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Behav. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 78 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): One theory is that neural changes make loved one-related stimuli more salient. The behavioral activation system (BAS) is one mechanism responsible for a range of motivational outcomes. This study was the first to investigate behavioral activation system sensitivity to a loved one by validating a new measure based on the BAS Scale in a sample of young adults experiencing romantic love. It then assessed the association between BAS sensitivity to a loved one and the intensity of romantic love in a subsample experiencing romantic love for less than 2 years. The findings shed light on the mechanisms that may contribute to romantic love and provide additional evidence that romantic love is associated with increased salience to stimuli from a loved one. This suggests that making loved one-related stimuli more salient is an important step in the evolution of romantic love. View this paper
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10 pages, 401 KiB  
Article
Access to Primary Healthcare and Discussion of Memory Loss with a Healthcare Provider in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Does Race/Ethnicity Matter?
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110955 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Because subjective cognitive decline (SCD) manifests before the clinical and irreversible onset of dementia, efforts to address SCD are imperative for the early identification and prevention of dementia. For people who actually experience SCD, having a usual source of care may be an [...] Read more.
Because subjective cognitive decline (SCD) manifests before the clinical and irreversible onset of dementia, efforts to address SCD are imperative for the early identification and prevention of dementia. For people who actually experience SCD, having a usual source of care may be an important catalyst for addressing memory issues. This study investigates the relationship between having a usual source of care and the discussion of SCD with healthcare providers, while taking into account racial and ethnic differences. The pooled 2019–2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 47 states in the U.S. was used. The sample included 7900 individuals aged 50 and older who reported significant cognitive decline. Using logistic regression with state-level clustering, we found that those with a usual source of healthcare were almost twice as more likely to discuss memory loss with a healthcare provider. In order to test for the multiplicative effects, we included an interaction term between each race category and having a primary care provider (PCP). There was a significant interaction effect between Hispanic ethnicity and having a PCP (OR = 0.25, p < 0.05). While non-Hispanic respondents who had a PCP had a higher probability of discussing memory issues with a healthcare provider (42% vs. 25%), Hispanic respondents with a PCP were less likely to discuss their memory loss with a healthcare provider (36% vs. 49%). The study adds to the growing literature on the vital role of the primary care service in provision of service to those with cognitive decline, while revealing ethnic disparity in memory-loss-related communication with healthcare providers in a primary care setting. Full article
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16 pages, 432 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Association between School Bullying Prevention and Control Measures and Secondary School Students’ Bullying Behavior in Jiangsu Province
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110954 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
(1) Background: China released regulations on school bullying prevention and control in 2017; however, current research on school bullying in China focuses on exploring influencing factors and lacks empirical research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying policies in schools. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: China released regulations on school bullying prevention and control in 2017; however, current research on school bullying in China focuses on exploring influencing factors and lacks empirical research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying policies in schools. The objective of this study was to use an empirical model to explore the association between bullying prevention and control measures and secondary school students’ bullying victimization and multiple bullying victimization in Chinese schools. (2) Methods: Data were derived from the 2019 Surveillance of Common Diseases and Health Influencing Factors among Students in Jiangsu Province. The school’s bullying prevention and control measures, which was the independent variable, were obtained in the form of a self-report questionnaire and consisted of five measures: the establishment of bullying governance committees, thematic education for students, thematic training for parents, special investigations on bullying, and a bullying disposal process. Bullying victimization and multiple bullying victimization, which was the dependent variable, were obtained through a modified version of the Olweus bullying victimization questionnaire. In order to better explain the differences in the results, this study constructed multilevel logistic regression models to test the association between school bullying prevention and control measures and the rates of bullying victimization and multiple bullying victimization among secondary school students at both the school level and the student level. Meanwhile, this study constructed five models based on the null model by sequentially incorporating demographic variables, physical and mental health variables, lifestyle variables, and bullying prevention and control measures in schools to verify this association. (3) Results: A total of 25,739 students were included in the analysis. The range of bullying victimization rates for students in the different secondary schools in this study was between 6.8% and 37.3%, and the range of multiple bullying victimization rates was between 0.9% and 14.8%. The establishment of bullying disposal procedures was strongly associated with a reduction in bullying victimization (OR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.71–0.99, p < 0.05). Establishing bullying disposal procedures was not significantly associated with multiple bullying victimization rates (OR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.73–1.09, p > 0.05). The establishment of a bullying governance committee, thematic education for students, thematic training for parents, and special surveys on bullying were not significantly associated with bullying victimization rates or multiple bullying victimization rates (all p > 0.05). (4) Conclusions: Among the current bullying prevention and control measures for secondary school students in China, the establishment of a bullying disposal process was conducive to reducing the rate of bullying victimization, but it was ineffective in reducing the rate of multiple bullying victimization, and the other preventive and control measures did not achieve the purpose of anti-bullying in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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14 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Parasocial Interactions in Digital Tourism: Attributes of Live Streamers and Viewer Engagement Dynamics in South Korea
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110953 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
This study investigates the use of live streaming as a strategic tool in the tourism industry, with a focus on the attributes of live streamers that influence viewer engagement, particularly in the context of South Korea’s digital landscape. The purpose of this research [...] Read more.
This study investigates the use of live streaming as a strategic tool in the tourism industry, with a focus on the attributes of live streamers that influence viewer engagement, particularly in the context of South Korea’s digital landscape. The purpose of this research is to understand how the attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise of live streamers can affect the parasocial relationships—characterized by perceived friendship and trust—between viewers and streamers and how these relationships subsequently influence viewer loyalty and cooperation intentions. A quantitative research methodology was employed, utilizing a structured online survey distributed by a leading market research agency in South Korea. The survey targeted a diverse demographic to ensure a comprehensive analysis of digital consumer behavior in the tourism sector. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 and IBM SPSS Amos 28.0, employing structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. The results revealed that while attractiveness and trustworthiness impact perceived friendship, only expertise significantly affects trust for a travel live streamer. Furthermore, perceived friendship plays a crucial role in fostering loyalty to and cooperation with the streamer, having practical implications for the tourism industry in terms of crafting marketing strategies and training digital ambassadors. Th study extends parasocial interaction theory to the digital travel domain, providing original insights into virtual tourist behavior and highlighting live streaming’s significant contribution to viewer engagement. This research has limitations in its geographical focus on South Korea, suggesting the need for cross-cultural studies to validate the findings. Overall, this study offers valuable contributions to the academic literature and practical guidance for the tourism industry, emphasizing the importance of digital personalities in post-pandemic tourism recovery strategies. Full article
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10 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Physical Fitness and Cyberbullying Patterns (Cybervictimization and Cyberperpetration) in Spanish Adolescents
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110952 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
(1) Background: Cyberbullying is a growing problem among adolescents, and deeper knowledge of this phenomenon could facilitate the implementation of adequate prevention and intervention strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between victimization and aggression patterns in cyberbullying [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cyberbullying is a growing problem among adolescents, and deeper knowledge of this phenomenon could facilitate the implementation of adequate prevention and intervention strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between victimization and aggression patterns in cyberbullying and physical fitness levels in Spanish adolescents. (2) Methods: A total of 741 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years from two high schools in Andalusia, Spain (mean = 14.52 ± 1.96 years; 50.9% girls, 49.1% boys) participated in the study. The participants underwent the EUROFIT battery test and completed the Spanish version of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) scale. T-test, bivariate correlations and a linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. (3) Results: The study results indicated positive relationships between cyberbullying patterns, especially cybervictimization, and age, as well as several physical fitness measures, including BMI, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, and handgrip tests. On the other hand, cyberperpetration was positively related only to age and the specific grip strength test. Further statistical analysis revealed that cybervictimization was primarily influenced by age, while cyberperpetration was mainly influenced by age and performance in a functional test (sit-and-reach). (4) Conclusions: Cyberbullying roles, both as victims and aggressors, may not be strongly influenced by isolated physical fitness factors. Thus, in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding and better explanations of individual involvement in cyberbullying behavior, future studies should analyze psychological and social factors along with the variables considered in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Advances in Physical Education and Sport Teaching)
12 pages, 485 KiB  
Article
Habitual Mask Wearing as Part of COVID-19 Control in Japan: An Assessment Using the Self-Report Habit Index
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110951 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Although the Japanese government removed mask-wearing requirements in 2023, relatively high rates of mask wearing have continued in Japan. We aimed to assess psychological reasons and the strength of habitual mask wearing in Japan. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with non-random participant [...] Read more.
Although the Japanese government removed mask-wearing requirements in 2023, relatively high rates of mask wearing have continued in Japan. We aimed to assess psychological reasons and the strength of habitual mask wearing in Japan. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with non-random participant recruitment. We explored the frequency of mask usage, investigating psychological reasons for wearing masks. A regression analysis examined the association between psychological reasons and the frequency of mask wearing. The habitual use of masks was assessed in the participant’s most frequently visited indoor space and public transport using the self-report habit index. The principal component analysis with varimax rotation revealed distinct habitual characteristics. Among the 2640 participants surveyed from 6 to 9 February 2023, only 4.9% reported not wearing masks at all. Conformity to social norms was the most important reason for masks. Participants exhibited a slightly higher degree of habituation towards mask wearing on public transport compared to indoor spaces. The mask-wearing rate was higher in females than in males, and no significant difference was identified by age group. Daily mask wearing in indoor spaces was characterized by two traits (automaticity and behavioral frequency). A high mask-wearing frequency has been maintained in Japan during the social reopening transition period. Mask wearing has become a part of daily habit, especially on public transport, largely driven by automatic and frequent practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology and Behaviors during COVID-19)
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12 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Vaccination Intentions and Behaviour during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110950 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
The present research aimed at understanding individuals’ vaccination intentions and protective behaviours against COVID-19 through two different studies. In Study 1 (N = 213, 73% women; mean age = 24.03) the Protection Motivation Theory model was tested considering the fear of COVID-19 as [...] Read more.
The present research aimed at understanding individuals’ vaccination intentions and protective behaviours against COVID-19 through two different studies. In Study 1 (N = 213, 73% women; mean age = 24.03) the Protection Motivation Theory model was tested considering the fear of COVID-19 as a possible mediator between threat appraisal (in terms of both health and social life) and intentions to get vaccinated when the vaccination was not yet available. Study 2 (N = 1111, 68.9% women; mean age = 38.33) was conducted when the vaccine became available for the entire population. Through this study, by adopting the 5C model of vaccine hesitancy as a theoretical framework, we aimed to understand how people who got vaccinated and the ones who did not differed, considering fear of vaccination, personality and vaccination hesitancy. In Study 1, social limitations, perceived severity and COVID-19 perceived vulnerability were significantly and positively related to fear of COVID-19. Contrary to what we expected, fear of COVID-19 was not a significant predictor of vaccination intention, which was predicted by both response efficacy and self-efficacy. In Study 2, in line with previous studies, vaccine hesitancy was negatively related to vaccination. More specifically, the social-oriented dimension of collective responsibility was the strongest predictor of effective behaviour. Our findings provide insights into the complexity of vaccine acceptance and emphasise the need for targeted interventions to promote vaccination and mitigate the spread of infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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22 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Developing STEM Career Identities among Latinx Youths: Collaborative Design, Evaluations, and Adaptations during COVID-19
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110949 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
In response to the low representation of Latinx adults in STEM occupations, this community-based participatory action research study aims to increase the number of middle school youths developing STEM career identities and entering high school with the intention to pursue STEM careers. The [...] Read more.
In response to the low representation of Latinx adults in STEM occupations, this community-based participatory action research study aims to increase the number of middle school youths developing STEM career identities and entering high school with the intention to pursue STEM careers. The students were provided with summer and after-school activities focusing on network science and career development curricula. Using a quasi-experimental pretest–posttest design and career narratives, this study examined the changes in STEM and career self-efficacy, as well as career identity. The results show improvements in self-efficacy, an increased number of youths with intentions of pursuing future STEM career opportunities, and deeper reflections on their talents and skills after program participation. This paper also describes the program development and implementation in detail, as well as the adaptations that resulted from COVID-19, for scholars and educators designing similar programs. This study provides promising evidence for the quality of STEM and career development lessons in supporting the emergence of a STEM career identity and self-efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Counselling Psychology for Children and Youth)
12 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
The Association between Perceived Family Financial Stress and Adolescent Suicide Ideation: A Moderated Mediation Model
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110948 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Nowadays, suicide (especially adolescents’ suicide) has been an increasingly prominent social problem worldwide; suicide ideation, as an important predictor, has been the focus of relevant studies and practices. Against this background, the present study aimed to examine the association between perceived family financial [...] Read more.
Nowadays, suicide (especially adolescents’ suicide) has been an increasingly prominent social problem worldwide; suicide ideation, as an important predictor, has been the focus of relevant studies and practices. Against this background, the present study aimed to examine the association between perceived family financial stress and adolescents’ suicidal ideation, as well as the potential roles of depression and parent-child attachment. A sample of 526 junior middle school students was recruited voluntarily to participate in this cross-sectional study, and the results indicated that the prevalence of suicidal ideation among junior high school students was 15.45%; perceived family financial stress was positively associated with suicidal ideation, and depression could significantly mediate this relation; parent–child attachment significantly moderated the mediating effect of depression (in particular, the relation between depression and suicidal ideation); specifically, this relation was stronger among adolescents with lower values of parent–child attachment. These findings could deepen our understanding of the influences of perceived family financial condition and the risky factors of adolescents’ suicidal ideation, which could provide guidance for the prevention and intervention of adolescents’ depression and suicidal ideation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Self-Harm, Chronic Pain and Suicide)
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15 pages, 4951 KiB  
Article
Empathy Modulates the Activity of the Sensorimotor Mirror Neuron System during Pain Observation
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110947 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the brain activity patterns during the observation of painful expressions and to establish the relationship between this activity and the scores obtained on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Methods: The study included twenty healthy, [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the brain activity patterns during the observation of painful expressions and to establish the relationship between this activity and the scores obtained on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Methods: The study included twenty healthy, right-handed subjects (10 women). We conducted a task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The task involved observing pictures displaying painful expressions. We performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis focusing on the core regions of the sensorimotor mirror neuron system (MNS). Resting-state fMRI was utilized to assess the functional connectivity of the sensorimotor MNS regions with the rest of the cortex using a seed-to-voxel approach. Additionally, we conducted a regression analysis to examine the relationship between brain activity and scores from the IRI subtests. Results: Observing painful expressions led to increased activity in specific regions of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The largest cluster of activation was observed in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). However, the ROI analysis did not reveal any significant activity in the remaining core regions of the sensorimotor MNS. The regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between brain activity during the observation of pain and the “empathic concern” subtest scores of the IRI in both the cingulate gyri and bilateral IPL. Finally, we identified a positive relationship between the “empathic concern” subtest of the IRI and the functional connectivity (FC) of bilateral IPLs with the bilateral prefrontal cortex and the right IFG. Conclusion: Observing expressions of pain triggers activation in the sensorimotor MNS, and this activation is influenced by the individual’s level of empathy. Full article
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12 pages, 1020 KiB  
Article
Stress, Resilience, Burnout and Study Hours in Physical Education Pre-Service Teachers—An Explanatory Model about Gender
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110946 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 806
Abstract
The process of becoming a public teacher in Spain requires a long period of preparation. This long period of preparation has an impact on the psychosocial environment of the candidates. Differences have been observed in the psychosocial area according to gender in pre-service [...] Read more.
The process of becoming a public teacher in Spain requires a long period of preparation. This long period of preparation has an impact on the psychosocial environment of the candidates. Differences have been observed in the psychosocial area according to gender in pre-service teachers. This research aims to study the relationship between the study hours per day, stress, burnout syndrome and resilience according to gender and to study the differences in the effects according to gender using multigroup equation modeling. A multigroup structural equation analysis has been proposed according to the gender of the participants. Parametric tests were used for the descriptive analysis of the results. The sample consists of 4117 participants, 1363 males and 2754 females. The instruments used to collect the data were a self-made questionnaire, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. All the instruments have been validated and adapted to the sample. The data reveal that there are variations in the effects of the variables according to the gender of the participants. In conclusion, it is affirmed that gender is a very important factor in coping with the competitive examination process for state-public-teaching institutions, as well as in avoiding the appearance of disruptive states generated by this preparation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job-Related Stress, Burnout and Quality of Life)
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10 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Link between Interoceptive Body Awareness and Suicidal Orientation in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110945 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Introduction: The transition to college life can impact the mental health of students. There are mental health care strategies that promote connection with the body’s internal signals, which can help to improve mental well-being, manage emotions, and reduce the risk of suicide in [...] Read more.
Introduction: The transition to college life can impact the mental health of students. There are mental health care strategies that promote connection with the body’s internal signals, which can help to improve mental well-being, manage emotions, and reduce the risk of suicide in university students. Aim: This study aimed to examine the association between interoceptive body awareness variables and suicidal orientation in a sample of 169 undergraduate students in Colombia. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2023 with Colombian students as the participants. Results: The findings revealed a significant and moderately negative correlation between the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) total score and the Inventory of Suicide Orientation (ISO-30) total score (r = −0.54, p < 0.001). Confidence and self-regulation were identified as the most influential factors in the relationship between MAIA and ISO-30. Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.001), indicating moderate correlation values ranging from −0.43 to −0.57. Discussion: Our findings support the existence of a negative correlation between interoceptive body awareness and suicidal orientation. Further research is needed to better understand this relationship and to develop specific interventions based on body awareness to prevent suicide orientation. Conclusion: There are practical implications associated with recognizing the importance of body awareness in relation to decreasing suicidal orientation, and multidisciplinary teams addressing mental health can incorporate this knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
22 pages, 1125 KiB  
Review
“I Need Someone to Help Me Build Up My Strength”: A Meta-Synthesis of Lived Experience Perspectives on the Role and Value of a Dietitian in Eating Disorder Treatment
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110944 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Dietitians are included in eating disorder (ED) treatment teams for their expertise in nutrition. However, little is known about an individual’s experience of dietetic intervention as part of their ED treatment and what they value as part of dietetic care. Therefore, the aim [...] Read more.
Dietitians are included in eating disorder (ED) treatment teams for their expertise in nutrition. However, little is known about an individual’s experience of dietetic intervention as part of their ED treatment and what they value as part of dietetic care. Therefore, the aim of this review was to synthesise the available qualitative literature to understand the role and value of a dietitian in ED treatment from the perspective of individuals with lived experience. Six databases and Google Scholar were searched and a thematic synthesis and meta-synthesis of fifteen studies were conducted. Four themes were constructed from the data: (1) “guidance and structure”—Provision of nutrition knowledge and skills; (2) “having all my bases covered”—Dietitians as part of a multidisciplinary team; (3) Challenges in nutritional treatment; and (4) “it was my treatment and my recovery”—Person-centred dietetic treatment. Across all identified themes was the cross-cutting theme of a shared treatment journey between the dietitian and the individual receiving treatment. These findings support dietitians having a role that is not limited only to the provision of nutrition treatment in ED care and illustrates the importance of dietitians engaging with clients by centring on the individual’s needs and preferences. Further understanding helpful dietetic treatment components and identifying gaps in training is needed to develop these broader roles for dietetic care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Advances in Eating Disorders and Addictive Eating)
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12 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
Wireless Lighting System: A New Tool for Assessing Cognitive Functions in the Elderly
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110943 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Studies on the effects of aging on cognition have been using the same cognitive tests for decades. A Wireless Lighting System (WLS) could be used to assess cognitive functions in a physically active situation, making the assessment of cognition less isolated and more [...] Read more.
Studies on the effects of aging on cognition have been using the same cognitive tests for decades. A Wireless Lighting System (WLS) could be used to assess cognitive functions in a physically active situation, making the assessment of cognition less isolated and more ecological. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the potential of a WLS for assessing older adults’ cognitive functions. It was set up with 15 young (M = 23.47 years old) and 18 older adults (M = 71.44 years old). Their performances were recorded on three WLS tests, designed with the Witty SEM system to assess four main cognitive functions (i.e., inhibition, flexibility, visuospatial short-term and working memory), as well as on three traditional (TRAD) tests (Spatial Span Test, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test). The results show a significant difference between the YOUNG and OLD groups on all WLS test measures (except for WLS flexibility), as well as on all TRAD measures. Additionally, for the OLD group, there were significant correlations between WLS and TRAD test results (r = −0.49 for two measures of inhibition to r = −0.80 for two other measures of inhibition), except for visuospatial short-term memory. However, there was no significant correlation for the YOUNG group (ρ = −0.27 for inhibition to r = 0.45 for visuospatial short-term memory). These WLS tests were valid for assessing the cognitive functions (i.e., flexibility, visuospatial short-term and working memory, inhibition) of older adults and were sensitive to aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Aging)
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12 pages, 277 KiB  
Review
Perinatal Depression and the Role of Synaptic Plasticity in Its Pathogenesis and Treatment
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110942 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Emerging evidence indicates that synaptic plasticity is significantly involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of perinatal depression. Animal models have demonstrated the effects of overstimulated or weakened synapses in various circuits of the brain in causing affective disturbances. GABAergic theory of depression, stress, [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence indicates that synaptic plasticity is significantly involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of perinatal depression. Animal models have demonstrated the effects of overstimulated or weakened synapses in various circuits of the brain in causing affective disturbances. GABAergic theory of depression, stress, and the neuroplasticity model of depression indicate the role of synaptic plasticity in the pathogenesis of depression. Multiple factors related to perinatal depression like hormonal shifts, newer antidepressants, mood stabilizers, monoamine systems, biomarkers, neurotrophins, cytokines, psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy have demonstrated direct and indirect effects on synaptic plasticity. In this review, we discuss and summarize the various patho-physiology-related effects of synaptic plasticity in depression. We also discuss the association of treatment-related aspects related to psychotropics, electroconvulsive therapy, neuromodulation, psychotherapy, physical exercise and yoga with synaptic plasticity in perinatal depression. Future insights into newer methods of treatment directed towards the modulation of neuroplasticity for perinatal depression will be discussed. Full article
21 pages, 1755 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Continuous Usage Intention in Community Group Buying Platform in China: Based on the Information System Success Model and the Expanded Technology Acceptance Model
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110941 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Community group buying is a new retail model with broad development prospects. The community group buying model in China has brought obvious social and economic benefits. However, the continuous usage rate on some community group buying platforms is relatively low. Consumers’ continuous usage [...] Read more.
Community group buying is a new retail model with broad development prospects. The community group buying model in China has brought obvious social and economic benefits. However, the continuous usage rate on some community group buying platforms is relatively low. Consumers’ continuous usage intentions are closely related to the sustainable development of community group buying platforms. Therefore, this study integrates the information system success model (D&M model) and the expanded technology acceptance model (TAM) to construct a research model that explores the factors influencing consumers’ continuous usage intentions from both the platform’s and consumers’ perspectives. The survey data involving 418 respondents who used community group buying platforms were developed and analyzed for structural equation model (SEM) testing. The results show the following: (1) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, service quality, perceived trust, expectation confirmation, and subjective norms significantly affect continuous usage intention. (2) Subjective norms are significantly related to continuous usage intention. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, service quality, perceived trust, and expectation confirmation indirectly affect continuous usage intention through user satisfaction. This research provides a new perspective for the theoretical research of community group buying and helps to promote the sustainable development of community group buying platforms in management practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Economics)
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16 pages, 676 KiB  
Review
A Meta-Analysis of Social Skills Interventions for Preschoolers with or at Risk of Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110940 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Early social–behavioral intervention that emphasizes social skill training is critical to addressing emotional and behavioral problems in early childhood. In this meta-analysis review, we examined all the social skills intervention studies for preschoolers with, or at risk of, emotional and behavioral problems using [...] Read more.
Early social–behavioral intervention that emphasizes social skill training is critical to addressing emotional and behavioral problems in early childhood. In this meta-analysis review, we examined all the social skills intervention studies for preschoolers with, or at risk of, emotional and behavioral problems using group designs. This review included 25 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The robust variance estimation method was used to calculate the overall effect size of all the included studies, as this method can count for the pre-existing difference between the experiment and control groups. The included studies yielded an overall effect of 0.54 from the 151 effect sizes that were obtained for the 3484 preschool participants. Curriculum, integration, and treatment fidelity were identified as significant moderators of effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wellbeing and Mental Health among Students)
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20 pages, 321 KiB  
Article
Pathways by Which Self-Compassion Improves Positive Body Image: A Qualitative Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110939 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The current study applied consensual qualitative research–modified to essays written by 51 college women completing an expressive writing intervention over three time points for a total of 153 essays to identify how increases in self-compassion improve body image. A qualitative coding team tracked [...] Read more.
The current study applied consensual qualitative research–modified to essays written by 51 college women completing an expressive writing intervention over three time points for a total of 153 essays to identify how increases in self-compassion improve body image. A qualitative coding team tracked changes in affect and cognition over three time points. The results demonstrated that college women consistently expressed body acceptance and psychological flexibility. Additionally, the participants expressed important increases in mindfulness as well as decreases in social influences, feelings of separation, negative health behaviors, and attention to media messages. Decreases were found in their expressions of body functionality, love and kindness toward their body, and internal locus of control. These findings suggest pathways through which self-compassion may improve women’s body image by increasing mindfulness and decreasing the negative ways of relating to one’s body, specifically in the areas of media, clothing, make-up, and negative social interactions. Full article
11 pages, 702 KiB  
Article
Maximizers’ Reactance to Algorithm-Recommended Options: The Moderating Role of Autotelic vs. Instrumental Choices
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110938 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
The previous literature has provided mixed findings regarding whether consumers appreciate or are opposed to algorithms. The primary goal of this paper is to address these inconsistencies by identifying the maximizing tendency as a critical moderating variable. In Study 1, it was found [...] Read more.
The previous literature has provided mixed findings regarding whether consumers appreciate or are opposed to algorithms. The primary goal of this paper is to address these inconsistencies by identifying the maximizing tendency as a critical moderating variable. In Study 1, it was found that maximizers, individuals who strive for the best possible outcomes, exhibit greater reactance toward algorithm-recommended choices than satisficers, those who are satisfied with a good-enough option. This increased reactance also resulted in decreased algorithm adoption intention. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings from Study 1 by identifying the moderating role of choice goals. Maximizers are more likely to experience reactance to algorithm-recommended options when the act of choosing itself is intrinsically motivating and meaningful (i.e., autotelic choices) compared to when the decision is merely a means to an end (i.e., instrumental choices). The results of this research contribute to a nuanced understanding of how consumers with different decision-making styles navigate the landscape of choice in the digital age. Furthermore, it offers practical insights for firms that utilize algorithmic recommendations in their businesses. Full article
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1 pages, 166 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Aleissa et al. The Association between Video Game Type and Aggressive Behaviors in Saudi Youth: A Pilot Study. Behav. Sci. 2022, 12, 289
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110937 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following correction to the published paper [...] Full article
21 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Classroom Size and Window View on Young Children’s Executive Functions and Physiological Responses, Based on VR Technology
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110936 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
Despite the increasing enrollment of young children in childcare institutes, there have been few empirical studies on the effects of spatial elements on their development. This study explored the impact of preschool classroom size (large vs. small) and window view (natural vs. built [...] Read more.
Despite the increasing enrollment of young children in childcare institutes, there have been few empirical studies on the effects of spatial elements on their development. This study explored the impact of preschool classroom size (large vs. small) and window view (natural vs. built environment) on young children’s executive functions and physiological stress responses, using cortisol and heart rate variability (HRV) as indicators and employing virtual reality (VR) technology. Out of 144 participants aged 61–85 months, three were excluded due to missing values and outliers. Executive function tests were administered, and saliva samples were collected before and after VR exposure; HRV data were gathered during the experience. ANCOVA results indicated significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, as measured based on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task, in the large classroom condition, and a marginally significant decrease in visuo-spatial working memory, as measured with the Corsi block task, in the small classroom condition. The classroom size conditions did not significantly differ in cortisol response, but the large classroom condition showed marginally significant HRV indices, suggesting increased relaxation. No significant effects on executive functions or physiological responses were found in either window view condition. Overall, the findings suggest that classroom size may influence young children’s cognitive flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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16 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
The 10-Item Short Form of the German Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-G-10)—Model Fit, Reliability, and Validity
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110935 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 908
Abstract
The aim of the present work was the development and validation of a short form of the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR) in German. Three studies were conducted. In study 1, the best items for the short form were selected from the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was the development and validation of a short form of the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR) in German. Three studies were conducted. In study 1, the best items for the short form were selected from the item pool of the original version based on ant colony optimization (ACO), a recently developed probabilistic approach. Data from three samples collected at a university, an online portal, and a psychosomatic clinic with a total of 1470 participants were analyzed. A 10-item solution resulted, measuring avoidance and anxiety with five items each. This solution showed a good model fit and acceptable reliability in all three samples. The two new short scales were independent of each other. In study 2, the 10-item solution was validated by correlating the new short scales with external criteria. Data from previous studies that included student, community, and clinical samples were reanalyzed. Both short scales showed expected correlations with measures of romantic relationships, personality, psychopathology, and childhood trauma, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. The significant correlations were moderate to strong. In study 3, the selected ten items alone and several content-related scales were presented online to 277 participants, most of them students. The good results in terms of model fit, reliability, and validity observed in studies 1 and 2 could be replicated here. The new short form, called ECR-G-10, allows the measurement of attachment avoidance and anxiety in an economic way in research and clinical practice. Full article
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20 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
The Reward-Related Shift of Emotional Contagion from the Observer’s Perspective Correlates to Their Intimacy with the Expresser
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110934 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Although previous studies have found a bidirectional relationship between emotional contagion and reward, there is insufficient research to prove the effect of reward on the social function of emotional contagion. To explore this issue, the current study used electroencephalography (EEG) and the interactive [...] Read more.
Although previous studies have found a bidirectional relationship between emotional contagion and reward, there is insufficient research to prove the effect of reward on the social function of emotional contagion. To explore this issue, the current study used electroencephalography (EEG) and the interactive way in which the expresser played games to help participants obtain reward outcomes. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between changes in emotional contagion and closeness, indicating that emotional contagion has a social regulatory function. Regarding the impact of reward outcomes, the results showed that compared to the context of a loss, in the context of a win, participants’ closeness toward the expresser shifted to a more intimate level, their emotional contagion changed in a more positive direction, and the activity of the late positive component (LPC) of the event-related potentials (ERPs) changed to a greater extent. Significantly, the mediation results demonstrated the effect of reward and indicated that changes in the LPC elicited while experiencing the expressers’ emotion predicted the subsequent shifts in closeness through alterations in emotional contagion of the anger emotion in the winning context and the happy emotion in the loss context. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the social function of emotional contagion and proves for the first time that the reward context plays a role in it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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10 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
How Do Two Types of Exercise Habits Predict Physical Activity with Intention?
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110933 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
This manuscript investigates how conscious intention and unconscious exercise habits influence physical activity behavior. While prior research has predominantly focused on conscious decision-making, this study applied a dual-process model to explore the impact of intention and habit on physical activity engagement. Out of [...] Read more.
This manuscript investigates how conscious intention and unconscious exercise habits influence physical activity behavior. While prior research has predominantly focused on conscious decision-making, this study applied a dual-process model to explore the impact of intention and habit on physical activity engagement. Out of the 300 questionnaires distributed to students from one university, 282 questionnaires were utilized for data analysis after excluding insincere responses. Intention was measured using a 7-point scale, while exercise habits were assessed using the Self-Report Behavioral Automaticity Index. In addition, physical activity was measured using the Weekly Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. The validity and reliability of measurement tools were confirmed. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS, including correlation analysis, multiple regression, and moderation analysis. Intention, exercise preparation habit, and exercise performance habit were all found to influence physical activity levels significantly. Intention demonstrated the strongest impact, followed by exercise preparation habit and exercise performance habit. This suggests that the research efforts regarding intention conducted before the emergence of the dual process model, which proposes the importance of unconscious thinking patterns, were not in vain. The analysis revealed a statistically significant moderating effect of exercise preparation habit, but not exercise performance habit, in the relationship between intention and physical activity. Exercise preparation habit was identified as a significant moderator, enhancing the relationship between intention and physical activity. This study underscores the importance of considering both conscious intention and unconscious exercise habits in promoting physical activity. The findings challenge the prevailing emphasis on conscious decision-making and highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of unconscious behavior in health behavior interventions. This study is expected to arouse academic interest in the often-neglected area of unconscious behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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15 pages, 653 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Positive and Negative Aspects of Perfectionism on Psychological Distress in Emerging Adulthood: Exploring the Mediating Role of Self-Compassion
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110932 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Perfectionism constitutes a multidimensional personality trait. According to the diathesis–stress model, perfectionism may predispose individuals to experience increased psychological distress during stressful periods. Since self-compassion is considered as a protective factor within the context of mental health difficulties, the primary objective of this [...] Read more.
Perfectionism constitutes a multidimensional personality trait. According to the diathesis–stress model, perfectionism may predispose individuals to experience increased psychological distress during stressful periods. Since self-compassion is considered as a protective factor within the context of mental health difficulties, the primary objective of this study was to explore the mediating function of self-compassion in the relationship between positive (i.e., high standards and order) and negative (i.e., discrepancy) aspects of perfectionism and psychological distress among Greek emerging adults. The sample consisted of 410 university students (47.6% males and 52.4% females), with a mean age of 20.61 ± 1.88 years. The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were used to assess perfectionism, self-compassion, and psychological distress, respectively. The results indicated that self-compassion mediated the association between positive and negative aspects of perfectionism and different dimensions of psychological distress (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression). Specifically, discrepancy and increased levels of high standards were related to lower levels of self-compassion, thus leading to greater endorsement of psychological distress. In contrast, order was associated with higher levels of self-compassion, thus leading to lower levels of psychological distress. The findings of the present study highlight that self-compassion is an overall important area to examine in nonclinical populations. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in enhancing individuals’ self-acceptance and awareness of their perfectionistic tendencies, as well as compassion-focused therapy (CFT) in elevating self-compassion, mindfulness, and overall psychological well-being while reducing psychological distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Counselling Psychology for Children and Youth)
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16 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Impact of Teaching Palliative Psychology with Psychodrama and Arts Therapies on Psychology Students in Klagenfurt
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110931 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
The Erasmus+ project “Death Education for Palliative Psychology” (DE4PP) under the coordination of the University of Padua investigated the effects of teaching palliative psychology with psychodrama and arts therapies, as positive effects on students’ attitudes towards life and death were suspected through the [...] Read more.
The Erasmus+ project “Death Education for Palliative Psychology” (DE4PP) under the coordination of the University of Padua investigated the effects of teaching palliative psychology with psychodrama and arts therapies, as positive effects on students’ attitudes towards life and death were suspected through the use of these forms of treatment. Five countries participated in this project funded by the European Commission (Austria, Israel, Italy, Poland, and Romania). In Klagenfurt (Austria), 34 students from the University of Klagenfurt completed the pilot course entitled “Palliative Psychology” generated by the project partners. Course participants filled out psychological and satisfaction questionnaires at the beginning and end of the course, to measure the impact of teaching palliative psychology with psychodrama and arts therapies. The research involved a control group. In addition, six participants in the course participated in a focus group interview at the end, which included questions about their experience of the course; the impact of arts therapies and psychodrama techniques; experiences of verbal and artistic processing of death anxiety; and the meaning of life and death, representation of death, and associated feelings. The results, in summary, showed that processing of life and death had occurred in the participants due to the course they had completed. As part of the course, creative arts and psychodrama were bridges to death. Filling out satisfaction questionnaires, photovoice assignments, role reversal, and visualizing a personal social atom were seen by students in Klagenfurt as particularly effective methods for self-reflection. Full article
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13 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Pursuing Harmony and Fulfilling Responsibility: A Qualitative Study of the Orientation to Happiness (OTH) in Chinese Culture
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110930 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Happiness is the ultimate life goal for most people, and the pursuit of happiness serves as the fundamental motivation driving human behavior. Orientation to Happiness (OTH) represents the aspect that individuals seek when making decisions or engaging in activities, including values, priorities, motivations, [...] Read more.
Happiness is the ultimate life goal for most people, and the pursuit of happiness serves as the fundamental motivation driving human behavior. Orientation to Happiness (OTH) represents the aspect that individuals seek when making decisions or engaging in activities, including values, priorities, motivations, ideals, and goals. Nevertheless, existing research has predominantly approached OTH from an individualistic perspective, emphasizing an individual’s internal emotional state and personal goals, thereby neglecting the significant influence of a collectivist cultural background on the pursuit of happiness. To address this research gap, our study employs qualitative research methods, enabling us to delve deeply into the intricate interplay between cultural context, societal influences, and individual motivations that collectively shape OTH. Our research is dedicated to understanding the structure of OTH within the Chinese cultural context. Through semi-structured interviews with 26 Chinese adults and the utilization of an inductive style of thematic analysis, we have identified two core themes within the OTH of Chinese adults: Self-focused and Other-focused. Notably, the “Other-focused” theme emphasizes the pursuit of group harmony and the fulfillment of group responsibilities, highlighting the paramount role of “relationships” in the study of happiness within collectivist cultures. This insight forms a robust foundation for future research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
14 pages, 1161 KiB  
Article
Negative Parenting Styles and Psychological Crisis in Adolescents: Testing a Moderated Mediating Model of School Connectedness and Self-Esteem
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110929 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Little is known about how rejecting and controlling parenting styles may influence adolescent psychological crisis and what conditions may buffer the detrimental effects of psychological crisis. By integrating multiple theories, this study investigated self-esteem as an underlying mediator and school connectedness as a [...] Read more.
Little is known about how rejecting and controlling parenting styles may influence adolescent psychological crisis and what conditions may buffer the detrimental effects of psychological crisis. By integrating multiple theories, this study investigated self-esteem as an underlying mediator and school connectedness as a potential moderator to explain the link between negative parenting and the two psychological crises among Chinese adolescents. In this study, the questionnaire method is adopted to examine the combined mechanism of rejecting parenting style and controlling parenting style on the psychological crisis of adolescents. In total, 1863 adolescents were involved in this study, ranging from 13 to 17 years old. The results showed that both the rejecting parenting style and the controlling parenting style can significantly and positively predict the level of psychological crisis of adolescents, but the predictive power of the rejecting parenting style was stronger. Self-esteem partially mediates the relationship between rejecting parenting style, controlling parenting style, and psychological crisis. School connectedness moderates both the effects of rejecting parenting styles on self-esteem and the effects of self-esteem on the psychological crisis. This study identifies the internal mechanisms by which negative parenting styles affect adolescents’ psychological crisis, and reveals the mediating and moderating roles of self-esteem and school connectedness, providing additional explanatory paths for the mechanisms of adolescents’ psychological crisis. Full article
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19 pages, 996 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Mechanisms through Which Leader Integrity Shapes Ethical Leadership Behavior: Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110928 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Leadership integrity is crucial in shaping ethical leadership or promoting a rigorous adherence to moral principles and standards. This study explores the intricate relationship between leader integrity, moral identification, self-regulation, and ethical leadership behavior, providing practical insights for healthcare leaders seeking to enhance [...] Read more.
Leadership integrity is crucial in shaping ethical leadership or promoting a rigorous adherence to moral principles and standards. This study explores the intricate relationship between leader integrity, moral identification, self-regulation, and ethical leadership behavior, providing practical insights for healthcare leaders seeking to enhance ethical practices. It addresses a critical gap in the research landscape by focusing on individual-level ethical leadership within the healthcare sector, where prior investigations have been limited. This study examines the mediating role of moral identification among leader integrity and ethical leadership behavior. We surveyed 181 health sector workers and employed SmartPLS to assess the conceptualized relationships. The analyses reveal a significant indirect influence of leader integrity on ethical leadership behavior, whereas moral identification mediates the relationship. Our findings further indicate an intriguing moderation effect of self-regulation on the relationship between moral identification and ethical leadership behavior. This divergence from previous research underscores the significance of contextual and methodological factors in studying leadership integrity and ethical behavior. Our study contributes to the literature on the relationship through planned behavior theory by demonstrating that moral identification mediates the relationship between leader integrity and ethical leadership behavior in the context of the theory of planned behavior. Our findings underscore the significance of fostering leader integrity within organizations to indirectly promote ethical leadership behaviors through moral identification. Organizations should prioritize initiatives that cultivate moral identification among their members to enhance ethical cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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13 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Visual Cueing on Students with and without Math Learning Difficulties in Online Problem Solving: Evidence from Eye Movement
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110927 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of visual cueing on attention guidance, deep-thinking promotion, and performance optimization in arithmetic word problem solving for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). The participants included eight students with MLD and twenty students without MLD who attempted to [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of visual cueing on attention guidance, deep-thinking promotion, and performance optimization in arithmetic word problem solving for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). The participants included eight students with MLD and twenty students without MLD who attempted to solve mathematical word problems with and without visual cueing. Eye movements were recorded during the tasks. A repeated-measure design and nonparametric tests were applied to enhance the statistical power of the study. The data analysis results indicated that visual cueing effectively guided and sustained the attention of students with MLD, reducing their off-task duration. However, it showed limited influence in facilitating deep thinking and performance improvement for these students. There were no significant attention-guidance or performance-improvement effects observed in the problem-solving processes of students without MLD, who initially demonstrated better concentration levels and performance. The potential explanations for these findings are further discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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12 pages, 2387 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Psychological Well-Being from a Compositional Data Analysis Perspective: A New Approach
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110926 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 929
Abstract
Well-being is a widely studied construct in psychology. In 1989, Carol Ryff proposed the “Scale of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB)”, which has been validated in multiple languages. The instrument assesses six dimensions of psychological well-being: Self-acceptance, Positive Relationships with Others, Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Purpose [...] Read more.
Well-being is a widely studied construct in psychology. In 1989, Carol Ryff proposed the “Scale of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB)”, which has been validated in multiple languages. The instrument assesses six dimensions of psychological well-being: Self-acceptance, Positive Relationships with Others, Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Purpose in Life, and Personal Growth. In this article, we propose to enrich the traditional approach of directly interpreting the raw scores in each dimension by incorporating Compositional Data Analysis. This new approach aims to identify “what proportion” of each dimension constitutes well-being, which will allow us to analyze the interactions between the different dimensions of well-being and balance among them. To achieve this, we introduce two position ratios (PR1 and PR2) and a general adjustment indicator called the General Indicator of Subjective Psychological Well-Being (GISPW), which characterizes individuals in a compositional manner, providing a fresh perspective in the interpretation of psychological test results, specifically those related to PWB. The proposal is illustrated with three cases taken from a study involving 628 university students who completed the psychological well-being scale questionnaire. The results show that the GISPW, PR1, and PR2 obtained offer relevant information about the overall balance of each case in the different dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Health Questionaries)
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