Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 37923

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: nanomaterials; biomaterials; carbon nanostructures; composite and hybrid materials; biomedical applications of functional materials; therapeutic devices; surface chemistry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hybrid materials composed of organic and inorganic components are emerging as a class of biomaterials extensively exploited in biomedicine for applications in different fields, including tissue engineering and drug delivery. The added value of such materials is the possibility of combining elements of different nature in materials with superior properties, similar to some tissues within the human body. This Special Issue aims to collect the recent advances in the synthesis, modification, and characterization of hybrid materials based on carbon nanostructures, to strengthen the impact of these materials in modern medicine.

The aim is to attract contributions (both research or review articles), with peculiar attention to multidisciplinary research involving chemists, materials scientists, biologists, engineers, and clinicians, acting as a platform for knowledge exchange.

Dr. Giuseppe Cirillo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • carbon nanostructures
  • biomaterials
  • drug delivery
  • tissue engineering
  • nanoparticles
  • biosensors

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2262 KiB  
Article
Discrete Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Versatile Intracellular Transport of Functional Biomolecular Complexes
by Kevin Castillo, Aaron Tasset, Milos Marinkovic and Aaron Foote
C 2024, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020037 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
In recent years, carbon nanotubes have emerged as a potentially revolutionary material with numerous uses in biomedical applications. Compared to other nanoparticles, discrete multiwalled carbon nanotubes (dMWCNTs) have been shown to exhibit advantageous characteristics such as a high surface area-to-volume ratio, biocompatibility, and [...] Read more.
In recent years, carbon nanotubes have emerged as a potentially revolutionary material with numerous uses in biomedical applications. Compared to other nanoparticles, discrete multiwalled carbon nanotubes (dMWCNTs) have been shown to exhibit advantageous characteristics such as a high surface area-to-volume ratio, biocompatibility, and unique chemical and physical properties. dMWCNTs can be modified to load various molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids and are capable of crossing the cell membrane, making them attractive delivery vehicles for biomolecules. To investigate this, we measured the impact of dMWCNTs on the number of live and dead cells present during different stages of cell proliferation. Furthermore, we used transmission electron microscopy to produce evidence suggesting that dMWCNTs enter the cytoplasm of mammalian cells via an endocytosis-like process and ultimately escape into the cytoplasm. And lastly, we used live-cell staining, qPCR, and a T-cell activation detection assay to quantify the use of dMWCNTs as a delivery vehicle for a toxic, membrane-impermeable peptide, mRNA, siRNA, and a T-cell activating synthetic dsRNA. We demonstrate successful delivery of each payload into a range of cell types, providing further evidence of dMWCNTs as a versatile delivery platform for biomolecular cargo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 3287 KiB  
Article
Ultrasmall Glucose-Functionalized Au-Carbon Nanohybrids: Exploiting the Warburg Effect to Image Tumors by Multimodal CT/Fluorescence Imaging
by Roberta Cillari, Sergio Scirè, Gennara Cavallaro and Nicolò Mauro
C 2024, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020035 - 04 Apr 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Utilizing glucose as a targeting agent represents a pioneering approach in selectively directing nanoparticles towards cancer cells, capitalizing on the pronounced glucose uptake observed in tumors attributable to the Warburg effect. In this study, we have successfully adopted this targeting strategy to facilitate [...] Read more.
Utilizing glucose as a targeting agent represents a pioneering approach in selectively directing nanoparticles towards cancer cells, capitalizing on the pronounced glucose uptake observed in tumors attributable to the Warburg effect. In this study, we have successfully adopted this targeting strategy to facilitate the specific uptake of advanced nanotools, comprising carbon nanocrystals incorporating gold seeds (AuCDs). Leveraging the advantageous optical and size-related properties of carbon nanodots in conjunction with gold-mediated X-ray attenuation capabilities, these hybrid nanomaterials have been engineered as contrast agents for a bi-modal imaging modality, exploiting the synergistic benefits of fluorescence imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Notably, for the synthesis of AuCDs, we present, for the first time, the incorporation of gold seeds within the molecular precursors of carbon nanodots during their solvothermal synthesis process, showcasing the efficacy of this synthetic pathway in yielding nanoscale carbon structures incorporating bioeliminable gold ultrasmall nanoparticles (d < 5 nm). Subsequently, we employed an azido-alkyne click chemistry reaction to functionalize the nanoparticle surface with 2-deoxy-D-glucose as a targeting moiety. The demonstrated cancer-targeting proficiency, as assessed via fluorescence imaging, renders the proposed nanosystem highly promising for a spectrum of applications in precision anticancer theranostics, encompassing both diagnostic and therapeutic endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 2493 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Cytotoxicity of Functionalized MWCNT and Microbial Biofilm Formation on PHBV Composites
by Thaís Larissa do Amaral Montanheiro, Vanessa Modelski Schatkoski, Denisse Esther Mallaupoma Camarena, Thais Cardoso de Oliveira, Diego Morais da Silva, Mariana Raquel da Cruz Vegian, Luiz Henrique Catalani, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito and Gilmar Patrocínio Thim
C 2024, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020033 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
This study focuses on the cytotoxic evaluation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microbial biofilm formation on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocomposites incorporating MWCNTs functionalized with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and carboxyl groups. The materials were characterized for cytotoxicity to fibroblasts and antimicrobial [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the cytotoxic evaluation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microbial biofilm formation on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocomposites incorporating MWCNTs functionalized with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and carboxyl groups. The materials were characterized for cytotoxicity to fibroblasts and antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The functionalization of MWCNTs was performed through oxidation (CNT-Ox) and GABA attachment (CNT-GB). The PHBV/CNT nanocomposites were produced via melt mixing. All MWCNT suspensions showed non-toxic behaviors after 24 h of incubation (viability higher than 70%); however, prolonged incubation and higher concentrations led to increased cytotoxicity. The antibacterial potential of PHBV/CNT nanocomposites against S. aureus showed a reduction in biofilm formation of 64% for PHBV/CNT-GB and 20% for PHBV/CNT-Ox, compared to neat PHBV. Against C. albicans, no reduction was observed. The results indicate promising applications for PHBV/CNT nanocomposites in managing bacterial infections, with GABA-functionalized CNTs showing enhanced performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 7110 KiB  
Article
Application of L-FDM Technology to the Printing of Tablets That Release Active Substances—Preliminary Research
by Ewa Gabriel, Anna Olejnik, Bogna Sztorch, Miłosz Frydrych, Olga Czerwińska, Robert Pietrzak and Robert E. Przekop
C 2024, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10010023 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
The following work presents a method for obtaining PLA composites with activated carbon modified using the liquid for fused deposition modeling (L-FDM) method in which two different compounds, i.e., rhodamine and antipyrine, are introduced. Tablets saturated with substances were obtained. Microscopic tests were [...] Read more.
The following work presents a method for obtaining PLA composites with activated carbon modified using the liquid for fused deposition modeling (L-FDM) method in which two different compounds, i.e., rhodamine and antipyrine, are introduced. Tablets saturated with substances were obtained. Microscopic tests were carried out, and these confirmed the presence of substances that had been introduced into the polymer structure. UV-Vis spectra and observation of the active substance release process confirmed the relationship between the printing speed and the amounts of the compounds liberated from the tablets. Additionally, the contact angle of the PLA with activated carbon composites was characterized. The hydrophilic nature of the obtained composites favors an increase in the amounts of compounds released during the release process, which is a desirable effect. The surfaces and pores of the obtained materials were also analyzed. The incorporation of activated carbon into PLA results in a significant increase in its surface area. Investigations indicate that a novel approach for introducing chemicals into polymer matrices through the L-FDM method holds promise for the prospective fabrication of tablets capable of a controlled and customized release of substances tailored to individual requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 2110 KiB  
Article
RF Sensor with Graphene Film for HRP Concentration Detection
by Fabio Peinetti, Muhammad Yasir and Patrizia Savi
C 2023, 9(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9030063 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
This paper presents a radio-frequency (RF) antenna as a sensor to detect Horseradish peroxidase (HRP). At the core of the proposed approach is a graphene film deposited on a stub connected to an RF antenna. The graphene film is doctor bladed on the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a radio-frequency (RF) antenna as a sensor to detect Horseradish peroxidase (HRP). At the core of the proposed approach is a graphene film deposited on a stub connected to an RF antenna. The graphene film is doctor bladed on the stub. The film is then properly chemically functionalized in order to detect the presence of Horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We validate the proof-of-concept operation of HRP concentration detection by measuring the frequency shift of the reflection coefficient of the antenna using very small concentration of HRP (0.03 mM to 0.6 mM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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18 pages, 2619 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanotubes as Biosensors for Releasing Conjugated Bisphosphonates–Metal Ions in Bone Tissue: Targeted Drug Delivery through the DFT Method
by Fatemeh Mollaamin and Majid Monajjemi
C 2023, 9(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020061 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Bisphosphonate (BP) agents have attracted much attention for their precise therapy in some skeletal maladies demonstrated by enhancing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this work, the use of CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)/LANL2DZ to estimate the susceptibility of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) for adsorbing alendronate, ibandronate, neridronate, and [...] Read more.
Bisphosphonate (BP) agents have attracted much attention for their precise therapy in some skeletal maladies demonstrated by enhancing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this work, the use of CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)/LANL2DZ to estimate the susceptibility of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) for adsorbing alendronate, ibandronate, neridronate, and pamidronate chelated to two metal cations of 2Mg2+, 2Ca2+, and 2Sr2+ through nuclear magnetic resonance and thermodynamic parameters has been accomplished. For most biological medications, oral bioavailability is too low to reach a therapeutic level, and advanced delivery systems such as formulations including permeation enhancers or enzyme inhibitors, lipid-based nanocarriers, and microneedles will likely increase the oral bioavailability of these medications properly. Therefore, the measurements have described that the eventuality of using SWCNT and BP agents becomes the norm in metal chelating of the drug delivery system, which has been selected through (alendronate, ibandronate, neridronate, pamidronate) → 2X (X = Mg2+/Ca2+/Sr2+) complexes. The NMR results of chelated alendronate, ibandronate, neridronate, and pamidronate complexes adsorbed onto (5,5) armchair SWCNT have remarked the location of active sites of tagged nitrogen (N), phosphorus (S), oxygen (O), and metal cations of magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), and strontium (Sr2+) in these molecules which replace the movement of the charge electron transfer in polar bisphosphonates (BPs) toward (5,5) armchair carbon nanotube (CNT). The thermodynamic results have exhibited that the substitution of 2Ca2+ cation by 2Sr2+ cation in the compound of the bioactive glasses can be efficient for treating vertebral complex fractures. However, the most fluctuation in the Gibbs free energy for BPs → 2Sr2+ has been observed at 300 K. This manuscript aimed to show that (5,5) armchair SWCNT can easily penetrate in the bone cells, delivering chelated BP–cations directly to the bone tissue. Drug delivery systems can improve the pharmacological profile, therapeutic profile, and efficacy of BP drugs and lower the occurrence of off-targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 6355 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of an Electrocatalyst Based on Rare Earth Manganites Incorporated with Carbon Nanofiber Hybrids: An Efficient Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Anti-Inflammatory Drug Mefenamic Acid
by Saranvignesh Alagarsamy, Ruspika Sundaresan, Shen-Ming Chen, J. Meena Devi, Narendhar Chandrasekar and Balaji Ramachandran
C 2023, 9(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020047 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Pharmaceutical and personal care products are emerging as a new category of environmental pollution. Analytical drug detection from a biological sample for detection is still crucial today. Mefenamic acid (MA) is an anti-inflammatory drug utilized for its antipyretic and analgesic properties, which is [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical and personal care products are emerging as a new category of environmental pollution. Analytical drug detection from a biological sample for detection is still crucial today. Mefenamic acid (MA) is an anti-inflammatory drug utilized for its antipyretic and analgesic properties, which is harmful to patients at higher dosages and is also recognized as a chemical pollutant that harms the environment. In this view, Dysprosium manganite/carbon nanofiber (DMO/CNF) was prepared by hydrothermal method for the electrochemical detection of MA. DMO/CNF/GCE exhibits high selectivity, excellent anti-interference, good stability, and reproducibility toward the detection of MA. The enhanced electrochemical performance of DMO/CNF/GCE was attributed to their synergetic interaction. Under optimized conditions, DMO/CNF/GCE shows a wide linear range of 0.01–741 μM and a low LOD of 0.009 μM. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for human blood and tablet samples. Thus, the proposed DMO/CNF nanocomposite emerges as a promising material for the detection of MA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 3676 KiB  
Article
Release of Bioactive Molecules from Graphene Oxide-Alginate Hybrid Hydrogels: Effect of Crosslinking Method
by Lorenzo Francesco Madeo, Manuela Curcio, Francesca Iemma, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta, Silke Hampel and Giuseppe Cirillo
C 2023, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010008 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
To investigate the influence of crosslinking methods on the releasing performance of hybrid hydrogels, we synthesized two systems consisting of Graphene oxide (GO) as a functional element and alginate as polymer counterpart by means of ionic gelation (physical method, [...] Read more.
To investigate the influence of crosslinking methods on the releasing performance of hybrid hydrogels, we synthesized two systems consisting of Graphene oxide (GO) as a functional element and alginate as polymer counterpart by means of ionic gelation (physical method, HAGOP) and radical polymerization (chemical method, HAGOC). Formulations were optimized to maximize the GO content (2.0 and 1.15% for HAGOP and HAGOC, respectively) and Curcumin (CUR) was loaded as a model drug at 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% (by weight). The physico-chemical characterization confirmed the homogeneous incorporation of GO within the polymer network and the enhanced thermal stability of hybrid vs. blank hydrogels. The determination of swelling profiles showed a higher swelling degree for HAGOC and a marked pH responsivity due to the COOH functionalities. Moreover, the application of external voltages modified the water affinity of HAGOC, while they accelerated the degradation of HAGOP due to the disruption of the crosslinking points and the partial dissolution of alginate. The evaluation of release profiles, extensively analysed by the application of semi-empirical mathematical models, showed a sustained release from hybrid hydrogels, and the possibility to modulate the releasing amount and rate by electro-stimulation of HAGOC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 2915 KiB  
Article
One-Step Electropolymerization of Azure A and Carbon Nanomaterials for DNA-Sensor Assembling and Doxorubicin Biosensing
by Anna Porfireva, Ekaterina Begisheva, Alexey Rogov and Gennady Evtugyn
C 2022, 8(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040075 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
New highly sensitive voltammetric DNA-sensors have been developed for the detection of cytostatic drug doxorubicin based on Azure A electropolymerized on various carbon nanomaterials, i.e., functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs) and carbon black (CB). Carbon materials promote electropolymerization of the Azure A dye [...] Read more.
New highly sensitive voltammetric DNA-sensors have been developed for the detection of cytostatic drug doxorubicin based on Azure A electropolymerized on various carbon nanomaterials, i.e., functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs) and carbon black (CB). Carbon materials promote electropolymerization of the Azure A dye applied as a matrix for DNA molecules saturated with methylene blue (MB) molecules. Interaction with the intercalator (doxorubicin) liberates the MB molecules and changes redox activity. The doxorubicin concentration ranges reached by cyclic voltammetry were from 0.1 pM to 100 nM (limit of detection, LOD, 0.03 pM) for the biosensor based on CB, and from 0.3 pM to 0.1 nM (LOD 0.3 pM) for that based on fMWCNTs. DNA-sensors were tested on spiked samples of artificial serum, and biological and pharmaceutical samples. The DNA-sensors can find further application in the monitoring of the doxorubicin residuals in cancer treatment, as well as for pharmacokinetics studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 2443 KiB  
Article
Testing of Diamond Electrodes as Biosensor for Antibody-Based Detection of Immunoglobulin Protein with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
by Martin Menzler, Charity S. G. Ganskow, Maximilian Ruschig, Essam Moustafa, Volker Sittinger, Kristina Lachmann, Esther Veronika Wenzel, Giulio Russo, Philipp Klahn and Jan Gäbler
C 2022, 8(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040074 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
To control the increasing virus pandemics, virus detection methods are essential. Today’s standard virus detections methods are fast (immune assays) or precise (PCR). A method that is both fast and precise would enable more efficient mitigation measures and better life comfort. According to [...] Read more.
To control the increasing virus pandemics, virus detection methods are essential. Today’s standard virus detections methods are fast (immune assays) or precise (PCR). A method that is both fast and precise would enable more efficient mitigation measures and better life comfort. According to recent papers, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has proven to detect viruses fast and precise. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) was used as a high-performance electrode material in these works. The aim of this work was to perform an initial test of BDD-based EIS for biosensing. As an easily available standard biomaterial, human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as analyte. Niobium plates were coated via hot-filament activated chemical vapor deposition with polycrystalline diamond, and doped with boron for electrical conductivity. An anti-human IgG antibody was immobilised on the BDD electrodes as a biosensing component. Four different analyte concentrations up to 1.1 µg per litre were tested. During EIS measurements, both impedance over frequency curves and Nyquist plot demonstrated no clear sign of a change of the charge transfer resistance. Thus, no positive statement about a successful biosensing could be made so far. It is assumed that these issues need to be investigated and improved, including the relation of BDD electrode size to electrolyte volume, termination of the BDD electrodes (H, O) for a successful functionalisation and EIS frequency range. The work will be continued concerning these improvement issues in order to finally use virus materials as analyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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12 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine, Ascorbic Acid, and Uric Acid Using Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheet-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
by Hediyeh Moradpour and Hadi Beitollahi
C 2022, 8(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040050 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Nitrogen (N) doping is a well-known approach that can be effectively used to tune the properties of graphene-supported materials. The current attempt followed a simple hydrothermal protocol for the fabrication of N-doped graphene sheets (N-GSs). The N-GSs were subsequently applied to modify the [...] Read more.
Nitrogen (N) doping is a well-known approach that can be effectively used to tune the properties of graphene-supported materials. The current attempt followed a simple hydrothermal protocol for the fabrication of N-doped graphene sheets (N-GSs). The N-GSs were subsequently applied to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for a dopamine (DA) electrochemical sensor (N-GSs/GCE), tested on the basis of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The findings highlighted a limit of detection (LOD) as narrow as 30 nM and a linear response in the concentration range between 0.1 and 700.0 μM. The modified electrode could successfully determine DA in the co-existence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA), the results of which verified the potent electrocatalytic performance of the proposed sensor towards AA, DA, and UA oxidation, and three distinct voltammetric peaks at 110, 250, and 395 mV via DPV. The practical applicability of the as-developed N-GSs/GCE sensor was confirmed by sensing the study analytes in real specimens, with satisfactory recovery rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 1834 KiB  
Article
Laser-Induced Refractive Index Indicates the Concurrent Role of the Bio-Structuration Process in the Comparison with the Nano-Structuration One
by Natalia Kamanina, Svetlana Likhomanova and Yulia Zubtsova
C 2022, 8(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8030043 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
It should be remarked that the basic knowledge collected from complicated area of the structuration process of the organic materials, including the liquid crystal (LC) ones, useful for the optoelectronics and biomedicine, requires extending the types of the novel matrix model materials and [...] Read more.
It should be remarked that the basic knowledge collected from complicated area of the structuration process of the organic materials, including the liquid crystal (LC) ones, useful for the optoelectronics and biomedicine, requires extending the types of the novel matrix model materials and the class of the dopants, which can change the spectral and photorefractive features of the matrixes with good advantage. In the current paper the effect of the introduction of the bio-objects (based on DNA) and of the nano-objects (based on fullerenes, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, shungites, graphenes) in the organic conjugated materials has been comparatively discussed. The influence of this process on the photorefractive features, namely on the laser-induced change of the refractive index, has been studied. The clear innovative tendency of the alternative using of the bio-objects together or instead of the nano-objects ones has been analyzed via considering of the modification of the spectral and non-linear optical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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13 pages, 2763 KiB  
Article
Amperometric Biosensor Based on Laccase Enzyme, Gold Nanoparticles, and Glutaraldehyde for the Determination of Dopamine in Biological and Environmental Samples
by Anderson M. Santos, Ademar Wong, Orlando Fatibello-Filho and Fernando C. Moraes
C 2022, 8(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8030040 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
The present work reports the development and application of an amperometric biosensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with laccase enzyme, glutaraldehyde, and gold nanoparticles (Lac-Glu-AuNPs/CPE) for the determination of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). The materials were characterized morphologically and chemically using scanning [...] Read more.
The present work reports the development and application of an amperometric biosensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with laccase enzyme, glutaraldehyde, and gold nanoparticles (Lac-Glu-AuNPs/CPE) for the determination of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). The materials were characterized morphologically and chemically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cyclic voltammetry. Optimization studies were performed in order to determine the optimal amount of enzyme and pH level that can yield the best conditions of analysis. The application of the biosensor in optimal conditions using the amperometric technique yielded a linear concentration range of 8.0 × 10−7–6.2 × 10−5 mol L−1 with a limit of detection of 6.0 × 10−8 mol L−1. The proposed biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of DA in biological and environmental samples. In addition, the application of the biosensor for the conduct of electrochemical measurements showed that the sensing device has good repeatability and stability, and it does not suffer from matrix interference effects. The proposed biosensor exhibited an analytical signal of 85% after 10 days of consecutive use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 5986 KiB  
Article
Activated Carbon Impregnated with Elementary Iodine: Applications against Virus- and Bacteria-Related Issues
by Yuri Natori, Yoshiaki Kinase, Norihiro Ikemoto, Fabio Spaziani, Tsutomu Kojima, Hitomi Kakuta, Junko Fujita, Kazuyuki Someya, Katsuyoshi Tatenuma, Toshiyo Yabuta, Hiroki Takakuwa and Koichi Otsuki
C 2021, 7(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7040086 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3556
Abstract
An iodine-doped activated carbon (named IodAC) was developed by adsorbing molecular iodine (I2) on commercially available activated carbon (AC). Iodine was selected with the purpose to add its well-known antibacterial and antiviral properties to the AC and in order to produce [...] Read more.
An iodine-doped activated carbon (named IodAC) was developed by adsorbing molecular iodine (I2) on commercially available activated carbon (AC). Iodine was selected with the purpose to add its well-known antibacterial and antiviral properties to the AC and in order to produce an innovative material for environmental pathogens control and for healthcare-related applications. The impregnation method achieved the goal of strongly adsorbing iodine on the AC surface, since both volatility and water solubility resulted to be negligible, and therefore it did not affect the stability of the material. An antibacterial test (on Escherichia coli) and an antiviral test (on an avian influenza strain) were conducted, showing the effectiveness of IodAC against the pathogens. In addition, IodAC was also compared to slaked lime (a material widely used for disinfection of outdoor spaces and livestock farming areas). The data proved the performance of IodAC against virus and bacteria and also evidenced a more stable and long-lasting disinfecting power of IodAC compared to slaked lime, the later reacting with carbon dioxide and suffering a gradually decrease of its disinfectant power; such drawback does not affect IodAC. Overall, the presented results show that IodAC can be used for a wide range of applications, including as a granular disinfectant for public spaces, for water disinfection, zoonotic diseases countermeasures (e.g., as an animal feed additive for avian influenza control), post-harvest food storage, and sanitization. Its characteristics also indicate its potential to be used for medical treatments, such as for blood, intestinal (for HIV, sepsis, irritable syndrome, ulcerative colitis therapy), and medical supplies (antibacterial bandages, gauze, cotton, etc.) sterilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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28 pages, 1988 KiB  
Review
Carbon Nanostructures as Therapeutic Cargoes: Recent Developments and Challenges
by Jagtar Singh, Pallavi Nayak, Gurdeep Singh, Madhusmruti Khandai, Rashmi Ranjan Sarangi and Mihir Kumar Kar
C 2023, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010003 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4038
Abstract
Recent developments in nanotechnology and process chemistry have expanded the scope of nanostructures to the biomedical field. The ability of nanostructures to precisely deliver drugs to the target site not only reduces the amount of drug needed but also reduces systemic adverse effects. [...] Read more.
Recent developments in nanotechnology and process chemistry have expanded the scope of nanostructures to the biomedical field. The ability of nanostructures to precisely deliver drugs to the target site not only reduces the amount of drug needed but also reduces systemic adverse effects. Carbon nanostructures gained traction in pharmaceutical technology in the last decade due to their high stability, ease of synthesis, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Fullerene, nanotubes, nanodiamonds, nanodots, and nanoribbons are among the major carbon nanostructures that have been extensively studied for applications in tissue engineering, biosensing, bioimaging, theranostics, drug delivery, and gene therapy. Due to the fluorescent properties of functionalized nanostructures, they have been extensively studied for use as probes in cellular imaging. Moreover, these nanostructures are promising candidates for delivering drugs to the brain, bones, and deep-seated tumors. Still, research gaps need to be addressed regarding the toxicity of these materials in animals as well as humans. This review highlights the physicochemical properties of carbon nanostructures and their categories, methods of synthesis, various techniques for surface functionalization, major biomedical applications, mechanisms involving the cellular uptake of nanostructures, pharmacokinetic considerations, recent patents involving carbon-based nanostructures in the biomedical field, major challenges, and future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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24 pages, 3185 KiB  
Review
Carbon Nanomaterials-Based Electrically Conductive Scaffolds to Repair the Ischaemic Heart Tissue
by Arsalan Ul Haq, Felicia Carotenuto, Federica Trovalusci, Fabio De Matteis and Paolo Di Nardo
C 2022, 8(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040072 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
Ischaemic heart diseases are the leading causes of morbidity around the world and pose serious socio-economic burdens. Ischaemic events, such as myocardial infarction, lead to severe tissue damage and result in the formation of scar tissue. This scar tissue, being electrically inert, does [...] Read more.
Ischaemic heart diseases are the leading causes of morbidity around the world and pose serious socio-economic burdens. Ischaemic events, such as myocardial infarction, lead to severe tissue damage and result in the formation of scar tissue. This scar tissue, being electrically inert, does not conduct electrical currents and thus generates lethal arrhythmias. The ventricle dilates with time due to asynchronous beating due to the scar, and it eventually leads to total heart failure. The current pharmacological approaches only cure heart failure symptoms without inducing tissue regeneration. Therefore, heart transplant remains the gold standard to date, but the limited organ donors and the possibility of immune rejection make this approach elusive. Cardiac tissue engineering has the potential to address this issue by engineering artificial heart tissues using 3D scaffolds cultured with cardiac stem cells. Compared with the traditional non-conductive scaffold, electroconductive scaffolds can transfer feeble electric currents among the cultured cells by acting as a “wire”. This improves intercellular communication and synchronisation that otherwise is not possible using non-conductive scaffolds. This article reviews the recent advances in carbon nanomaterials-based electroconductive scaffolds, their in vitro/in vivo efficacy, and their potential to repair ischaemic heart tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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19 pages, 5652 KiB  
Review
3D Cell Spheroids as a Tool for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Carbon Nanotubes as a Drug Delivery and Photothermal Therapy Agents
by Roman A. Anisimov, Dmitry A. Gorin and Anatolii A. Abalymov
C 2022, 8(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040056 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
Cell spheroids (CSs) are three-dimensional models in vitro that have a microenvironment similar to tissues. Such three-dimensional cellular structures are of great interest in the field of nano biomedical research, as they can simulate information about the characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) by avoiding [...] Read more.
Cell spheroids (CSs) are three-dimensional models in vitro that have a microenvironment similar to tissues. Such three-dimensional cellular structures are of great interest in the field of nano biomedical research, as they can simulate information about the characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) by avoiding the use of laboratory animals. Due to the development of areas such as bioethics and tissue engineering, it is expected that the use of such 3D cell structures will become an even more valuable tool in the hands of researchers. We present an overview of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) research on CSs in order to determine the mechanism of their incorporation into CSs, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy. We will look at such areas as the application of CNTs for medical purposes, the advantages of spheroids over classical 2D cell culture, the ways in which CNTs pass into the intercellular space, and the ways in which they are absorbed by cells in a three-dimensional environment, the use of the spheroid model for such studies as drug delivery and photothermal therapy. Thus, CSs are suitable models for obtaining additional information on the required properties of CNTs in their application in nanobiomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 1071 KiB  
Review
Carbon Nanomaterials for Theranostic Use
by Izabela Kościk, Daniel Jankowski and Anna Jagusiak
C 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8010003 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4180
Abstract
Based on statistics from the National Cancer Institute in the US, the rate of new cases of cancer is 442.4 per 100,000 men and women per year, and more than one-third do not survive the disease. Cancer diagnosis and treatment are the most [...] Read more.
Based on statistics from the National Cancer Institute in the US, the rate of new cases of cancer is 442.4 per 100,000 men and women per year, and more than one-third do not survive the disease. Cancer diagnosis and treatment are the most important challenges in modern medicine. The majority of cancer cases are diagnosed at an early stage. However, the possibility of simultaneous diagnosis and application of therapy (theranostics) will allow for acceleration and effectiveness of treatment. Conventional chemotherapy is not effective in reducing the chemoresistance and progression of various types of cancer. In addition, it causes side effects, which are mainly a result of incorrect drug distribution. Hence, new therapies are being explored as well as new drug delivery strategies. In this regard, nanotechnology has shown promise in the targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells. This review looks at the latest advances in drug delivery-based diagnosis and therapy. Drug delivery nanosystems made of various types of carbon (graphene, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes) are discussed. Their chemical properties, advantages, and disadvantages are explored, and these systems are compared with each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanohybrids for Biomedical Applications)
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