KOH 0.1 mol L−1 by 130 mV (0.83 V), in comparison to carbonized glucose, whereas the reaction mechanism shifts closer to a direct pathway and the formation of HO2 decreases to 25% (3.5 electrons). The reaction rate also increased in comparison to the carbonized glucose, as observed by the decrease in the Tafel slope value from 117 to 61 mV dec−1. Furthermore, the incorporation of iron and nitrogen in a single step enhanced the short-term performance of the prepared electrocatalysts, which may also be due to the higher relative amount of quaternary nitrogen. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2542 KiB  
Article
Supercapacitor Performance of MXene-Coated Carbon Nanofiber Electrodes
by Seon Kyung Kim, Seung Ah Kim, Yoon Soo Han and Kyung-Hye Jung
C 2024, 10(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020032 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
MXenes consisting of thin layers of transition metal carbides or nitrides are good candidates for electrode materials due to their excellent electrical conductivity and fast ion transfer. Electrospun carbon nanofibers are highly porous and electrically conductive, making them attractive for electrode materials. In [...] Read more.
MXenes consisting of thin layers of transition metal carbides or nitrides are good candidates for electrode materials due to their excellent electrical conductivity and fast ion transfer. Electrospun carbon nanofibers are highly porous and electrically conductive, making them attractive for electrode materials. In this study, free-standing electrodes were prepared by the dip-coating of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in the MXene (Ti3C2) colloidal solution, which was synthesized via the wet-etching of MAX (Ti3AlC2) phase, and their chemical structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphological and crystallographic features of MXene-coated CNFs. Surface area and pore volumes were investigated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. Supercapacitor performance was studied by assembling a 3-electrode system with 1M aqueous sodium sulfate solution as an electrolyte. MXene-coated CNFs exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 514 F/g at 0.5 A/g, with energy and power densities of 71.4 Wh/kg at 0.5 A/g and 2.3 kW/kg at 5 A/g, respectively, which are relevantly higher compared to the pristine CNFs due to the pseudocapacitive behavior of MXenes. They also showed comparable cyclic stability during 5000 cycles with the CNFs. This result indicates that MXene-coated carbon nanofibers can be effective electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 5801 KiB  
Article
Plasma-Treated Cobalt-Doped Nanoporous Graphene for Advanced Electrochemical Applications
by Florian Knabl, Nikolaos Kostoglou, Ram K. Gupta, Afshin Tarat, Steven Hinder, Mark Baker, Claus Rebholz and Christian Mitterer
C 2024, 10(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020031 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Metal–carbon nanocomposites are identified as key contenders for enhancing water splitting through the oxygen evolution reaction and boosting supercapacitor energy storage capacitances. This study utilizes plasma treatment to transform natural graphite into nanoporous few-layer graphene, followed by additional milling and plasma steps to [...] Read more.
Metal–carbon nanocomposites are identified as key contenders for enhancing water splitting through the oxygen evolution reaction and boosting supercapacitor energy storage capacitances. This study utilizes plasma treatment to transform natural graphite into nanoporous few-layer graphene, followed by additional milling and plasma steps to synthesize a cobalt–graphene nanocomposite. Comprehensive structural characterization was conducted using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, gas sorption analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical evaluations further assessed the materials’ oxygen evolution reaction and supercapacitor performance. Although the specific surface area of the nanoporous carbon decreases from 780 to 480 m2/g in the transition to the resulting nanocomposite, it maintains its nanoporous structure and delivers a competitive electrochemical performance, as evidenced by an overpotential of 290 mV and a Tafel slope of 110 mV/dec. This demonstrates the efficacy of plasma treatment in the surface functionalization of carbon-based materials, highlighting its potential for large-scale chemical-free application due to its environmental friendliness and scalability, paving the way toward future applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
High Energy Density Primary Lithium Battery with Fluorinated S-Doped Graphene
by Marie Colin, Hani Farhat, Sam Chen, Elodie Petit, Emmanuel Flahaut, Katia Guérin and Marc Dubois
C 2024, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010003 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Sulphur-doped graphene was fluorinated using molecular fluorine (F2). First, the fluorination conditions were adapted in order to be mild enough to maintain S in the carbon lattice and form S-F bonds. An unusually weakened C-F bonding for an F/C ratio of [...] Read more.
Sulphur-doped graphene was fluorinated using molecular fluorine (F2). First, the fluorination conditions were adapted in order to be mild enough to maintain S in the carbon lattice and form S-F bonds. An unusually weakened C-F bonding for an F/C ratio of 0.71 was then achieved, which allowed enhanced performances when used as a cathode in primary lithium batteries. The material prepared at a moderate fluorination temperature of 70 °C for a period of 60 min exhibits a high mid-discharge reduction potential of 3.11 V at 10 mA/g and a power density of 3605 W/kg at a discharge rate of 2C. These electrochemical properties make the fluorine/sulfur co-doped graphene a promising material. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2279 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of DAHP Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers for Efficient Charge Storage and Selective O2 Reduction to Peroxide
by Nemanja Gavrilov, Stefan Breitenbach, Christoph Unterweger, Christian Fürst and Igor A. Pašti
C 2023, 9(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9040105 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Understanding the properties and behavior of carbon materials is of paramount importance in the pursuit of sustainable energy solutions and technological advancements. As versatile and abundant resources, carbon materials play a central role in various energy conversion and storage applications, making them essential [...] Read more.
Understanding the properties and behavior of carbon materials is of paramount importance in the pursuit of sustainable energy solutions and technological advancements. As versatile and abundant resources, carbon materials play a central role in various energy conversion and storage applications, making them essential components in the transition toward a greener and more efficient future. This study explores the impact of diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) impregnation on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) for efficient energy storage and conversion applications. The viscose fibers were impregnated with varying DAHP concentrations, followed by carbonization and activation processes. The capacitance measurements were conducted in 6 mol dm−3 KOH, 0.5 mol dm−3 H2SO4, and 2 mol dm−3 KNO3 solutions, while the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) measurements were performed in O2-saturated 0.1 mol dm−3 KOH solution. We find that the presented materials display specific capacitances up to 160 F g−1 when the DAHP concentration is in the range of 1.0 to 2.5%. Moreover, for the samples with lower DAHP concentrations, highly selective O2 reduction to peroxide was achieved while maintaining low ORR onset potentials. Thus, by impregnating viscose fibers with DAHP, it is possible to tune their electrochemical properties while increasing the yield, enabling the more sustainable and energy-efficient synthesis of advanced materials for energy conversion applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 6342 KiB  
Article
Highly Effective Electrochemical Water Splitting with Enhanced Electron Transfer between Ni2Co Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets Dispersed on Carbon Substrate
by Ziyi Wan, Ping Tang, Luwei Dai, Yao Yang, Lu Li, Jun Liu, Min Yang and Guowei Deng
C 2023, 9(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9040094 - 3 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
A reasonable design of nickel-based catalysts is key to efficient and sustainable energy conversion. For electrocatalytic materials in alkaline electrolytes, however, atomic-level control of the active sites is essential. Moreover, the well-defined surface structure contributes to a deeper understanding of the catalytic mechanism. [...] Read more.
A reasonable design of nickel-based catalysts is key to efficient and sustainable energy conversion. For electrocatalytic materials in alkaline electrolytes, however, atomic-level control of the active sites is essential. Moreover, the well-defined surface structure contributes to a deeper understanding of the catalytic mechanism. Here, we report the loading of defective nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets (Ni2Co-LDH@C) after carbonization of silk. Under the precise regulation of the local coordination environment of the catalytic active site and the presence of defects, Ni2Co-LDH@C can provide an ultra-low overpotential of 164.8 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs) at 10 mA cm−2, exceeding that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Density functional theory calculations show that Ni2Co-LDH@C optimizes the adsorption energy of the intermediate and promotes the O-O coupling of the active site in the oxygen evolution reaction. When using Ni2Co-LDH@Cs as cathodes and anodes to achieve overall water splitting, a low voltage of 1.63 V is required to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm−2. As an ideal model, Ni2Co-LDH@C has excellent water splitting properties and has the potential to develop water–alkali electrocatalysts. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 4645 KiB  
Article
Density Functional Theory Analysis of the Impact of Boron Concentration and Surface Oxidation in Boron-Doped Graphene for Sodium and Aluminum Storage
by Milica S. Ritopečki, Natalia V. Skorodumova, Ana S. Dobrota and Igor A. Pašti
C 2023, 9(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9040092 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Graphene is thought to be a promising material for many applications. However, pristine graphene is not suitable for most electrochemical devices, where defect engineering is crucial for its performance. We demonstrate how the boron doping of graphene can alter its reactivity, electrical conductivity [...] Read more.
Graphene is thought to be a promising material for many applications. However, pristine graphene is not suitable for most electrochemical devices, where defect engineering is crucial for its performance. We demonstrate how the boron doping of graphene can alter its reactivity, electrical conductivity and potential application for sodium and aluminum storage, with an emphasis on novel metal-ion batteries. Using Density Functional Theory calculations, we investigate both the influence of boron concentration and the oxidation of the material on the mentioned properties. It is demonstrated that the presence of boron in graphene increases its reactivity towards atomic hydrogen and oxygen-containing species; in other words, it makes B-doped graphene more prone to oxidation. Additionally, the presence of these surface functional groups significantly alters the type and strength of the interaction of Na and Al with the given materials. Boron-doping and the oxidation of graphene is found to increase the Na storage capacity of graphene by a factor of up to four, and the calculated sodiation potentials indicate the possibility of using these materials as electrode materials in high-voltage Na-ion batteries. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 5276 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-Doped Activated Biochar from Wood Waste Electrodes
by Ravi Moreno Araujo Pinheiro Lima, Glaydson Simões dos Reis, Ulla Lassi, Eder Claudio Lima, Guilherme Luiz Dotto and Helinando Pequeno de Oliveira
C 2023, 9(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020059 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
The synthesis of high-performance carbon-based materials from biomass residues for electrodes has been considered a challenge to achieve in supercapacitor-based production. In this work, activated biochar has been prepared as the active electrode material for supercapacitors (SCs), and an effective method has been [...] Read more.
The synthesis of high-performance carbon-based materials from biomass residues for electrodes has been considered a challenge to achieve in supercapacitor-based production. In this work, activated biochar has been prepared as the active electrode material for supercapacitors (SCs), and an effective method has been explored to boost its capacitive performance by employing polypyrrole (PPy) as a biochar dopant. The results for physicochemical characterization data have demonstrated that PPy doping affects the biochar morphology, specific surface area, pore structure, and incorporation of surface functionalities on modified biochar. Biochar-PPy exhibited a surface area of 87 m2 g−1, while pristine biochar exhibited 1052 m2 g−1. The SCs were assembled employing two electrodes sandwiched with PVA solid-state film electrolyte as a separator. The device was characterized by standard electrochemical assays that indicated an improvement of 34% in areal capacitance. The wood electrodes delivered high areal capacitances of 282 and 370 mF cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2, for pure biochar and biochar doped with PPy, respectively, with typical retention in the capacitive response of 72% at the end of 1000 cycles of operation of the supercapacitor at high current density, indicating that biochar-PPy-based electrode devices exhibited a higher energy density when compared to pure biochar devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop