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Biomedicines, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 233 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Endocrine system impairment has been largely reported during SARS-CoV-2 infection and contributes to the complex and varied symptoms experienced by patients. This multicentre retrospective study describes [18F]FDG uptake in thyroid and adrenal glands in COVID-19 patients at the baseline and during follow-up. Compared to normal subjects, we observed persistent low [18F]FDG uptake in the adrenal glands of COVID-19 patients at diagnosis and after recovery, suggesting a chronic hypo-function. A subgroup of COVID-19 patients showed an increased thyroid metabolism after recovery, thus possibly suggesting the onset of thyroiditis. Our results should alert clinicians to investigate the pituitary–adrenal axis and thyroid functionality at the time of infection and to monitor them after recovery. View this paper
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12 pages, 3926 KiB  
Article
GSK2606414 Sensitizes ABCG2-Overexpressing Multidrug-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Drugs
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113103 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor. A major factor in the high mortality rate of colorectal cancer is the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Overexpression of the ABCG2 gene in cancer cells directly leads to MDR. Finding new inhibitors of ABCG2 may [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor. A major factor in the high mortality rate of colorectal cancer is the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Overexpression of the ABCG2 gene in cancer cells directly leads to MDR. Finding new inhibitors of ABCG2 may be an effective way to overcome drug resistance. We found that the compound GSK2606414 enhanced the sensitivity of the ABCG2 substrate to the chemotherapeutic drugs mitoxantrone and doxorubicin in ABCG2-overexpressing multidrug-resistant colorectal cancer cells by increasing their intracellular accumulation without affecting the protein expression of ABCG2. Molecular docking experiments predicted that GSK2606414 could stably bind in the drug-binding pocket of ABCG2. In conclusion, GSK2606414 can sensitize ABCG2-overexpressed multidrug-resistant colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs and can be used as a potential inhibitor of ABCG2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism, Target and Delivery of Anticancer Drugs)
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11 pages, 1178 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden on Infarct Growth Rate and Stroke Outcomes in Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke Receiving Endovascular Treatment
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3102; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113102 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the association between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden and infarct growth rate (IGR) in patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke who underwent endovascular treatment (EVT). A retrospective analysis was conducted on a cohort of 495 patients [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the association between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden and infarct growth rate (IGR) in patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke who underwent endovascular treatment (EVT). A retrospective analysis was conducted on a cohort of 495 patients with anterior circulation stroke who received EVT. CSVD burden was assessed using a CSVD score based on neuroimaging features. IGR was calculated from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volumes divided by the time from stroke onset to imaging. Clinical outcomes included stroke progression and functional outcomes at 3 months. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between CSVD burden, IGR, and clinical outcomes. The fast IGR group had a higher proportion of high CSVD scores than the slow IGR group (24.4% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001). High CSVD burden was significantly associated with a faster IGR (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 26.26 [6.26–110.14], p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounding factors. High CSVD burden also independently predicted stroke progression and poor functional outcomes. This study highlights a significant relationship between CSVD burden and IGR in LVO stroke patients undergoing EVT. High CSVD burden was associated with faster infarct growth and worse clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurobiology and Neurologic Disease)
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16 pages, 33308 KiB  
Article
Epoxy- versus Glutaraldehyde-Treated Bovine Jugular Vein Conduit for Pulmonary Valve Replacement: A Comparison of Morphological Changes in a Pig Model
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113101 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Valved conduits are often required to replace pulmonary arteries (PA). A widely used Contegra device is made of bovine jugular vein (BJV), preserved with glutaraldehyde (GA) and iso-propanol. However, it has several drawbacks that may be attributed to its chemical treatment. We hypothesized [...] Read more.
Valved conduits are often required to replace pulmonary arteries (PA). A widely used Contegra device is made of bovine jugular vein (BJV), preserved with glutaraldehyde (GA) and iso-propanol. However, it has several drawbacks that may be attributed to its chemical treatment. We hypothesized that the use of an alternative preservation compound may significantly improve BJV conduit performance. This study aimed to compare the macroscopic and microscopic properties of the BJV treated with diepoxide (DE) and GA in a porcine model. Twelve DE-BJVs and four Contegra conduits were used for PA replacement in minipigs. To assess the isolated influence of GA, we included an additional control group—BJV treated with 0.625% GA (n = 4). The animals were withdrawn after 6 months of follow-up and the conduits were examined. Explanted DE-BJV had a soft elastic wall with no signs of thrombosis or calcification and good conduit integration, including myofibroblast germination, an ingrowth of soft connective tissue formations and remarkable neoangiogenesis. The inner surface of DE-BJVs was covered by a thin neointimal layer with a solid endothelium. Contegra grafts had a stiffer wall with thrombosis on the leaflets. Calcified foci, chondroid metaplasia, and hyalinosis were observed within the wall. The distal anastomotic sites had hyperplastic neointima, partially covered with the endothelium. The wall of GA-BJV was stiff and rigid with degenerative changes, a substantial amount of calcium deposits and dense fibrotic formations in adventitia. An irregular neointimal layer was presented in the anastomotic sites without endothelial cover in the GA BJV wall. These results demonstrate that DE treatment improves conduit integration and the endothelialization of the inner surface while preventing the mineralization of the BJV, which may reduce the risk of early conduit dysfunction. Full article
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12 pages, 4744 KiB  
Article
A Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Method for Accurate Detection of Early Nondisplaced Fractures of the Femoral Neck
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3100; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113100 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Nondisplaced femoral neck fractures are sometimes misdiagnosed by radiographs, which may deteriorate into displaced fractures. However, few efficient artificial intelligent methods have been reported. We developed an automatic detection method using deep learning networks to pinpoint femoral neck fractures on radiographs to assist [...] Read more.
Nondisplaced femoral neck fractures are sometimes misdiagnosed by radiographs, which may deteriorate into displaced fractures. However, few efficient artificial intelligent methods have been reported. We developed an automatic detection method using deep learning networks to pinpoint femoral neck fractures on radiographs to assist physicians in making an accurate diagnosis in the first place. Our proposed accurate automatic detection method, called the direction-aware fracture-detection network (DAFDNet), consists of two steps, namely region-of-interest (ROI) segmentation and fracture detection. The first step removes the noise region and pinpoints the femoral neck region. The fracture-detection step uses a direction-aware deep learning algorithm to mark the exact femoral neck fracture location in the region detected in the first step. A total of 3840 femoral neck parts in anterior–posterior (AP) pelvis radiographs collected from the China Medical University Hospital database were used to test our method. The simulation results showed that DAFDNet outperformed the U-Net and DenseNet methods in terms of the IOU value, Dice value, and Jaccard value. Our proposed DAFDNet demonstrated over 94.8% accuracy in differentiating non-displaced Garden type I and type II femoral neck fracture cases. Our DAFDNet method outperformed the diagnostic accuracy of general practitioners and orthopedic surgeons in accurately locating Garden type I and type II fracture locations. This study can determine the feasibility of applying artificial intelligence in a clinical setting and how the use of deep learning networks assists physicians in improving correct diagnoses compared to the current traditional orthopedic manual assessments. Full article
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15 pages, 1469 KiB  
Review
Photodynamic Therapy in Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma—A Review
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113099 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 618
Abstract
This review summarizes the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of the pigmented subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) based on the current literature. PDT is a light-activated treatment, non-invasive, that selectively destroys tumor cells and tissues via the interaction of [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of the pigmented subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) based on the current literature. PDT is a light-activated treatment, non-invasive, that selectively destroys tumor cells and tissues via the interaction of a photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. It can induce cancer cell death through direct tumor vascular damage or via the induction of immune response. However, human skin is also an absorption and scattering medium since it contains hemoglobin and melanin that act as chromophores. Eumelanin can be considered a light-absorber and an intracellular antioxidant that can neutralize PDT-induced ROS and, therefore, decrease PDT success. Various factors, including tumor depth, the degree of pigmentation in malignant cells, and the individual’s skin phototype, can impact the outcome of this intricate biochemical process. It has been widely recognized that PDT exhibits limited efficacy in the treatment of pigmented lesions. However, new combination techniques such as curettage or debulking before PDT show promising results in the treatment of pigmented BCC. Full article
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14 pages, 1805 KiB  
Article
Carfilzomib Mitigates Lipopolysaccharide/D-Galactosamine/Dimethylsulfoxide-Induced Acute Liver Failure in Mice
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3098; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113098 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a disease accompanied by severe liver inflammation. No effective therapy is available yet apart from liver transplantation; therefore, developing novel treatments for ALF is urgently required. Inflammatory mediators released by NF-кB activation play an essential role in ALF. [...] Read more.
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a disease accompanied by severe liver inflammation. No effective therapy is available yet apart from liver transplantation; therefore, developing novel treatments for ALF is urgently required. Inflammatory mediators released by NF-кB activation play an essential role in ALF. Proteasome inhibitors have many medical uses, such as reducing inflammation and NF-кB inhibition, which are believed to account for most of their repurposing effects. This study was undertaken to explore the possible protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of carfilzomib, a proteasome inhibitor, in a mouse model of ALF induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine/dimethylsulfoxide (LPS/GalN/DMSO). Carfilzomib dose-dependently protected mice from LPS/GalN/DMSO-induced liver injury, as indicated by the decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. LPS/GalN/DMSO increased TNF-α, NF-кB, lipid peroxidation, NO, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-II, myeloperoxidase, and caspase-3 levels. Carfilzomib administration mitigated LPS/GalN/DMSO-induced liver damage by decreasing the elevated levels of TNF-α, NF-кB, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-II, myeloperoxidase, caspase-3, and histopathological changes. A restored glutathione level was also observed in the carfilzomib-treated LPS/GalN/DMSO mice. Our results demonstrate that carfilzomib protects against LPS/GalN/DMSO-induced ALF by inhibiting NF-кB, decreasing inflammatory mediators, oxidative/nitrosative stress, neutrophil recruitment, and apoptosis, suggesting that carfilzomib may be a potential therapeutic agent for ALF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Insight into Human Diseases: Application of Animal Models)
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14 pages, 4012 KiB  
Article
The Clinical Implication of Conversion Surgery in Patients with Stage IV Gastric Cancer Who Received Systemic Chemotherapy
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3097; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113097 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
With the advances in chemotherapy and immunotherapy, a small subset of patients may be eligible for conversion surgery after achieving tumor regression with chemotherapy. This is a retrospective cohort study of 118 patients with stage IV gastric cancer who received palliative chemotherapy and [...] Read more.
With the advances in chemotherapy and immunotherapy, a small subset of patients may be eligible for conversion surgery after achieving tumor regression with chemotherapy. This is a retrospective cohort study of 118 patients with stage IV gastric cancer who received palliative chemotherapy and conversion surgery with a negative resection margin at Samsung Medical Center. Baseline features included comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, primary tumor size, biopsy histology, distant metastatic sites, and molecular markers—HER2, MSI/MMR, PD-L1, and EBV. Post-chemotherapy features included BMI, CEA level, chemotherapy regimen, objective response to chemotherapy, and number of preoperative chemotherapy cycles. Post-operational features included tumor size, histologic differentiation and Lauren’s classification, pathologic tumor and nodal stages, invasion of lymphatics/vessels/nerves, peritoneal cytology, and the receipt of postoperative chemotherapy. Of 118 patients, 60 patients received total gastrectomy and 58 patients received subtotal gastrectomy. In all, 21 patients achieved a pathologic complete response, and 97 patients achieved downstaging to yp stage I, II, or III. Before conversion surgery, patients received first-line capecitabine/oxaliplatin (62%), HER2 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy (18%), immune checkpoint inhibitors (15%), and inhibitors of MET or VEGFR2 (5%). In the multivariable analysis, BMI at the time of diagnosis, either HER2 positive, high MSI, or deficient MMR, and the use of targeted agents were significant prognostic factors. Conversion surgery could be considered in patients with stage IV gastric cancer regardless of the initial disease burden. BMI and molecular markers are important prognostic factors that can be used to select candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Therapeutics)
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14 pages, 299 KiB  
Review
The Outcomes of Liver Transplantation in Severe Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease Patients
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3096; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113096 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in the population can lead to metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH) and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). In Western industrialized countries, this has become a major problem with significant socioeconomic impacts. MASH is [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in the population can lead to metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH) and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). In Western industrialized countries, this has become a major problem with significant socioeconomic impacts. MASH is now a leading cause of liver transplantation (LT), especially in developed countries. However, the post-transplant outcomes of such patients are a major concern, and published data are limited and extremely variable. In this article, we discuss graft and patient survival after LT, complications, the recurrence of MASH, and MASH appearing de novo after transplantation. Recent studies suggest that patients with MASH have slightly worse short-term survival, potentially due to increased cardiovascular mortality. However, most studies found that longer-term outcomes for patients undergoing LT for MASH are similar or even better than those for other indications. Hepatocellular carcinoma due to MASH cirrhosis also has similar or even better outcomes after LT than other etiologies. In conclusion, we suggest questions and topics that require further research to enhance healthcare for this growing patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NASH and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC))
13 pages, 9993 KiB  
Article
PSMA-Expression Is Highly Associated with Histological Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Potential Implications for Theranostic Approaches
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3095; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113095 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 733
Abstract
In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), accurate imaging methods are required for treatment planning and response assessment to therapy. In addition, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic options, especially in metastatic RCC. One way to combine diagnostics and therapy in a so-called [...] Read more.
In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), accurate imaging methods are required for treatment planning and response assessment to therapy. In addition, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic options, especially in metastatic RCC. One way to combine diagnostics and therapy in a so-called theranostic approach is the use of radioligands directed against surface antigens. For instance, radioligands against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have already been successfully used for diagnosis and radionuclide therapy of metastatic prostate cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that PSMA is expressed not only in prostate cancer but also in the neovasculature of several solid tumors, which has raised hopes to use PSMA-guided theranostic approaches in other tumor entities, too. However, data on PSMA expression in different histopathological subtypes of RCC are sparse. Because a better understanding of PSMA expression in RCC is critical to assess which patients would benefit most from theranostic approaches using PSMA-targeted ligands, we investigated the expression pattern of PSMA in different subtypes of RCC on protein level. Immunohistochemical staining for PSMA was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival material of major different histological subtypes of RCC (clear cell RCC (ccRCC)), papillary RCC (pRCC) and chromophobe RCC (cpRCC). The extent and intensity of PSMA staining were scored semi-quantitatively and correlated with the histological RCC subtypes. Group comparisons were calculated with the Kruskal–Wallis test. In all cases, immunoreactivity was detected only in the tumor-associated vessels and not in tumor cells. Staining intensity was the strongest in ccRCC, followed by cpRCC and pRCC. ccRCC showed the most diffuse staining pattern, followed by cpRCC and pRCC. Our results provide a rationale for PSMA-targeted theranostic approaches in ccRCC and cpRCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art and Future Perspectives in Oncologic Imaging)
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14 pages, 2215 KiB  
Review
On the Role of Iron in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3094; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113094 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
The transition metal characteristics of iron allow it to play a fundamental role in several essential aspects of human life such as the transport of oxygen through hemoglobin or the transport of electrons in the mitochondrial respiratory chain coupled to the synthesis of [...] Read more.
The transition metal characteristics of iron allow it to play a fundamental role in several essential aspects of human life such as the transport of oxygen through hemoglobin or the transport of electrons in the mitochondrial respiratory chain coupled to the synthesis of ATP. However, an excess or deficiency of iron is related to certain pathologies. The maintenance of iron homeostasis is essential to avoid certain pathologies related to iron excess or deficiency. The existence of iron deposits in postmortem tissues of Parkinson’s patients has been interpreted as evidence that iron plays a fundamental role in the degenerative process of the nigrostriatal system in this disease. The use of iron chelators has been successful in the treatment of diseases such as transfusion-dependent thalassemia and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. However, a clinical study with the iron chelator deferiprone in patients with Parkinson’s disease has not shown positive effects but rather worsened clinical symptoms. This suggests that iron may not play a role in the degenerative process of Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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17 pages, 4279 KiB  
Review
The Potential Role of Ionic Liquid as a Multifunctional Dental Biomaterial
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113093 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1635
Abstract
In craniofacial research and routine dental clinical procedures, multifunctional materials with antimicrobial properties are in constant demand. Ionic liquids (ILs) are one such multifunctional intelligent material. Over the last three decades, ILs have been explored for different biomedical applications due to their unique [...] Read more.
In craniofacial research and routine dental clinical procedures, multifunctional materials with antimicrobial properties are in constant demand. Ionic liquids (ILs) are one such multifunctional intelligent material. Over the last three decades, ILs have been explored for different biomedical applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties, high task specificity, and sustainability. Their stable physical and chemical characteristics and extremely low vapor pressure make them suitable for various applications. Their unique properties, such as density, viscosity, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, may provide higher performance as a potential dental material. ILs have functionalities for optimizing dental implants, infiltrate materials, oral hygiene maintenance products, and restorative materials. They also serve as sensors for dental chairside usage to detect oral cancer, periodontal lesions, breath-based sobriety, and dental hard tissue defects. With further optimization, ILs might also make vital contributions to craniofacial regeneration, oral hygiene maintenance, oral disease prevention, and antimicrobial materials. This review explores the different advantages and properties of ILs as possible dental material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Whole-Body Cryostimulation in Post-COVID Rehabilitation for Patients with Obesity: A Multidisciplinary Feasibility Study
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3092; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113092 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Background: A post-COVID condition can reduce activity and quality of life, resulting in a significant socioeconomic and health burden. Understanding its impact on patients’ health is important for the development of personalized rehabilitation interventions. An independent association between obesity and post-COVID condition was [...] Read more.
Background: A post-COVID condition can reduce activity and quality of life, resulting in a significant socioeconomic and health burden. Understanding its impact on patients’ health is important for the development of personalized rehabilitation interventions. An independent association between obesity and post-COVID condition was found because of complications and comorbidities. Methods: Sixteen patients with obesity and post-COVID symptoms (i.e., dyspnea, pain, poor sleep quality, muscle fatigue), admitted to the Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piancavallo (VB), Italy, were recruited for a four-week rehabilitation program including conventional exercise therapy, nutritional intervention, psychological support and whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). Results: All participants attended all sessions of the program. Anthropometric data showed statistically significant changes in weight, waist circumference and body mass index. Biochemical analyses showed significant reductions in lipid and inflammatory profiles. There was a significant improvement in physical performance, reduction in pain and improvement in psychological well-being. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation protocol including WBC, designed for patients with obesity and a post-COVID condition, is safe and feasible. The overall improvements demonstrate that multidisciplinary rehabilitation was effective on post COVID patients and suggest that the use of WBC is safe and could play a role as a booster in rehabilitation programs. Full article
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14 pages, 3021 KiB  
Article
Azadiradione, a Component of Neem Oil, Behaves as a Superoxide Dismutase Mimic When Scavenging the Superoxide Radical, as Shown Using DFT and Hydrodynamic Voltammetry
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3091; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113091 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, belongs to the Meliaceae family, and its use in the treatment of medical disorders from ancient times to the present in the traditional medical practices of Asia, Africa and the Middle East is well-documented. Neem oil, extracted [...] Read more.
The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, belongs to the Meliaceae family, and its use in the treatment of medical disorders from ancient times to the present in the traditional medical practices of Asia, Africa and the Middle East is well-documented. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds of the fruit, is widely used, with promising medicinal benefits. Azadiradione, a principal antioxidant component of the seeds of A. indica, is known to reduce oxidative stress and has anti-inflammatory effects. To directly measure the antioxidant ability of neem oil, we used Rotating Ring Disk Electrode (RRDE) hydrodynamic voltammetry to quantify how it can scavenge superoxide radical anions. The results of these experiments show that neem oil is approximately 26 times stronger than other natural products, such as olive oil, propolis and black seed oil, which were previously measured using this method. Next, computational Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were used to arrive at a mechanism for the scavenging of superoxide radical anions with azadiradione. Our work indicates that azadiradione is an effective antioxidant and, according to our DFT study, its scavenging of the superoxide radical anion occurs through a reaction mechanism in which azadiradione mimics the antioxidant action of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In this mechanism, analogous to the SOD enzymatic reaction, azadiradione is regenerated, along with the production of two products: hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. This antioxidant process provides an explanation for azadiradione’s more general and protective biochemical effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Drug Repositioning)
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19 pages, 1068 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Diagnostic Tools in the Assessment of Histological Healing
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113090 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In long-standing ulcerative colitis disease activity, histological persistent inflammation has been linked to an increased risk of relapse, and long-term corticosteroid use, even when endoscopic remission is [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In long-standing ulcerative colitis disease activity, histological persistent inflammation has been linked to an increased risk of relapse, and long-term corticosteroid use, even when endoscopic remission is reached. In Crohn’s disease, the discontinuous nature of lesions and transmural inflammation have limited the standardized histological assessment. The current evidence from research proposes that besides clinical and endoscopic healing, the achievement of histological healing constitutes an endpoint to assess disease activity and remission in IBD patients concerning better long-term disease outcomes. Histological alterations may persist even in the absence of endoscopic lesions. For these reasons, new advanced techniques promise to revolutionize the field of IBD by improving the endoscopic and histologic assessment, disease characterization, and ultimately patient care, with an established role in daily practice for objective assessment of lesions. This review outlines the importance of including microscopic evaluation in IBD, highlighting the clinical benefits of a deep state of disease remission using validated diagnostic methods and scoring systems for daily clinical practice. Full article
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10 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Neuropsychological Aspects of Children’s Somatic Disorders in Chronic Diseases: Diabetes and Short Stature in the Developmental Period
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113089 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Intellectual functioning studies carried out amongst children indicate that chronic diseases like type 1 diabetes and growth hormone deficiency (GHD), may, but do not necessarily, result in intellectual loss. Cognitive functions may decline as a child becomes older, as a disease persists over [...] Read more.
Intellectual functioning studies carried out amongst children indicate that chronic diseases like type 1 diabetes and growth hormone deficiency (GHD), may, but do not necessarily, result in intellectual loss. Cognitive functions may decline as a child becomes older, as a disease persists over time and/or due to non-compliance with treatment recommendations or high stress levels. This study aimed to assess the cognitive functioning of children and youths with T1D and GHD-related short stature compared to healthy children. Methods: The study was carried out on 88 children with type 1 diabetes, 38 children suffering from short stature caused by (GHD), as well as a control group comprising 40 healthy children. Weschler’s tests were applied to measure intellectual and cognitive functions. Results: The results suggest that for children suffering from type 1 diabetes and short stature, their chronic childhood diseases per se do not impair cognitive development. It was observed that the higher the age of chronically ill children and the longer the disease persists, the lower their scores in individual cognitive subtests. For healthy children, age is correlated with the acquisition of particular skills and higher scores in specific subtests. Conclusions: On the basis of qualitative analysis of the cognitive functions subject to the study and close clinical observation of chronically ill children, we have been able to conclude that chronic diseases may alter cognitive functioning. Full article
10 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
Effects of CYP3A5 Genotypes on Thrombocytopenia in Liver Transplantation Patients Treated with Tacrolimus
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3088; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113088 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Background: Thrombocytopenia is a complication after liver transplantation. This study’s aims were to evaluate the role of CYP3A5 genotypes on tacrolimus-induced thrombocytopenia after orthotopic liver transplantation. Methods: In this retrospective case–control study, data from 100 patients who underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT) were [...] Read more.
Background: Thrombocytopenia is a complication after liver transplantation. This study’s aims were to evaluate the role of CYP3A5 genotypes on tacrolimus-induced thrombocytopenia after orthotopic liver transplantation. Methods: In this retrospective case–control study, data from 100 patients who underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT) were divided into CYP3A5*3 genotype (donor/recipient) tacrolimus fast- (A*/A*, n = 22), intermediate- (A*/GG, n = 20; GG/A*, n = 31) and slow-metabolizer (GG/GG, n = 27) groups. Platelet count changes and prognosis for 180 days after surgery were compared. Results: Platelet counts declined significantly after DDLT, especially on postoperative day (POD) 3, and continued at low levels for a week thereafter in all groups. In the GG/GG group, platelet counts on POD3 (50.29 ± 5.44 × 109/L) were the lowest among the groups (A*/A*, 71.00 ± 6.22 × 109/L; A*/GG, 57.95 ± 6.21 × 109/L; GG/A*, 75.90 ± 5.56 × 109/L) (p = 0.006). Compared with the A*/A* genotype, tacrolimus nadir levels were significantly higher in GG/GG genotype patients, who also exhibited a higher incidence of hemorrhage (22.2%, p = 0.011). A combination of a nadir blood concentration of tacrolimus ≥ 4.74 ng/mL and spleen size ≥ 165.5 mm was a risk factor for increased thrombocytopenia after DDLT on POD3, with an AUC of 0.735 (sensitivity, 77.2%; specificity, 41.7%). Conclusions: A high blood concentration of tacrolimus after the early stage of DDLT is a major risk factor for hemorrhage. For the CYP3A5 genotype (GG/GG), controlling the blood concentration of tacrolimus below the target concentration until POD3 can avoid thrombocytopenia-related complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Metabolism)
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27 pages, 1114 KiB  
Review
The Pathological Role of miRNAs in Endometriosis
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3087; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113087 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Association studies investigating miRNA in relation to diseases have consistently shown significant alterations in miRNA expression, particularly within inflammatory pathways, where they regulate inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors (such as NF-κB, STAT3, HIF1α), and inflammatory proteins (including COX-2 and iNOS). Given that endometriosis (EMS) [...] Read more.
Association studies investigating miRNA in relation to diseases have consistently shown significant alterations in miRNA expression, particularly within inflammatory pathways, where they regulate inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors (such as NF-κB, STAT3, HIF1α), and inflammatory proteins (including COX-2 and iNOS). Given that endometriosis (EMS) is characterized as an inflammatory disease, albeit one influenced by estrogen levels, it is natural to speculate about the connection between EMS and miRNA. Recent research has indeed confirmed alterations in the expression levels of numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) in both endometriotic lesions and the eutopic endometrium of women with EMS, when compared to healthy controls. The undeniable association of miRNAs with EMS hints at the emergence of a new era in the study of miRNA in the context of EMS. This article reviews the advancements made in understanding the pathological role of miRNA in EMS and its association with EMS-associated infertility. These findings contribute to the ongoing pursuit of developing miRNA-based therapeutics and diagnostic markers for EMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Endometriosis)
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12 pages, 591 KiB  
Review
Brittle Asthma: Still on Board?
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3086; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113086 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 724
Abstract
(1) Background: “Brittle Asthma” was considered an asthma clinical phenotype and deemed to be life-threatening in the early 2000s; then, this definition disappeared. The purpose of this review is to examine what has historically been referred to as this term and see whether [...] Read more.
(1) Background: “Brittle Asthma” was considered an asthma clinical phenotype and deemed to be life-threatening in the early 2000s; then, this definition disappeared. The purpose of this review is to examine what has historically been referred to as this term and see whether it may be applied to modern clinical practice, thus acquiring fresh relevance and meaning. (2) Methods: A non-systematic search of the literature was conducted using both MeSH and free-text phrases. No limitations on the research design or type of publication were applied. (3) Results: Reliable data regarding “Brittle Asthma” are lacking due to the paucity of current data and the few studies available. After a few years of reworking, it was divided into two sub-classes: one characterized by a wide PEF variability despite high-dose therapy and the other by sudden acute attacks in otherwise apparently normal airway functions or well-controlled asthma. Their characteristics were hardly defined because of their low prevalence. Data regarding risk factors, atopy, mechanisms, and treatments were analyzed. (4) Conclusions: Over time, different terminology has been introduced to define asthma severity and control. It would be worth investigating whether the term “Brittle Asthma” previously used may be helpful to find new hints to stratify patients and improve disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Asthma)
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22 pages, 4817 KiB  
Article
An Exploration of the Inhibitory Mechanism of Rationally Screened Benzofuran-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles and-1,2,4-Triazoles as Inhibitors of NS5B RdRp Hepatitis C Virus through Pharmacoinformatic Approaches
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3085; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113085 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Benzofuran, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole are privileged heterocyclic moieties that display the most promising and wide spectrum of biological activities against a wide variety of diseases. In the current study, benzofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole BF1BF7 and benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole compounds BF8BF15 were tested against HCV [...] Read more.
Benzofuran, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole are privileged heterocyclic moieties that display the most promising and wide spectrum of biological activities against a wide variety of diseases. In the current study, benzofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole BF1BF7 and benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole compounds BF8BF15 were tested against HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) utilizing structure-based screening via a computer-aided drug design (CADD) approach. A molecular docking approach was applied to evaluate the binding potential of benzofuran-appended 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole BF1BF15 molecules. Benzofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffolds BF1BF7 showed lesser binding affinities (−12.63 to −14.04 Kcal/mol) than benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole scaffolds BF8BF15 (−14.11 to −16.09 Kcal/mol) against the HCV NS5B enzyme. Molecular docking studies revealed the excellent binding affinity scores exhibited by benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole structural motifs BF-9 (−16.09 Kcal/mol), BF-12 (−15.75 Kcal/mol), and BF-13 (−15.82 Kcal/mol), respectively, which were comparatively better than benzofuran-based HCV NS5B inhibitors’ standard reference drug Nesbuvir (−15.42 Kcal/mol). A molecular dynamics simulation assay was also conducted to obtain valuable insights about the enzyme–compounds interaction profile and structural stability, which indicated the strong intermolecular energies of the BF-9+NS5B complex and the BF-12+NS5B complex as per the MM-PBSA method, while the BF-12+NS5B complex was the most stable system as per the MM-GBSA calculation. The drug-likeness and ADMET studies of all the benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole derivatives BF8BF15 revealed that these compounds possessed good medicinal chemistry profiles in agreement with all the evaluated parameters for being drugs. The molecular docking affinity scores, MM-PBSA/MM-GBSA and MD-simulation stability analysis, drug-likeness profiling, and ADMET study assessment indicated that N-4-fluorophenyl-S-linked benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole BF-12 could be a future promising anti-HCV NS5B RdRp inhibitor therapeutic drug candidate that has a structural agreement with the Nesbuvir standard reference drug. Full article
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12 pages, 1276 KiB  
Article
Combination Therapy of RAS Inhibition and SGLT2 Inhibitors Decreases Levels of Endotrophin in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3084; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113084 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 802
Abstract
We investigated for the first time the effect of combination therapy of renin–angiotensin system inhibition (RASi) and sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) on endotrophin (ETP), a pro-fibrotic signaling molecule reflecting collagen type VI formation, measured in the plasma of persons with type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
We investigated for the first time the effect of combination therapy of renin–angiotensin system inhibition (RASi) and sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) on endotrophin (ETP), a pro-fibrotic signaling molecule reflecting collagen type VI formation, measured in the plasma of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D). ETP was measured using the PRO-C6 ELISA in 294 individuals from the “Drug combinations for rewriting trajectories of renal pathologies in type 2 diabetes” (DC-ren) project. In the DC-ren study, kidney disease progression was defined as a >10% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Among the investigated circulating markers, ETP was the most significant predictor of future eGFR. Combination therapy of RASi and SGLT2is led to a significant reduction in ETP levels compared to RASi monotherapy (p for slope difference = 0.002). Higher levels of baseline plasma ETP were associated with a significantly increased risk of kidney disease progression (p = 0.007). In conclusion, plasma ETP identified individuals at higher risk of kidney disease progression. The observed decreased levels of plasma ETP with combination therapy of RASi and SGLT2is in persons with T2D may reflect a reduced risk of kidney disease progression following treatment with SGLT2is. Full article
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15 pages, 3877 KiB  
Review
Why Intracranial Compliance Is Not Utilized as a Common Practical Tool in Clinical Practice
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3083; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113083 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Intracranial compliance (ICC) holds significant potential in neuromonitoring, serving as a diagnostic tool and contributing to the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Despite its comprehensive concept, which allows consideration of changes in both volume and intracranial pressure (ICP), ICC monitoring has not yet established [...] Read more.
Intracranial compliance (ICC) holds significant potential in neuromonitoring, serving as a diagnostic tool and contributing to the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Despite its comprehensive concept, which allows consideration of changes in both volume and intracranial pressure (ICP), ICC monitoring has not yet established itself as a standard component of medical care, unlike ICP monitoring. This review highlighted that the first challenge is the assessment of ICC values, because of the invasive nature of direct measurement, the time-consuming aspect of non-invasive calculation through computer simulations, and the inability to quantify ICC values in estimation methods. Addressing these challenges is crucial, and the development of a rapid, non-invasive computer simulation method could alleviate obstacles in quantifying ICC. Additionally, this review indicated the second challenge in the clinical application of ICC, which involves the dynamic and time-dependent nature of ICC. This was considered by introducing the concept of time elapsed (TE) in measuring the changes in volume or ICP in the ICC equation (volume change/ICP change). The choice of TE, whether short or long, directly influences the ICC values that must be considered in the clinical application of the ICC. Compensatory responses of the brain exhibit non-monotonic and variable changes in long TE assessments for certain disorders, contrasting with the mono-exponential pattern observed in short TE assessments. Furthermore, the recovery behavior of the brain undergoes changes during the treatment process of various brain disorders when exposed to short and long TE conditions. The review also highlighted differences in ICC values across brain disorders with various strain rates and loading durations on the brain, further emphasizing the dynamic nature of ICC for clinical application. The insight provided in this review may prove valuable to professionals in neurocritical care, neurology, and neurosurgery for standardizing ICC monitoring in practical application related to the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment outcomes in brain disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Translational Advances in Neurodegenerative Dementias)
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20 pages, 7356 KiB  
Article
Characterization of pre-mRNA Splicing Defects Caused by CLCN5 and OCRL Mutations and Identification of Novel Variants Associated with Dent Disease
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3082; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113082 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Dent disease (DD) is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis and progressive renal failure. Two-thirds of cases are associated with inactivating variants in the CLCN5 gene (Dent disease 1, DD1) and a few present variants in the OCRL [...] Read more.
Dent disease (DD) is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis and progressive renal failure. Two-thirds of cases are associated with inactivating variants in the CLCN5 gene (Dent disease 1, DD1) and a few present variants in the OCRL gene (Dent disease 2, DD2). The aim of the present study was to test the effect on the pre-mRNA splicing process of DD variants, described here or in the literature, and describe the clinical and genotypic features of thirteen unrelated patients with suspected DD. All patients presented tubular proteinuria, ten presented hypercalciuria and five had nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. CLCN5 and OCRL genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Nine patients showed variants in CLCN5 and four in OCRL; eight of these were new. Bioinformatics tools were used to select fifteen variants with a potential effect on pre-mRNA splicing from our patients’ group and from the literature, and were experimentally tested using minigene assays. Results showed that three exonic missense mutations and two intronic variants affect the mRNA splicing process. Our findings widen the genotypic spectrum of DD and provide insight into the impact of variants causing DD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genetic Diseases)
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29 pages, 1096 KiB  
Review
Landscape of Adrenal Tumours in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3081; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113081 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Our aim is to update the topic of adrenal tumours (ATs) in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) based on a multidisciplinary, clinical perspective via an endocrine approach. This narrative review is based on a PubMed search of full-length, English articles between January 2014 and [...] Read more.
Our aim is to update the topic of adrenal tumours (ATs) in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) based on a multidisciplinary, clinical perspective via an endocrine approach. This narrative review is based on a PubMed search of full-length, English articles between January 2014 and July 2023. We included 52 original papers: 9 studies, 8 case series, and 35 single case reports. Firstly, we introduce a case-based analysis of 59 CAH-ATs cases with four types of enzymatic defects (CYP21A2, CYP17A1, CYP17B1, and HSD3B2). Secondarily, we analysed prevalence studies; their sample size varied from 53 to 26,000 individuals. AT prevalence among CAH was of 13.3–20%. CAH prevalence among individuals with previous imaging diagnosis of AT was of 0.3–3.6%. Overall, this 10-year, sample-based analysis represents one of the most complex studies in the area of CAH-ATs so far. These masses should be taken into consideration. They may reach impressive sizes of up to 30–40 cm, with compressive effects. Adrenalectomy was chosen based on an individual multidisciplinary decision. Many tumours are detected in subjects with a poor disease control, or they represent the first step toward CAH identification. We noted a left lateralization with a less clear pathogenic explanation. The most frequent tumour remains myelolipoma. The risk of adrenocortical carcinoma should not be overlooked. Noting the increasing prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas, CAH testing might be indicated to identify non-classical forms of CAH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adrenal Diseases: An Update)
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14 pages, 2232 KiB  
Review
Lysosomal-Cleavable Peptide Linkers in Antibody–Drug Conjugates
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113080 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Antibody–drug Conjugates (ADCs) are a powerful therapeutic modality for cancer treatment. ADCs are multi-functional biologics in which a disease-targeting antibody is conjugated to an effector payload molecule via a linker. The success of currently used ADCs has been largely attributed to the development [...] Read more.
Antibody–drug Conjugates (ADCs) are a powerful therapeutic modality for cancer treatment. ADCs are multi-functional biologics in which a disease-targeting antibody is conjugated to an effector payload molecule via a linker. The success of currently used ADCs has been largely attributed to the development of linker systems, which allow for the targeted release of cytocidal payload drugs inside cancer cells. Many lysosomal proteases are over expressed in human cancers. They can effectively cleave a variety of peptide sequences, which can be exploited for the design of ADC linker systems. As a well-established linker, valine-citrulline-p-aminobenzyl carbamate (ValCitPABC) is used in many ADCs that are already approved or under preclinical and clinical development. Although ValCitPABC and related linkers are readily cleaved by cathepsins in the lysosome while remaining reasonably stable in human plasma, many studies have shown that they are susceptible to carboxylesterase 1C (Ces1C) in mouse and rat plasma, which hinders the preclinical evaluation of ADCs. Furthermore, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, two of the most commonly observed dose-limiting adverse effects of ADCs, are believed to result from the premature hydrolysis of ValCitPABC by human neutrophil elastase. In addition to ValCitPABC, the GGFG tetrapeptidyl-aminomethoxy linker is also cathepsin-cleavable and is used in the highly successful ADC drug, DS8201a. In addition to cathepsin-cleavable linkers, there is also growing interest in legumain-sensitive linkers for ADC development. Increasing plasma stability while maintaining lysosomal cleavability of ADC linkers is an objective of intensive current research. This review reports recent advances in the design and structure–activity relationship studies of various peptide/peptidomimetic linkers in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Applications of Bioactive Peptides)
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13 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
Pharmacogenetic Association between Allelic Variants of the Autophagy-Related Genes and Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment Response in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3079; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113079 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of late-onset blindness in elderly. The occurrence and development of AMD is a multifactorial complex process where autophagy plays an important role. The first-line drugs for neovascular AMD (nAMD) are inhibitors of VEGF, with [...] Read more.
Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of late-onset blindness in elderly. The occurrence and development of AMD is a multifactorial complex process where autophagy plays an important role. The first-line drugs for neovascular AMD (nAMD) are inhibitors of VEGF, with up to 30% of patients having an incomplete response to treatment. Genetic factors may influence the response to anti-VEGF therapy and explain treatment outcome variability. We aimed to estimate the role of polymorphic markers of the MTOR (rs1064261, rs1057079, rs11121704, rs2295080), SQSTM1 (rs10277), ULK1 (rs11246867, rs3088051), MAP1LC3A (rs73105013) and ATG5 (rs573775) genes in the development of nAMD and the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy response. Methods: Genotyping by allele-specific PCR was performed in 317 controls and 315 nAMD patients in the Russian population. Of them, 196 treatment-naive nAMD patients underwent three monthly intravitreal injections (IVIs) of aflibercept. Genotypic frequencies were compared with OCT markers of therapy effectiveness and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measures. The main outcomes were the BCVA gain and decrease in central retinal thickness (CRT). Results: MTOR-rs1057079-C, MTOR-rs11121704-C and MTOR-rs2295080-G alleles were associated with an increased risk of nAMD. The BCVA was increased in 117 (59.7%) patients by 10 [5–20] letters, did not changed in 59 (30.1%), and was decreased in 20 (10.2%) patients. ULK1-rs3088051 was associated with BCVA change. Among patients with the TT and CT genotypes for ULK1-rs3088051, an improvement in visual acuity was noted in 67.6% and 53.8% of cases, while in patients with the CC genotype, an increase in BCVA was recorded in 37.5% of cases (p = 0.01). The decrease in CRT was associated with SQSTM1-rs10277 (p = 0.001): it was significantly higher in TT (93 [58–122] mkm) and CT (66 [30–105] mkm) carriers compared to the CC genotype (47 [24–68] mkm). Other SNPs did not show significant associations with the outcome of anti-VEGF treatment. Conclusions: MTOR gene polymorphisms are moderately associated with the risk of nAMD. SQSTM1-rs10277 and ULK1-rs3088051 may influence short-term response to intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment. The results suggest that autophagy could be a target for future drugs to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD))
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21 pages, 5469 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Cytotoxic, and Computational Screening of Some Novel Indole–1,2,4-Triazole-Based S-Alkylated N-Aryl Acetamides
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3078; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113078 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Molecular hybridization has emerged as the prime and most significant approach for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapeutic agents for combating cancer. In this pursuit, a novel series of indole–1,2,4-triazol-based N-phenyl acetamide structural motifs 8af were synthesized and screened against [...] Read more.
Molecular hybridization has emerged as the prime and most significant approach for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapeutic agents for combating cancer. In this pursuit, a novel series of indole–1,2,4-triazol-based N-phenyl acetamide structural motifs 8af were synthesized and screened against the in vitro hepatocellular cancer Hep-G2 cell line. The MTT assay was applied to determine the anti-proliferative potential of novel indole–triazole compounds 8af, which displayed cytotoxicity potential as cell viabilities at 100 µg/mL concentration, by using ellipticine and doxorubicin as standard reference drugs. The remarkable prominent bioactive structural hybrids 8a, 8c, and 8f demonstrated good-to-excellent anti-Hep-G2 cancer chemotherapeutic potential, with a cell viability of (11.72 ± 0.53), (18.92 ± 1.48), and (12.93 ± 0.55), respectively. The excellent cytotoxicity efficacy against the liver cancer cell line Hep-G2 was displayed by the 3,4-dichloro moiety containing indole–triazole scaffold 8b, which had the lowest cell viability (10.99 ± 0.59) compared with the standard drug ellipticine (cell viability = 11.5 ± 0.55) but displayed comparable potency in comparison with the standard drug doxorubicin (cell viability = 10.8 ± 0.41). The structure–activity relationship (SAR) of indole–triazoles 8af revealed that the 3,4-dichlorophenyl-based indole–triazole structural hybrid 8b displayed excellent anti-Hep-G2 cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy. The in silico approaches such as molecular docking scores, molecular dynamic simulation stability data, DFT, ADMET studies, and in vitro pharmacological profile clearly indicated that indole–triazole scaffold 8b could be the lead anti-Hep-G2 liver cancer therapeutic agent and a promising anti-Hep-G2 drug candidate for further clinical evaluations. Full article
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13 pages, 4473 KiB  
Article
Crestal and Subcrestal Placement of Morse Cone Implant–Abutment Connection Implants: An In Vitro Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Study
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113077 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 612
Abstract
The issue of dental implant placement relative to the alveolar crest, whether in supracrestal, equicrestal, or subcrestal positions, remains highly controversial, leading to conflicting data in various studies. Three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (FEA) can offer insights into the biomechanical aspects of dental [...] Read more.
The issue of dental implant placement relative to the alveolar crest, whether in supracrestal, equicrestal, or subcrestal positions, remains highly controversial, leading to conflicting data in various studies. Three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (FEA) can offer insights into the biomechanical aspects of dental implants and the surrounding bone. A 3D model of the jaw was generated using computed tomography (CT) scans, considering a cortical thickness of 1.5 mm. Subsequently, Morse cone implant–abutment connection implants were virtually positioned at the model’s center, at equicrestal (0 mm) and subcrestal levels (−1 mm and −2 mm). The findings indicated the highest stress within the cortical bone around the equicrestally placed implant, the lowest stress in the −2 mm subcrestally placed implant, and intermediate stresses in the −1 mm subcrestally placed implant. In terms of clinical relevance, this study suggested that subcrestal placement of a Morse cone implant–abutment connection (ranging between −1 and −2 mm) could be recommended to reduce peri-implant bone resorption and achieve longer-term implant success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Materials)
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11 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of DNA Methylation Age as a Biomarker of Symptoms and Resilience among Cancer Survivors with Multiple Chronic Conditions
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113076 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 764
Abstract
This study aims to examine the feasibility of DNA methylation age as a biomarker for symptoms and resilience in cancer survivors with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). We included ten participants from our parent study, an ongoing randomized control trial study. Participants’ symptoms and [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the feasibility of DNA methylation age as a biomarker for symptoms and resilience in cancer survivors with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). We included ten participants from our parent study, an ongoing randomized control trial study. Participants’ symptoms and resilience were assessed, and peripheral blood was collected. DNA methylation age calculation was performed using DNAge® analysis. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation analysis and the Mann–Whitney U test. Participants in the intervention group tended to have a decrease in DNA methylation age and age acceleration after completing an exercise program (mean difference = −0.83 ± 1.26). The change in DNA methylation age was significantly correlated with the change in resilience score (r = −0.897, p = 0.015). The preliminary results suggest that DNA methylation age can be a potential biomarker for improving resilience in cancer survivors with multiple chronic conditions. This finding is limited by the small sample size, and a larger study is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Therapeutics)
16 pages, 3769 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Effects, Biocompatibility and Cytotoxicity of Co-Loaded Meropenem and Vancomycin in Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113075 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) have been reported as an effective system to co-deliver a variety of different agents to enhance efficiency and improve biocompatibility. This study was aimed at the preparation, physicochemical characterization, antimicrobial effects, biocompatibility, and cytotoxicity of vancomycin and meropenem co-loaded [...] Read more.
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) have been reported as an effective system to co-deliver a variety of different agents to enhance efficiency and improve biocompatibility. This study was aimed at the preparation, physicochemical characterization, antimicrobial effects, biocompatibility, and cytotoxicity of vancomycin and meropenem co-loaded in the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Van/Mrp-MSNPs). The prepared nanoparticles were explored for their physicochemical features, antibacterial and antibiofilm effects, biocompatibility, and cytotoxicity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the Van/Mrp-MSNPs (0.12–1 µg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus isolates were observed to be lower than those of the same concentrations of vancomycin and meropenem. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) range of the Van/Mrp-MSNPs was 8–64 μg/mL, which was lower than the meropenem and vancomycin MBICs. The bacterial adherence was not significantly decreased upon exposure to levels lower than the MICs of the MSNPs and Van/Mrp-MSNPs. The viability of NIH/3T3 cells treated with serial concentrations of the MSNPs and Van/Mrp-MSNPs were 73–88% and 74–90%, respectively. The Van/Mrp-MSNPs displayed considerable inhibitory effects against MRSA, favorable biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity. The Van/Mrp-MSNPs could be a potential system for the treatment of infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanomedicine and Nanobiology)
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11 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Allopurinol versus Febuxostat: A New Approach for the Management of Hepatic Steatosis in Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3074; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113074 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) includes patients with hepatic steatosis and at least one of five cardiometabolic risk factors. Xanthine oxidase (XO) represents a treatment target for MASLD. We aimed to evaluate the effect of two xanthine oxidase inhibitors, allopurinol and febuxostat, [...] Read more.
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) includes patients with hepatic steatosis and at least one of five cardiometabolic risk factors. Xanthine oxidase (XO) represents a treatment target for MASLD. We aimed to evaluate the effect of two xanthine oxidase inhibitors, allopurinol and febuxostat, plus lifestyle modifications compared to lifestyle modifications alone on improving steatosis. Ninety MASLD patients were assigned to one of three groups for three months. Patients with hyperuricemia were given either allopurinol 100 mg or febuxostat 40 mg daily, along with lifestyle modifications. The third control group was only given lifestyle modifications, excluding all patients with hyperuricemia due to ethical concerns. The primary outcome was to measure the change in the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) score as an indicator of steatosis from baseline after three months. The secondary outcome was to measure the change in serum uric acid (SUA) three months from baseline. The study found that the CAP score decreased significantly in the allopurinol group (p = 0.009), but the decline in the febuxostat or lifestyle groups was non-significant (p = 0.189 and 0.054, respectively). The SUA levels were significantly reduced in both the allopurinol and febuxostat groups (p < 0.001), with no statistical difference between the two groups (p = 0.496). Full article
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