Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomedical Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 28594

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania, Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: temporomandibular disorders; TED; temporomandibular joint; orofacial pain; dentistry; telemedicine; tele dentistry; implant; prosthesis; oral surgery
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Guest Editor
Division of Neurology, Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, AOU-University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", P.zza Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: neuroinflammation; multiple sclerosis; e-health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of medical and material sciences toward the development of therapeutic strategies. Continuous progress in the biomaterials field allows the development of new studies and methods to treat and rehabilitate patients. The growth of pharmaceutics and biomaterials as a research field has provided a novel set of therapeutic strategies for dental applications. Topics in this Special Issue include but are not limited to the following: new restorative materials, new regenerative materials, and translational research in all fields of dentistry. Authors conducting studies on these themes are welcome to submit original research articles and reviews.

Dr. Giuseppe Minervini
Dr. Gianmarco Abbadessa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • periodontics
  • temporomandibular disorders
  • biomaterials
  • surgery
  • regenerative medicine
  • bone graft
  • rehabilitation
  • dental implants
  • restorative dentistry
  • prosthetics
  • orthodontics
  • dental restorations
  • new materials
  • oral health
  • new technologies
  • dental imaging
  • digital workflow
  • digital dentistry

Published Papers (19 papers)

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14 pages, 28022 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Histological Study on Palatal and Gingival Mucosa Changes during a Rapid Palatal Expansion Procedure
by Eugen Bud, Alexandru Vlasa, Mariana Pacurar, Adrian Matei, Anamaria Bud, Andreea-Raluca Szoke and Giuseppe Minervini
Biomedicines 2023, 11(12), 3246; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11123246 - 7 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
The most common inflammatory reactions in the oral mucosa are found at the gingival level. The treatment of these inflammations requires, first of all, the removal of the causative factor; often, this maneuver is sufficient. The aim of this retrospective study was to [...] Read more.
The most common inflammatory reactions in the oral mucosa are found at the gingival level. The treatment of these inflammations requires, first of all, the removal of the causative factor; often, this maneuver is sufficient. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological changes that occur in terms of gingival and palatal mucosa enlargement during palatal expansion treatment and their evolution during treatment. Twenty-five (n = 25) research participants, aged between thirteen and twenty-six years old, were examined in this retrospective study. At the end of the treatment, fragments of tissue from the affected level were obtained via incisional biopsy and sent to the histopathology laboratory for a specialized examination. The changes identified were specific to mechanical traumatic injuries, thus excluding hyperplasia from other etiologies (infectious, tumoral, or non-mechanical traumatic). The examined fragments showed hyperplasia. The histopathological examination revealed the mechanical character of the lesion, strengthening the causal relationship between the insertion of the expander and the occurrence of hyperplasia of the palatal mucosa. The type of palatal expander influenced the degree of inflammation, with the severity of hyperplasia being more pronounced in the case of mini-implant-anchored rapid palatal expander (MARPE) usage than in the case of tooth-borne rapid palatal expander (RPE) usage. The analysis of the distance between the expander and the palatal mucosa did not provide conclusive results; the incidence and severity of the reaction were variable in patients with the same distance between the expander and the palatal or gingival mucosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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15 pages, 3548 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Surface Roughness of CAD/CAM Metal-Free Materials Used for Complete-Arch Implant-Supported Prostheses: An In Vitro Study
by Nataly Mory, Rocío Cascos, Alicia Celemín-Viñuela, Cristina Gómez-Polo, Rubén Agustín-Panadero and Miguel Gómez-Polo
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113036 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The roughness of the intra-oral surfaces significantly influences the initial adhesion and the retention of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the surface texture of four different CAD-CAM materials (two high-performance polymers and two fifth-generation zirconia) used for complete-arch implant-supported [...] Read more.
The roughness of the intra-oral surfaces significantly influences the initial adhesion and the retention of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the surface texture of four different CAD-CAM materials (two high-performance polymers and two fifth-generation zirconia) used for complete-arch implant-supported prostheses (CAISPs), and to investigate the effect of artificial aging on their roughness. A total of 40 milled prostheses were divided into 4 groups (n = 10) according to their framework material, bio.HPP (B), bio.HPP Plus (BP), zirconia Luxor Z Frame (ZF), and Luxor Z True Nature (ZM). The areal surface roughness “Sa” and the maximum height “Sz” of each specimen was measured on the same site after laboratory fabrication (lab as-received specimen) and after thermocycling (5–55 °C, 10,000 cycles) by using a noncontact optical profilometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 28.0.1. One-way ANOVA with multiple comparison tests (p = 0.05) and repeated measures ANOVA were used. After thermocycling, all materials maintained “Sa” values at the laboratory as-received specimen level (p = 0.24). “Sz” increased only for the zirconia groups (p = 0.01). B-BP exhibited results equal/slightly better than ZM-ZF. This study provides more realistic surface texture values of new metal-free materials used in real anatomical CAISPs after the manufacturing and aging processes and establishes a detailed and reproducible measurement workflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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17 pages, 1877 KiB  
Article
The All-on-4 Concept Using Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)—Acrylic Resin Prostheses: Follow-Up Results of the Development Group at 5 Years and the Routine Group at One Year
by Miguel de Araújo Nobre, Carlos Moura Guedes, Ricardo Almeida, António Silva and Nuno Sereno
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113013 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Background: It is necessary to investigate the application of polymer materials in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to examine the outcome of full-arch polyetheretherketone (PEEK)—acrylic resin implant-supported prostheses. Methods: Seventy-six patients were rehabilitated consecutively with 100 full-arch implant-supported prostheses of [...] Read more.
Background: It is necessary to investigate the application of polymer materials in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to examine the outcome of full-arch polyetheretherketone (PEEK)—acrylic resin implant-supported prostheses. Methods: Seventy-six patients were rehabilitated consecutively with 100 full-arch implant-supported prostheses of PEEK–acrylic resin (a development group (DG): 37 patients with 5 years of follow-up; a routine group (RG): 39 patients with 1 year of follow-up). The primary outcome measure was prosthetic survival. Secondary outcome measures were implant survival, marginal bone loss, biological complications, prosthetic complications, veneer adhesion, plaque levels, bleeding levels, and a patient subjective evaluation (including the Oral Health Impact Profile for the RG). Results: In both groups, prosthetic (DG: 93.6%; RG: 100%) and implant survival (DG: 98.9%; RG: 99.5%) were high, and marginal bone loss was low (DG: 0.54 mm; RG: 0.28 mm). The veneer adhesion rate was 28.6% of prostheses in DG (RG = 0%). Mechanical complications occurred in 49% and 11.8% of prostheses in DG and RG, respectively. Biological complications, plaque, and bleeding levels were low in both groups. The subjective patient evaluation was excellent in both groups (8.6 < DG < 8.8; 9.3 < RG < 9.5; OHIP = 1.38). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, PEEK can be considered a viable prosthetic alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 4387 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Eggshell and the Porcine Pericardium Membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration Applications
by Horia Opris, Mihaela Baciut, Marioara Moldovan, Stanca Cuc, Ioan Petean, Daiana Opris, Simion Bran, Florin Gligor Onisor, Gabriel Armenea and Grigore Baciut
Biomedicines 2023, 11(9), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11092529 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Guided bone regeneration is frequently used to reconstruct the alveolar bone to rehabilitate the mastication using dental implants. The purpose of this article is to research the properties of eggshell membrane (ESM) and its potential application in tissue engineering. The study focuses on [...] Read more.
Guided bone regeneration is frequently used to reconstruct the alveolar bone to rehabilitate the mastication using dental implants. The purpose of this article is to research the properties of eggshell membrane (ESM) and its potential application in tissue engineering. The study focuses on the structural, mechanical, and histological characteristics of ESM extracted from Gallus domesticus eggs and to compare them to a commercially available porcine pericardium membrane (Jason® membrane, botiss biomaterials GmbH, Zossen, Germany). Thus, histology was performed on the ESM, and a comparison of the microstructure through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was conducted. Also, mechanical tensile strength was evaluated. Samples of ESM were prepared and treated with alcohol for fixation and disinfection. Histological analysis revealed that the ESM architecture is constituted out of loose collagen fibers. However, due to the random arrangement of collagen fibers within the membrane, it might not be an effective barrier and occlusive barrier. Comparative analyses were performed between the ESM and the AFM examinations and demonstrated differences in the surface topography and mechanical properties between the two membranes. The ESM exhibited rougher surfaces and weaker mechanical cohesion attributed to its glycoprotein content. The study concludes that while the ESM displays favorable biocompatibility and resorb ability, its non-uniform collagen arrangement limits its suitability as a guided bone regeneration membrane in the current non-crosslinked native form. Crosslinking techniques may enhance its properties for such applications. Further research is needed to explore modifications and processing methods that could leverage the ESM’s unique properties for tissue engineering purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 2357 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Three Desensitizing Toothpastes on Dentinal Tubules Occlusion and on Dentin Hardness
by Emilia Bologa, Simona Stoleriu, Irina Nica, Ionuț Tărăboanță, Andrei Georgescu, Ruxandra Ilinca Matei and Sorin Andrian
Biomedicines 2023, 11(9), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11092464 - 5 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
There are two main methods used for dentin hypersensitivity (DH) treatment: dentinal tubule occlusion and blockage of nerve activity. Dentifrices are the most common vehicles for active ingredients used for DH treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of [...] Read more.
There are two main methods used for dentin hypersensitivity (DH) treatment: dentinal tubule occlusion and blockage of nerve activity. Dentifrices are the most common vehicles for active ingredients used for DH treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three toothpastes on dentinal tubule occlusion, mineral acquisition, and dentin hardness. Forty human dentin disks were submerged in 40% citric acid for 30 s and then exposed to tooth brushing for 2 min twice a day for 14 days using three toothpastes: Dontodent Sensitive (group 1), Dr. Wolff’s Biorepair (group 2), and Sensodyne Repair and Protect (group 3). In the control group (group 4), the samples were brushed with water. All of the samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Vickers dentin hardness determination. On SEM images, the degree of dentinal tubule occlusion was assessed using a five-grade scale. The mean score values in groups 1–4 were 3.60 ± 0.69, 2.20 ± 0.91, 2.30 ± 1.16, and 5.00 ± 0.00, significantly higher in study groups when compared to the control group (Kruskal Wallis test p < 0.05). EDX evaluation showed significantly higher calcium and phosphorus concentrations in groups 1 and 3 when compared to control group d. The mean values of Vickers dentin hardness numbers in groups 1–4 were 243.03 ± 10.014, 327.38 ± 56.65, 260.29 ± 37.69, and 225.83 ± 29.93, respectively. No statistically significant results were obtained when comparing the hardness mean values in groups (Kruskal-Wallis statistical test, p = 0.372 > 0.05). All three toothpastes tested demonstrated significant occlusion of dentinal tubules. Dontodent Sensitive and Sensodyne Repair and Protect toothpastes enhanced the calcium and phosphorus content of the dentin surface. None of the toothpastes increased dentin hardness as a result of mineral acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 2062 KiB  
Article
Changes in Molar Tipping and Surrounding Alveolar Bone with Different Designs of Skeletal Maxillary Expanders
by Javier Echarri-Nicolás, María José González-Olmo, Pablo Echarri-Labiondo and Martín Romero
Biomedicines 2023, 11(9), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11092380 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
This study compared the buccolingual angulation (BLA) of the upper and lower first permanent molars before and after using the different methods of microimplant-assisted expansion in adults and its influence on bone insertion loss. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans taken before and after [...] Read more.
This study compared the buccolingual angulation (BLA) of the upper and lower first permanent molars before and after using the different methods of microimplant-assisted expansion in adults and its influence on bone insertion loss. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans taken before and after the expansion in 36 patients (29.9 ± 9.4 years) were used to assess dental and periodontal changes and compare changes between the groups. Results: This research shows a statistically significant increase in the BLA of the upper first molars. An increase of the BLA of the lower molars is also observed in MARPE. Regarding the comparison between cases treated with MARPE (4.42° ± 10.25°; 3.67° ± 9.56°) and BAME (−0.51° ± 4.61°; 2.34° ± 4.51°), it was observed that upper molar torque increased significantly less in cases treated with BAME. In cases with CWRU < 96° at T0, a slight bone insertion gain was observed at T1, whereas if CWRU ≥ 96°, a slight bone insertion loss was observed. Regarding the labial cortical bone loss, a slight gain of CBW was observed in all cases. This labial cortical enlargement (T0–T1) is greater in cases where the CWRU < 96° at T0. Conclusions: Patients treated with MARPE show torque increase in the teeth selected to support the expansion appliance compared to cases treated with BAME. In cases where the BLA at T0 < 96°, an increase in thickness and cortical insertion is observed in the upper molars after treatment with disjunction appliances assisted with microscrews. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Benign Jawbone Tumors on the Temporomandibular Joint and Occlusion in Children: A Ten-Year Follow-Up Study
by Emil Crasnean, Alina Ban, Raluca Roman, Cristian Dinu, Mihaela Băciuț, Vlad-Ionuț Nechita, Simion Bran, Florin Onișor, Teodora Badiu, Oana Almășan and Mihaela Hedeșiu
Biomedicines 2023, 11(4), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11041210 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
This study aimed to provide a complex analysis of the modifications in craniofacial skeleton development that may arise following the diagnosis of pediatric benign jaw tumors. A prospective study was undertaken involving 53 patients younger than 18 years of age, who presented for [...] Read more.
This study aimed to provide a complex analysis of the modifications in craniofacial skeleton development that may arise following the diagnosis of pediatric benign jaw tumors. A prospective study was undertaken involving 53 patients younger than 18 years of age, who presented for treatment at the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, with a primary benign jaw lesion between 2012 and 2022. A total of 28 odontogenic cysts (OCs), 14 odontogenic tumors (OTs), and 11 non-OTs were identified. At follow-up, dental anomalies were identified in 26 patients, and overjet changes were found in 33 children; lateral crossbite, midline shift, and edge-to-edge bite were found in 49 cases; deep or open bite were found in 23 patients. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) were found in 51 children, with unilateral TMJ changes identified in 7 cases and bilateral modifications found in 44 patients. Degenerative changes in the TMJ were also diagnosed in 22 pediatric patients. Although benign lesions could be associated with dental malocclusions, a direct etiological factor could be not identified. The presence of jaw tumors or their surgical treatment could, however, be linked to a change of the occlusal relationships or the onset of a TMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
10 pages, 4430 KiB  
Article
Effect of Various Protocols of Pre-Emptive Pulpal Laser Analgesia on Enamel Surface Morphology Using Scanning Electron Microscopy: An Ex Vivo Study
by Ani Belcheva, Elitsa Veneva and Reem Hanna
Biomedicines 2023, 11(4), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11041077 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Achieving local anaesthesia for various clinical dental applications is a challenge that we encounter in our daily practice. Pre-emptive pulpal laser analgesia (PPLA) treatment strategy could be a promising non-pharmacological modality. Hence, our ex vivo laboratory study is aimed at evaluating the changes [...] Read more.
Achieving local anaesthesia for various clinical dental applications is a challenge that we encounter in our daily practice. Pre-emptive pulpal laser analgesia (PPLA) treatment strategy could be a promising non-pharmacological modality. Hence, our ex vivo laboratory study is aimed at evaluating the changes in enamel surface morphology when irradiated with various published PPLA protocols using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To do so, 24 extracted healthy human permanent premolar teeth were collected, and each tooth was divided into equal halves randomised into six groups. The following laser parameter protocols based on published protocols of clinical Er:YAG laser-induced PPLA were randomly assigned for each group: 0.2 W/10 Hz/3 J/cm2 (Group A—100% water spray; Group B—no water); 0.6 W/15 Hz/10 J/cm2 (Group C—100% water spray; Group D—no water); 0.75 W/15 Hz/12 J/cm2 (Group E—100% water spray; Group F—no water); 1 W/20 Hz/17 J/cm2 (Group G—100% water spray; Group H—no water). Each sample was irradiated at an angle of 90° to the dental pulp, with a sweeping speed of 2 mm/s for a 30 s exposure time. Our results have shown, for the first time, no alteration to the mineralised tooth structure when irradiated with the following protocols: 0.2 W/10 Hz/3 J/cm2 with 100% water spray or without water spray with an irradiated area fixed at a 10 mm tip-to-tissue distance, sweeping motion with 2 mm/s speed of movement; average power output of 0.6 W/15 Hz/10 J/cm2, maximum water cooling of 100%, tip-to-tooth distance fixed at 10 mm, 30 s exposure time, sweeping motion with 2 mm/s speed of movement. The authors concluded that the current available proposed PPLA protocols in the literature might cause an alteration to the enamel surface. Hence, future clinical studies are warranted to validate our study’s PPLA protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 3672 KiB  
Article
Application of Biodegradable Magnesium Membrane Shield Technique for Immediate Dentoalveolar Bone Regeneration
by Akiva Elad, Patrick Rider, Svenja Rogge, Frank Witte, Dražen Tadić, Željka Perić Kačarević and Larissa Steigmann
Biomedicines 2023, 11(3), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11030744 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
For the first time, the clinical application of the first CE registered magnesium membrane is reported. Due to the material characteristics of magnesium metal, new treatment methodologies become possible. This has led to the development of a new technique: the magnesium membrane shield [...] Read more.
For the first time, the clinical application of the first CE registered magnesium membrane is reported. Due to the material characteristics of magnesium metal, new treatment methodologies become possible. This has led to the development of a new technique: the magnesium membrane shield technique, used to rebuild the buccal or palatal walls of compromised extraction sockets. Four clinical cases are reported, demonstrating the handling options of this new technique for providing a successful regenerative outcome. Using the technique, immediate implant placement is possible with a provisional implant in the aesthetic zone. It can also be used for rebuilding both the buccal and palatal walls simultaneously. For instances where additional mechanical support is required, the membrane can be bent into a double layer, which additionally provides a rounder edge for interfacing with the soft tissue. In all reported clinical cases, there was a good bone tissue regeneration and soft tissue healing. In some instances, the new bone had formed a thick cortical bone visible in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) radiographs of the regenerated sites, which is known to be remodeled in the post treatment period. Overall, the magnesium membrane shield technique is presented as an alternative treatment option for compromised extraction sockets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 5795 KiB  
Article
A New Implantation Method for Orthodontic Anchor Screws: Basic Research for Clinical Applications
by Reiko Tokuyama-Toda, Hirochika Umeki, Shinji Ide, Fumitaka Kobayashi, Shunnosuke Tooyama, Mai Umehara, Susumu Tadokoro, Hiroshi Tomonari and Kazuhito Satomura
Biomedicines 2023, 11(3), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11030665 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1436
Abstract
This study aimed to determine whether the positional relationship between the underside of the screw head and the surface of the alveolar bone could alter the stress on the two surfaces and affect the stability of implanted anchor screws. First, in order to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine whether the positional relationship between the underside of the screw head and the surface of the alveolar bone could alter the stress on the two surfaces and affect the stability of implanted anchor screws. First, in order to confirm the extent of the gap between the mini-screw and the bone surface, a mini-screw was placed in the palate of rabbits and examined histologically. As a result, in the conventional screw implantation procedure, oral mucosa between the base of the screw head and the bone creates a spatial gap. Removal of the oral mucosa eliminates this gap. Then, we compared the positional difference of the screw in a contact and gap group by analyzing stress distribution on the bone and screw. Analysis using the finite element method showed that more stress was loaded on both the bone and screw in the gap group than in the contact group. Cortical bone thickness did not affect stress in either group. The effects of different load strengths were similar between groups. A surgical procedure in which mucosal coverings are removed so that implanted anchor mini-screws are in contact with the bone surface was found to reduce the stress load on both the bone and screw. This procedure can be used to prevent undesirable dislodgement of implanted mini-screws. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 1787 KiB  
Article
Heat Accumulation in Implant Inter-Osteotomy Areas—An Experimental In Vitro Study
by Shanlin Li, Adam Tanner, Georgios Romanos and Rafael Delgado-Ruiz
Biomedicines 2023, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11010009 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
To examine the influence of the distance between adjacent implant osteotomies on heat accumulation in the inter-osteotomy area, two experimental groups with 15 pairs of osteotomies in Type II polyurethane blocks were compared: 7 mm inter-osteotomy separations (Group A, n = 15) and [...] Read more.
To examine the influence of the distance between adjacent implant osteotomies on heat accumulation in the inter-osteotomy area, two experimental groups with 15 pairs of osteotomies in Type II polyurethane blocks were compared: 7 mm inter-osteotomy separations (Group A, n = 15) and 14 mm inter-osteotomy separations (Group B, n = 15). An infrared thermographic analysis of thermal changes in the inter-osteotomy area was completed. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher post-test were used to determine group differences. Higher temperatures were recorded in Group A at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level in both groups. The temperature reached max temperatures at T80s and T100s. In Group A, the threshold for thermal necrosis was exceeded. Meanwhile, Group B did not reach the threshold for thermal necrosis. Preparing adjacent implant osteotomies in dense bone with a 7 mm separation between their centers increases the temperature in the inter-osteotomy area, exceeding the threshold for bone thermal necrosis; meanwhile, increasing the distance between osteotomies reduces the thermal accumulation and the risk for thermal necrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 4325 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy of CPP-ACP Remineralizing Mousse in Molar-Incisor Hypomineralized Teeth Using Polarized Raman and Scanning Electron Microscopy—An In Vitro Study
by Inês Cardoso-Martins, Sofia Pessanha, Ana Coelho, Sofia Arantes-Oliveira and Paula F. Marques
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3086; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123086 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Remineralization of tooth enamel can be achieved by applying a complex of casein phosphopeptides and amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). However, the efficacy and optimization of this agent in molar–incisor hypomineralization (MIH) lacks evidence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy [...] Read more.
Remineralization of tooth enamel can be achieved by applying a complex of casein phosphopeptides and amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). However, the efficacy and optimization of this agent in molar–incisor hypomineralization (MIH) lacks evidence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CPP-ACP tooth mousse in remineralizing MIH-affected enamel in an optimized 28-day protocol using polarized Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The protocol was applied to two types of MIH opacities, white and yellow, and compared against sound enamel specimens before and after treatment. Data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc multiple comparisons test (p < 0.05) for the Raman analysis. Hypomineralized enamel showed an improvement of its structure after CPP-ACP supplementation. In addition, Raman spectroscopy results showed a decrease in the depolarization ratio of the symmetric stretching band of phosphate (p < 0.05 for both groups). In conclusion, there was an improvement in mineral density and organization of the hypomineralized enamel after treatment with CPP-ACP tooth mousse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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18 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Application of Two-Dimensional Entropy Measures to Detect the Radiographic Signs of Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis in an Equine Model
by Kamil Górski, Marta Borowska, Elżbieta Stefanik, Izabela Polkowska, Bernard Turek, Andrzej Bereznowski and Małgorzata Domino
Biomedicines 2022, 10(11), 2914; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10112914 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1691 | Correction
Abstract
Dental disorders are a serious health problem in equine medicine, their early recognition benefits the long-term general health of the horse. Most of the initial signs of Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH) syndrome concern the alveolar aspect of the teeth, thus, [...] Read more.
Dental disorders are a serious health problem in equine medicine, their early recognition benefits the long-term general health of the horse. Most of the initial signs of Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH) syndrome concern the alveolar aspect of the teeth, thus, the need for early recognition radiographic imaging. This study is aimed to evaluate the applicability of entropy measures to quantify the radiological signs of tooth resorption and hypercementosis as well as to enhance radiographic image quality in order to facilitate the identification of the signs of EOTRH syndrome. A detailed examination of the oral cavity was performed in eighty horses. Each evaluated incisor tooth was assigned to one of four grade–related EOTRH groups (0–3). Radiographs of the incisor teeth were taken and digitally processed. For each radiograph, two–dimensional sample (SampEn2D), fuzzy (FuzzEn2D), permutation (PermEn2D), dispersion (DispEn2D), and distribution (DistEn2D) entropies were measured after image filtering was performed using Normalize, Median, and LaplacianSharpening filters. Moreover, the similarities between entropy measures and selected Gray–Level Co–occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture features were investigated. Among the 15 returned measures, DistEn2D was EOTRH grade–related. Moreover, DistEn2D extracted after Normalize filtering was the most informative. The EOTRH grade–related similarity between DistEn2D and Difference Entropy (GLCM) confirms the higher irregularity and complexity of incisor teeth radiographs in advanced EOTRH syndrome, demonstrating the greatest sensitivity (0.50) and specificity (0.95) of EOTRH 3 group detection. An application of DistEn2D to Normalize filtered incisor teeth radiographs enables the identification of the radiological signs of advanced EOTRH with higher accuracy than the previously used entropy–related GLCM texture features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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17 pages, 4279 KiB  
Review
The Potential Role of Ionic Liquid as a Multifunctional Dental Biomaterial
by Md Iqbal Hossain, Abdullah Bin Shams, Shuvashis Das Gupta, Gary J. Blanchard, Ali Mobasheri and Ehsanul Hoque Apu
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113093 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2289
Abstract
In craniofacial research and routine dental clinical procedures, multifunctional materials with antimicrobial properties are in constant demand. Ionic liquids (ILs) are one such multifunctional intelligent material. Over the last three decades, ILs have been explored for different biomedical applications due to their unique [...] Read more.
In craniofacial research and routine dental clinical procedures, multifunctional materials with antimicrobial properties are in constant demand. Ionic liquids (ILs) are one such multifunctional intelligent material. Over the last three decades, ILs have been explored for different biomedical applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties, high task specificity, and sustainability. Their stable physical and chemical characteristics and extremely low vapor pressure make them suitable for various applications. Their unique properties, such as density, viscosity, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, may provide higher performance as a potential dental material. ILs have functionalities for optimizing dental implants, infiltrate materials, oral hygiene maintenance products, and restorative materials. They also serve as sensors for dental chairside usage to detect oral cancer, periodontal lesions, breath-based sobriety, and dental hard tissue defects. With further optimization, ILs might also make vital contributions to craniofacial regeneration, oral hygiene maintenance, oral disease prevention, and antimicrobial materials. This review explores the different advantages and properties of ILs as possible dental material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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22 pages, 3497 KiB  
Systematic Review
Should Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Be Performed Prior to Orthodontic Miniscrew Placement in the Infrazygomatic Crest Area?—A Systematic Review
by Marcin Stasiak and Paulina Adamska
Biomedicines 2023, 11(9), 2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11092389 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
There is no unequivocal scientific consensus for the temporary anchorage device (TAD) positioning in the infrazygomatic crest area (IZC). The two principal aims of this systematic review were to assess bone availability in the IZC and to establish both the target site and [...] Read more.
There is no unequivocal scientific consensus for the temporary anchorage device (TAD) positioning in the infrazygomatic crest area (IZC). The two principal aims of this systematic review were to assess bone availability in the IZC and to establish both the target site and the need for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) prior to miniscrew placement. The study was performed following PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO: CRD42023411650). The inclusion criteria were: at least 10 patients, three-dimensional radiological examination, and IZC assessment for the TAD placement. ROBINS-I tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used for quality evaluation. No funding was obtained. The study was based on the information coming from: PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science Core Collection, MDPI, Wiley, and Cochrane Libraries. The last search was carried out on 1 August 2023. Fourteen studies were identified for analysis. A narrative synthesis was performed to synthesize the findings of the different studies. Unfortunately, it is not possible to establish the generally recommended target site for IZC TAD placement. The reasons for this are the following: heterogeneity of available studies, inconsistent results, and significant risk of bias. The high variability of bone measurements and the lack of reliable predictors of bone availability justify the use of CBCT for TAD trajectory planning. There is a need for more high-quality studies aiming three-dimensional bone analysis of the IZC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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1 pages, 198 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Górski et al. Application of Two-Dimensional Entropy Measures to Detect the Radiographic Signs of Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis in an Equine Model. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 2914
by Kamil Górski, Marta Borowska, Elżbieta Stefanik, Izabela Polkowska, Bernard Turek, Andrzej Bereznowski and Małgorzata Domino
Biomedicines 2023, 11(7), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11071865 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 560
Abstract
In the original article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
13 pages, 2087 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Bacterial Biofilms—A Review including In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
by Hind Mubaraki, Navin Anand Ingle, Mohammad Abdul Baseer, Osamah M AlMugeiren, Sarah Mubaraki, Marco Cicciù and Giuseppe Minervini
Biomedicines 2023, 11(6), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11061641 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Caries/carious lesions are a growing concern among the general population across the world, and different strategies are evolving to combat the bacterial invasion that resultantly leads to caries. In this systematic review, we are looking to analyse the role of silver diamine fluoride [...] Read more.
Caries/carious lesions are a growing concern among the general population across the world, and different strategies are evolving to combat the bacterial invasion that resultantly leads to caries. In this systematic review, we are looking to analyse the role of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on the growth of bacterial biofilms. The search strategy for the studies to be selected for the review was initiated by a search across multiple databases, which ultimately yielded 15 studies that were in accordance with our objectives. The reviewed articles indicate a very clear correlation between the usage of SDF and the decrease in bacterial biofilms, which are limited not just to one or two but multiple bacterial species. As shown by the events favoring SDF’s odds ratio of 3.59 (with a 95% confidence interval of 2.13 to 6.05), a risk ratio of 1.63 (1.32 to 2.00), and a risk difference of 0.28 (0.16 to 0.40), there was strong evidence that SDF is a successful treatment for reducing bacterial biofilms in dental practice. This study offers substantial proof that SDF works well to reduce bacterial biofilms in dentistry practices. We advise further investigation to examine the potential of SDF as a standard therapy choice for dental caries and related conditions given the obvious relationship between the use of SDF and the reduction in bacterial biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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17 pages, 3638 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Efficacy of Locally Delivered Adjunctive Curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) in the Treatment of Periodontitis
by Louisa M. Wendorff-Tobolla, Michael Wolgin, Gernot Wagner, Irma Klerings, Anna Dvornyk and Andrej M. Kielbassa
Biomedicines 2023, 11(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020481 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
This meta-analysis intended to assess evidence on the efficacy of locally delivered curcumin/turmeric as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP), on clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD), compared to SRP alone or in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX). RCTs [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis intended to assess evidence on the efficacy of locally delivered curcumin/turmeric as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP), on clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD), compared to SRP alone or in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX). RCTs were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, BASE, LIVIVO, Dentistry Oral Sciences Source, MEDLINE Complete, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and eLibrary, until August 2022. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed by pooling mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Out of 827 references yielded by the search, 23 trials meeting the eligibility criteria were included. The meta-analysis revealed that SRP and curcumin/turmeric application were statistically significantly different compared to SRP alone for CAL (−0.33 mm; p = 0.03; 95% CI −0.54 to −0.11; I2 = 62.3%), and for PPD (−0.47 mm; p = 0.024; 95% CI −0.88 to −0.06; I2 = 95.5%); however, this difference was considered clinically meaningless. No significant differences were obtained between patients treated with SRP and CHX, compared to SRP and curcumin/turmeric. The RoB assessment revealed numerous inaccuracies, thus raising concerns about previous overestimates of potential treatment effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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15 pages, 21784 KiB  
Case Report
Method Presentation of a New Integrated Orthodontic-Conservative Approach for Minimally Invasive Full Mouth Rehabilitation: Speed Up Therapy
by Davide Foschi, Andrea Abate, Cinzia Maspero, Luca Solimei, Claudio Lanteri and Valentina Lanteri
Biomedicines 2022, 10(10), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10102536 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
The materials available today allow for extensive oral rehabilitations in a non-invasive way, and often an orthodontic preparation is useful and, thanks to the use of clear aligners, is predictable and comfortable. A preliminary study of the wax-up, mock-up, and set-up allow the [...] Read more.
The materials available today allow for extensive oral rehabilitations in a non-invasive way, and often an orthodontic preparation is useful and, thanks to the use of clear aligners, is predictable and comfortable. A preliminary study of the wax-up, mock-up, and set-up allow the clinician to plan every aspect of the treatment in detail. Furthermore, the procedure offers the patient an intuitive and understandable view of the expected final result. The new proposed method, called “speed up therapy”, allows for the integration of the orthodontic set-up with the mock-up technique, simulating the occlusal and aesthetic components of the planned restoration, in all details. The clinical case presented, demonstrates step by step the predictability and clinical reliability of the proposed procedure. The final clinical result coincides exactly with the initial mock-up and demonstrates that the proposed method is predictable and reliable. The correct execution of the technique is rigorously customized, and its success is operator dependent, both for the clinical aspects and for the dental laboratory. Thus, the visualization of the objectives of the treatment constitutes a decisive support for the clinician and provides the patient with the possibility of benefiting from an immediate improvement by making it easier for them to accept a treatment plan. The visualization also includes an orthodontic phase that potentially lengthens the treatment but makes the realization more conservative and predictable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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