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Volume 13, November
 
 

Behav. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 63 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cognitive reserve refers to the adaptability of cognitive processes that help explain the differential susceptibility of cognitive abilities or day-to-day function to brain aging, pathology, or insult. This construct can be relevant to research and clinical practice in neuropsychology or related fields. There is currently no reliable or valid tool for estimating cognitive reserve in the Arabic language—the world’s fifth most spoken language. This study aimed to fill this gap through validating and examining some psychometric qualities of an Arabic version of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq). The tool was used with a healthy sample in Lebanon, and the results supported its initial validation. View this paper
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8 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Disaster or Emergency Coping Skills in People with Intellectual Disabilities
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121018 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the disaster or emergency coping skills of people with intellectual disabilities and the factors that affect these skills. The panel survey on the lives of people with disabilities from the 3rd dataset (2020) of the Korea Development Institute [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the disaster or emergency coping skills of people with intellectual disabilities and the factors that affect these skills. The panel survey on the lives of people with disabilities from the 3rd dataset (2020) of the Korea Development Institute for the Disabled was used for this analysis. Response data from 275 people with intellectual disabilities aged 10 years or older were analyzed. Differences between disaster or emergency coping skill levels and sub-questions of skills, according to the general characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities, were identified, as well as factors affecting the level of disaster or emergency coping skills. The results show that the coping skills level was low; among the sub-questions, the use of fire extinguishers and awareness of the location of fire extinguishers or emergency bells in the event of a disaster or emergency were also low. Factors affecting the level of coping skills were found to be the level of education and experience in comprehensive disaster coping training. The results of this study suggest that training and education on disaster or emergency coping skills for people with intellectual disabilities are necessary and that programs should be developed for this purpose. Full article
13 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
Health-Related Quality of Life in Kindergarten Children with Developmental Language Disorder: Child–Mother Agreement
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121017 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Language disorders are associated with difficulties in various aspects of life, such as academic and social functioning, resulting in impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Most studies use a parent proxy method to assess HRQoL. Since HRQoL refers to the subjective experience of [...] Read more.
Language disorders are associated with difficulties in various aspects of life, such as academic and social functioning, resulting in impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Most studies use a parent proxy method to assess HRQoL. Since HRQoL refers to the subjective experience of an individual, it is necessary to assess children’s perspectives along with their mothers’. The aim of the current study is to explore HRQoL rating agreement between children and their mothers, since the literature on other conditions suggests that discrepancies seem to reflect their different perspectives. Thus, 53 Greek-speaking children diagnosed with DLD attending kindergarten and their mothers completed, respectively, self-report and parent proxy PedsQLTM questionnaires. Mothers reported significantly better HRQoL than their children with developmental language disorder (DLD) in all HRQoL domains (p < 0.001). Poor agreement was revealed after comparing the scores from both responders, both in abstract domains, such as emotional functioning, as well as in more observable ones, such as physical health (ICC ranged from −0.05 to 0.07). Bland–Altman plots also showed poor agreement on HRQoL. Our results expand on the already known, from other conditions, importance of evaluating children’s subjective experience of their HRQoL in kindergarten children with DLD. A multi-informant approach is ideal, and clinicians should prioritize children’s view about their lives even when they are kindergarten-age. This approach could inform interventions focusing not only on language skills but also on other areas where it is necessary, depending on the child’s subjective experience combined with the maternal perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
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16 pages, 1889 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Stereotype Threat on Inhibitory Control in Individuals with Different Household Incomes
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121016 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Previous studies have discussed the impact of the socioeconomically disadvantaged stereotype threat (SDST) on inhibitory control. But the specific influences of the SDST on inhibitory control in different household income groups are not clear. We hypothesized that the SDST had different effects on [...] Read more.
Previous studies have discussed the impact of the socioeconomically disadvantaged stereotype threat (SDST) on inhibitory control. But the specific influences of the SDST on inhibitory control in different household income groups are not clear. We hypothesized that the SDST had different effects on inhibitory control in individuals with distinct household income, and the attribution of stimuli would influence it as well, especially the currency value of the stimuli. To investigate it, two studies were conducted, which required inhibiting their motor responses. Specifically, Study 1 explored the influence of the SDST on basic inhibitory control. Study 2 analyzed the influence of the SDST on inhibitory control when the input stimuli included currency values and monetary conception. The results revealed that the inhibitory control ability was worse in the lower income group but not during the processing of stimuli with currency value. For the effect of the SDST, it found that there was a negative effect on those with a lower household income and a positive effect on those with a higher household income. Based on the findings, the effect of the SDST on inhibitory control in human beings is not stable; instead, it varies depending on the traits of the stimuli in different tasks and of the individuals themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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11 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Body Mass Index: Influence on Interpersonal Style, Basic Psychological Needs, Motivation, and Physical Activity Intention in Physical Education—Differences between Gender and Educational Stage
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121015 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The present research study’s main objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and the psychological aspects related to motivation, needs such as autonomy, competence, and social relationships, and the intention of being physically active [...] Read more.
The present research study’s main objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and the psychological aspects related to motivation, needs such as autonomy, competence, and social relationships, and the intention of being physically active in Physical Education students in Primary and Secondary Education. To achieve this, a total of 574 students (mean = 13.66; standard deviation = 1.96) participated in this study, to whom a series of questionnaires was administered once permission had been obtained from the centers the students attended, alongside the latter’s acceptance to participate in the study. The main results showed that the students with a higher BMI were those who had lower self-determined motivation values with regard to the three basic psychological needs observed and the intention of physical activity. In turn, our differential analysis identified that the students attending Primary Education had lower values of BMI, motivation, and intention to be physically active than the students attending Secondary Education, without finding differences based on the gender of the participants. The need to keep on investigating this topic is consequently gathered, using direct techniques for measuring BMI or proposing mixed research designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Advances in Physical Education and Sport Teaching)
17 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Technostress, Quality of Work Life, and Job Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121014 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
This study examines the effect of technostress on teachers’ quality of work life and job performance. A moderated mediation model is proposed and tested based on the transactional model of stress and coping. This study proposes organizational flexibility as the boundary condition—a first-level [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of technostress on teachers’ quality of work life and job performance. A moderated mediation model is proposed and tested based on the transactional model of stress and coping. This study proposes organizational flexibility as the boundary condition—a first-level moderator—and quality of work life as the explanatory variable. A sample of 199 university teachers who worked from home or used the hybrid teaching mode was selected. Data were collected through closed-ended questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and the Hayes PROCESS Macro (extension in SPSS) were used for hypothesis testing. The results found that the three dimensions of technostress (Techno complexity, Techno invasion, and Techno overload) negatively and significantly affect teachers’ quality of work life. However, there are significant positive direct effects of these three dimensions of technostress on employee performance and significant negative indirect effects on performance through quality of work life. Organizational flexibility acts as a significant moderator, where a low value of organizational flexibility enhances the negative relationship between technostress and quality of work life. In contrast, high values of organizational flexibility convert the significant negative relationship into an insignificant impact. The university management must take measures to overcome technostress among teachers by showing flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job-Related Stress, Burnout and Quality of Life)
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18 pages, 790 KiB  
Article
Do Social Exchange Relationships Influence Total-Quality-Management Involvement? Evidence from Frontline Employees of International Hotels
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121013 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 821
Abstract
This study delves into the assessment of the quality of social exchange relationships in the workplace, specifically focusing on leader–member exchange (LMX) and team–member exchange (TMX), to forecast employee Total Quality Management (TQM) involvement within the hospitality industry. Employing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), [...] Read more.
This study delves into the assessment of the quality of social exchange relationships in the workplace, specifically focusing on leader–member exchange (LMX) and team–member exchange (TMX), to forecast employee Total Quality Management (TQM) involvement within the hospitality industry. Employing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the study evaluates multiple hypotheses, utilizing data collected from 811 frontline employees in international tourist hotels located in Taiwan. The findings demonstrate that both LMX and TMX exhibit direct positive influences on employee TQM involvement. Moreover, through mediated path analyses, it is evident that both LMX and TMX exert indirect positive impacts on employee TQM involvement, by means of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. These results elucidate a clear causal chain mechanism underlying the behavior of employee TQM involvement within such social relationships. The study’s revelations carry significant implications for the hospitality industry, shedding light on the nuanced dynamics of these social relationships and their impact on employee behavior concerning TQM involvement. The discussions encompassing the implications of these findings in the realm of hospitality are thoroughly explored and detailed. Full article
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14 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Who Will Save the Savior? The Relationship between Therapists’ Secondary Traumatic Stress, Secondary Stress Self-Efficacy, and Attitudes toward Trauma-Informed Care
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121012 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Therapists who treat traumatized preschool children are vulnerable to secondary traumatic stress. This study investigates the relationship between therapists’ attitudes toward trauma-informed care (TIC) and risk of secondary traumatic stress, with secondary traumatic self-efficacy as a mediating variable. Participants included Israeli social workers [...] Read more.
Therapists who treat traumatized preschool children are vulnerable to secondary traumatic stress. This study investigates the relationship between therapists’ attitudes toward trauma-informed care (TIC) and risk of secondary traumatic stress, with secondary traumatic self-efficacy as a mediating variable. Participants included Israeli social workers (N = 101) in preschool trauma frameworks, with 97.2% following trauma-informed care principles. The questionnaire combined three instruments: attitudes related to TIC (ARTIC), secondary traumatic stress (STS), and secondary traumatic stress efficacy (STSE). Therapists with less positive attitudes toward trauma-informed care showed higher levels of secondary traumatic stress (r[99] = −0.23, p = 0.019), while more positive attitudes predicted higher levels of secondary traumatic stress efficacy (r[99] = 40, p < 0.001). Secondary traumatic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between attitudes toward trauma-informed care and secondary traumatic stress (z = 2.72, p = 0.006). Therapists’ secondary traumatic stress may be reduced by improving positive attitudes toward trauma-informed care and enhancing their secondary traumatic self-efficacy. Full article
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17 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Purchase Decisions of Silver Consumers in Short-Form Video Platforms from the Perspective of Existence, Relatedness, and Growth Needs
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121011 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The differentiated characteristics of the silver (elderly) group from other groups means that the previous interaction mechanism in short-form video (SFV) e-commerce is no longer applicable. Drawing on sociotechnical systems theory and the ERG theory, this study is motivated to explore the purchase [...] Read more.
The differentiated characteristics of the silver (elderly) group from other groups means that the previous interaction mechanism in short-form video (SFV) e-commerce is no longer applicable. Drawing on sociotechnical systems theory and the ERG theory, this study is motivated to explore the purchase intention of silver consumers in SFV platforms. We categorize the characteristics of SFV platforms into social and technical aspects, and analyze silver consumers’ purchasing decisions in terms of existence, relatedness, and growth needs. The empirical results of 284 samples show that social belonging, perceived trust, and product relevance are positive factors that promote purchase. Information diversity and social interaction have significant positive effects on social belonging and perceived trust. Recommendation affordance is significantly positively associated with perceived trust and product relevance, while platform ease of use did not have a significant effect on perceived trust. The findings provide management insights into SFV platforms to better understand the digital divide faced by silver consumers and to facilitate increased consumption. Full article
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11 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Life Satisfaction and Psychological Capital in Athletes with Physical Disabilities
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121010 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Athletes with physical disabilities practice fewer sports than people without disabilities due to the difficulties and barriers they face in their daily lives. Sports are a powerful tool offering multiple physical, psychological and social benefits and act as a facilitator in their societal [...] Read more.
Athletes with physical disabilities practice fewer sports than people without disabilities due to the difficulties and barriers they face in their daily lives. Sports are a powerful tool offering multiple physical, psychological and social benefits and act as a facilitator in their societal integration and inclusion. Today, more and more studies are analysing the psychological strengths of athletes, as well as their well-being. This research aimed to describe the levels of life satisfaction and psychological capital in a sample of physically disabled athletes according to the following variables: age, gender, degree of dependence, type of disability and level of competition. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 101 federated athletes with physical disabilities in the Basque Autonomous Community, with a valid return rate of 79 participants. A study of the relationship between variables was conducted using student’s t-test and ANOVA. A stepwise hierarchical multiple linear regression was also performed to assess the predictive capabilities of the analysed variables on life satisfaction. The findings showed that gender, degree of dependence and level of competition correlated with the psychological capital and life satisfaction of athletes with disabilities; male athletes scored higher in the self-efficacy and hope dimensions of psychological capital; athletes with lower levels of dependence scored higher on life satisfaction; and international athletes scored higher on psychological capital, specifically on the self-efficacy dimension. Finally, psychological capital and degree of dependence also had a significant influence on athletes’ life satisfaction. Full article
21 pages, 1785 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Mindful Learning on Subjective and Psychological Well-Being in Postgraduate Students
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121009 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Mindful learning is widely known to improve learning outcomes, yet its association with students’ well-being remains unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the impact of mindful learning on subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB) in postgraduate students, using survey questionnaires and a [...] Read more.
Mindful learning is widely known to improve learning outcomes, yet its association with students’ well-being remains unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the impact of mindful learning on subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB) in postgraduate students, using survey questionnaires and a randomized experimental design. In Study 1, correlation and regression analyses based on 236 postgraduate students revealed significant positive associations among mindful learning, SWB, and PWB. In Study 2, 54 students were randomly assigned to three groups: the experimental (which received Mindful Learning Coaching), active-, and blank control groups. The results from repeated-measures ANOVA showed that coaching significantly improved students’ mindful learning. The participants’ SWB and PWB significantly decreased in both the active- and blank control groups, whilst their SWB and PWB tended to increase in the experimental group. In conclusion, mindful learning, SWB, and PWB are significantly correlated, while the enhancement of mindful learning may be a protective factor in students’ well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wellbeing and Mental Health among Students)
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48 pages, 2687 KiB  
Systematic Review
Digitally Assisted Mindfulness in Training Self-Regulation Skills for Sustainable Mental Health: A Systematic Review
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121008 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increased demand for mental health interventions, with a special focus on digitally assisted ones. Self-regulation describes a set of meta-skills that enable one to take control over his/her mental health and it is [...] Read more.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increased demand for mental health interventions, with a special focus on digitally assisted ones. Self-regulation describes a set of meta-skills that enable one to take control over his/her mental health and it is recognized as a vital indicator of well-being. Mindfulness training is a promising training strategy for promoting self-regulation, behavioral change, and mental well-being. A growing body of research outlines that smart technologies are ready to revolutionize the way mental health training programs take place. Artificial intelligence (AI); extended reality (XR) including virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR); as well as the advancements in brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are ready to transform these mental health training programs. Mindfulness-based interventions assisted by smart technologies for mental, emotional, and behavioral regulation seem to be a crucial yet under-investigated issue. The current systematic review paper aims to explore whether and how smart technologies can assist mindfulness training for the development of self-regulation skills among people at risk of mental health issues as well as populations with various clinical characteristics. The PRISMA 2020 methodology was utilized to respond to the objectives and research questions using a total of sixty-six experimental studies that met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that digitally assisted mindfulness interventions supported by smart technologies, including AI-based applications, chatbots, virtual coaches, immersive technologies, and brain-sensing headbands, can effectively assist trainees in developing a wide range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral self-regulation skills, leading to a greater satisfaction of their psychological needs, and thus mental wellness. These results may provide positive feedback for developing smarter and more inclusive training environments, with a special focus on people with special training needs or disabilities. Full article
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18 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Functions, Theory of Mind Abilities, and Personality Dispositions as Potential Predictors of the Detection of Reciprocity in Deceptive and Cooperative Contexts through Different Age Groups
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121007 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 923
Abstract
Reciprocity is a fundamental element in social interactions and implies an adequate response to the previous actions of our interactant. It is thus crucial to detect if a person is cooperating, deceiving, or cheating, to properly respond. However, older adults have been shown [...] Read more.
Reciprocity is a fundamental element in social interactions and implies an adequate response to the previous actions of our interactant. It is thus crucial to detect if a person is cooperating, deceiving, or cheating, to properly respond. However, older adults have been shown to have a lower ability to detect reciprocity compared to younger adults, partially tying this decline to cognitive functions. Another likely association to reciprocity in literature is made with personality dispositions, i.e., agreeableness, altruism, and empathic concern, and Theory of Mind (ToM). Consequently, the present study investigated age-related differences in the detection of the different components of reciprocity, as well as examined the predictors of reciprocity, such as cognitive measures, personality dispositions, and true and false beliefs in young (n = 98; 20–39 years), middle-aged (n = 106; 40–64 years), and older adults (n = 103; 65–96 years). The Mind Picture Story-Theory of Mind Questionnaire was used to measure the reciprocity components and true and false beliefs in each group. This study reported a significant decline in reciprocity detection from adults aged 65 years old and over. Additionally, the ability to detect reciprocity was significantly linked to cognitive functioning and ToM across all age groups, especially in older adults. Full article
14 pages, 926 KiB  
Article
Validation of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq) in Arabic
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121006 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Cognitive reserve is the adaptability of cognitive processes in the face of brain aging and pathology. This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq) in a healthy Lebanese sample. CRIq assesses cognitive reserve through three domains: [...] Read more.
Cognitive reserve is the adaptability of cognitive processes in the face of brain aging and pathology. This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq) in a healthy Lebanese sample. CRIq assesses cognitive reserve through three domains: education, working activity, and leisure time. Statistical measures, including descriptive and regression analysis along with structural equation modeling, were utilized to investigate the convergent and discriminant validity of the CRIq, incorporating fluid intelligence (Gf) and measures of cognitive function, long-term memory encoding and retrieval (Glr), and processing speed (Gs). Results from 174 participants revealed that the activities assessed by the CRIq-Arabic were comparable to the original CRIq study, with slight cultural differences. The internal consistency of the CRIq-Arabic was good (Cronbach’s α = 0.88), indicating reliability. Convergent validity was confirmed, with moderate to high loadings on the cognitive reserve latent construct. Discriminant validity was supported as correlations between cognitive reserve variables and non-target constructs (Gf, Glr, and Gs) were less than 1. The findings provide an initial psychometric validation of the CRIq-Arabic. Further research of clinical samples is needed to enhance its utility in neuropsychological practice. Full article
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14 pages, 7335 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Hazard Types on the Visual Search Patterns and Hazard Response Times of Taxi Drivers
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121005 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 969
Abstract
The present study attempted to explore the effects of sleep deprivation on the visual search patterns and hazard response times of taxi drivers when they encountered different types of hazards. A two (driver groups: sleep deprivation or control) × two (hazard types: covert [...] Read more.
The present study attempted to explore the effects of sleep deprivation on the visual search patterns and hazard response times of taxi drivers when they encountered different types of hazards. A two (driver groups: sleep deprivation or control) × two (hazard types: covert hazard or overt hazard) mixed experimental design was employed. A total of 60 drivers were recruited, half of whom were in the sleep-deprived group and half of whom were in the control group. A validated video-based hazard perception test that either contained covert hazards (12 video clips) or overt hazards (12 video clips) filmed from the drivers’ perspective was presented to participants. Participants were instructed to click the left mouse button quickly once they detected a potentially dangerous situation that could lead to an accident. Participants’ response time and eye movements relative to the hazards were recorded. The sleep-deprived group had a significantly longer response time and took a longer time to first fixate on covert hazards than the control group, while they had a shorter response time to overt hazards than the control group. The first fixation duration of sleep-deprived drivers was longer than that of the control group for overt hazards, while the duration of the first fixation of the two driver groups was similar for covert hazards. Sleep deprivation affects the visual search patterns and response times to hazards, and the adverse effects of sleep deprivation were worse in relation to covert hazards. The findings have some implications for classifying and evaluating high-risk taxi drivers whose hazard perception ability might be affected by insufficient sleep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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27 pages, 793 KiB  
Article
Taking a Break: The Effects of Partaking in a Two-Week Social Media Digital Detox on Problematic Smartphone and Social Media Use, and Other Health-Related Outcomes among Young Adults
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121004 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Despite their increasing popularity, especially among young adults, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of digital detoxes focused on restricting or limiting social media use. As such, the purpose of this exploratory study was to create and carry out a [...] Read more.
Despite their increasing popularity, especially among young adults, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of digital detoxes focused on restricting or limiting social media use. As such, the purpose of this exploratory study was to create and carry out a social media digital detox among young adults and evaluate its effectiveness with regards to smartphone and social media addiction, as well as several health-related outcomes. Additionally, the study also sought to obtain an understanding of participants’ experiences and perceptions regarding the digital detox via semi-structured exit interviews in order to improve and maximize the effectiveness of future social media digital detox interventions. Thirty-one young adults completed a two-week social media digital detox (preceded by a two-week baseline period and followed up by a two-week follow-up period), whereby their social media use was limited to 30 min per day. A series of one-way repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that a two-week social media detox improved smartphone and social media addiction, as well as sleep, satisfaction with life, stress, perceived wellness, and supportive relationships. Thematic analysis of exit interviews also revealed eight themes: feelings, effort to detox, adjustment period, the Goldilocks effect, screen to screen, post-detox binge, progress not perfection, and words of wisdom, all of which provide contextualization of the quantitative findings and valuable insights for future detoxes. In conclusion, the findings of this exploratory study provide initial support for the use of social media digital detoxes, suggesting that limiting usage can have beneficial effects with regards to smartphone and social media addiction, as well as many other health-related outcomes. Full article
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18 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
The Psychometric Structure of Executive Functions: A Satisfactory Measurement Model? An Examination Using Meta-Analysis and Network Modeling
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121003 - 08 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
A long-standing debate among cognitive scientists has focused on describing the underlying nature of executive functions, which has important implications for both theoretical and applied research. Miyake et al.’s three-factor model has often been considered the gold-standard representation of executive functions and has [...] Read more.
A long-standing debate among cognitive scientists has focused on describing the underlying nature of executive functions, which has important implications for both theoretical and applied research. Miyake et al.’s three-factor model has often been considered the gold-standard representation of executive functions and has driven much research in the field. More recently, however, there have been increasing concerns that the three-factor model does not adequately describe a highly complex construct such as executive functions. The current project presents two studies that examine the veracity of Miyake et al.’s model and propose a new approach (i.e., network modeling) for detecting the underlying nature of executive functions. The current results raise questions about the psychometric strength and adequacy of the three-factor model. Further, the studies presented here provide evidence that network modeling provides a better understanding of executive functions as it better captures (relative to latent variable modeling) the complexity of cognitive processes. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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10 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
Exposure to the Death of Others during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Growing Mistrust in Medical Institutions as a Result of Personal Loss
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120999 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Background and aims: The prominence of death during the COVID-19 pandemic was heightened by the potential of personally knowing someone who lost their life to the virus. The terror management theory (TMT) suggests that the salient presence of death has a pronounced effect [...] Read more.
Background and aims: The prominence of death during the COVID-19 pandemic was heightened by the potential of personally knowing someone who lost their life to the virus. The terror management theory (TMT) suggests that the salient presence of death has a pronounced effect on behavior and may result in the ossification of beliefs and actions aligned with one’s worldview (i.e., the mortality salience hypothesis). In this study, we evaluated how death exposure early in the COVID-19 pandemic could enact the process of firming up held beliefs and attitudes related to health and safety. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to a personal loss during the pandemic would strengthen participants’ baseline attitudes and behaviors regarding COVID-19 safety guidelines. Method: Data were analyzed from a prospective, regional survey administered at two time points during the pandemic, June–July 2020 and May 2021, in five United States northeastern states. Baseline and follow-up surveys were administered approximately 12 months apart, with adherence to public guidance and death exposure measured at both timepoints and other safety measures at follow-up only. Findings: Our results indicated that there were significant main effects of death exposure on guideline adherence and support for COVID-related public policy. Contrary to the mortality salience hypothesis, death exposures after baseline were related to higher medical mistrust at follow-up for those high in adherence at baseline, rather than those with low adherence. Conclusion: Our results offer some conflicting evidence to the mortality salience hypothesis. Rather than entrench people in their worldviews, death in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to sway people away from their initial stances. This finding has important implications for TMT literature and for the COVID-19 pandemic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology and Behaviors during COVID-19)
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34 pages, 1029 KiB  
Review
Depression and Anxiety among Undergraduate Health Science Students: A Scoping Review of the Literature
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121002 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Background: Health science students in post-secondary institutions experience high levels of depression and anxiety due to increased stress levels, workload, low socioeconomic status, and history of family mental illness, among other factors. Given the significant negative impact that depression and anxiety can have [...] Read more.
Background: Health science students in post-secondary institutions experience high levels of depression and anxiety due to increased stress levels, workload, low socioeconomic status, and history of family mental illness, among other factors. Given the significant negative impact that depression and anxiety can have on undergraduate health science students, it is essential to understand the prevalence and correlation of these conditions in this population. In light of this, this scoping review aims to identify, document, and analyze the literature on the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression among undergraduate health sciences students and identify gaps in knowledge for future research. Methods: This scoping review was planned and executed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for the Scoping Reviews statement. A comprehensive and systematic search was carried out for five databases, namely MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PubMed. Results: From the literature identified by our search strategy, the lowest prevalence for anxiety was 5.8%, and the highest was 82.6%, with a median of 44.25%. The prevalence of depression ranged from a high of 88.8% to a low of 2.1%, with a median value of 34.8%. Our analysis revealed that correlates of anxiety and depression among health science students include sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, gender, relationships, ethnicity, and family history, personal health conditions, and academic and socioeconomic issues. Conclusions: With the high incidence of anxiety and depression among health science students, there is an increasing need to find practical remedies to support these students. It is also essential for policymakers and university authorities to implement interventions such as supportive text messages and other strategies geared toward providing support and improving the psychological well-being of health science students. Full article
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12 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
Left-Behind Experiences and Cyberbullying Behavior in Chinese College Students: The Mediation of Sense of Security and the Moderation of Gender
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121001 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Left-behind children seem to be more sensitive in interpersonal communication, find it more difficult to establish a stable, safe relationship with surrounding people, and have fewer positive coping styles when encountering problems, thus the aim of the present study was to explore the [...] Read more.
Left-behind children seem to be more sensitive in interpersonal communication, find it more difficult to establish a stable, safe relationship with surrounding people, and have fewer positive coping styles when encountering problems, thus the aim of the present study was to explore the association between left-behind experiences and cyberbullying behavior among Chinese college students through the mediation of sense of security and the moderation of gender. A questionnaire survey comprised 553 college students with left-behind experiences and 526 college students without such experiences. The results showed that, firstly, cyberbullying behavior was significantly higher in college students with left-behind experiences than those without such experiences; secondly, left-behind experiences and cyberbullying behavior in college students was partially mediated by a sense of security; and finally, that gender moderated the mediation of the sense of security between left-behind experiences and cyberbullying behavior. This study suggests the family environment is important for individual growth and illustrates how the influence of childhood left-behind experience persists in individuals. Full article
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28 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Math Skills, Motor Skills, Physical Activity, and Obesity in Typically Developing Preschool Children
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121000 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1563
Abstract
There is evidence of a relationship between motor and cognitive development. The literature has shown that of all the motor skills, fine motor skills are those that contribute most to mathematical performance in preschool children. As this is a sensitive period in the [...] Read more.
There is evidence of a relationship between motor and cognitive development. The literature has shown that of all the motor skills, fine motor skills are those that contribute most to mathematical performance in preschool children. As this is a sensitive period in the development of motor skills, low levels of physical activity in this period can compromise their development and contribute to weight gain and obesity. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the relationship between mathematical and motor skills, physical activity levels, and obesity. The sample consisted of 62 preschool children (32 males) with an average age of 4.63 ± 0.81. The Weschler preschool and primary scale of intelligence—revised arithmetic test was used to assess mathematical skills. The tests to assess fine motor skills were the “Adapted Threading Beads Test” and the “Adapted Visuomotor Integration Test”. The movement assessment battery for children-2, band 1, “Aiming & Catching”, and “Balance” tests were used to assess gross motor skills. Levels of physical activity were assessed using the “Preschool-age physical activity questionnaire” and obesity using the body mass index. The results indicated that only the fine motor skills of visuomotor integration were included in the multiple linear regression model (F < 0.001; r = 0.464; R2 = 0.215; p < 0.001), with the exclusion of gross motor skills, physical activity levels, and obesity levels. Thus, it was concluded that mathematical skills were only directly and significantly influenced by visuomotor integration. However, visuomotor integration was positively and significantly associated with gross motor skills (r = 0.269; p < 0.05) and not with levels of physical activity and obesity. Thus, gross motor skills could contribute to improving visuomotor integration directly and consequently mathematical skills indirectly. The results of this study suggest that the implementation of structured physical activity programs can contribute to mathematical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Opinion in Sport Psychology)
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19 pages, 608 KiB  
Systematic Review
Remembering the Past with Today’s Technology: A Scoping Review of Reminiscence-Based Digital Storytelling with Older Adults
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120998 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Reminiscence has been identified as a potentially effective intervention strategy for the mental health of older adults. It has been suggested that reminiscence work and subsequent production of a life storybook (e.g., DST: digital storytelling) is associated with improvements in the well-being of [...] Read more.
Reminiscence has been identified as a potentially effective intervention strategy for the mental health of older adults. It has been suggested that reminiscence work and subsequent production of a life storybook (e.g., DST: digital storytelling) is associated with improvements in the well-being of older adults. The specific objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) examine how reminiscence-based DST is conducted/used with older adults, (2) identify whether and how intergenerational engagement is included in this literature, and (3) report on the outcomes identified in this literature, including older adults as well as other participants such as co-creators and viewers of DST. A scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute’s methods and the Arksey and O’Malley framework examined studies published in English that included reminiscence with older adults and incorporated digital storytelling. The initial search resulted in 702 articles for review, and following screening, 35 studies were included for full-text review. A total of 10 articles specifically on reminiscence-based DST were identified for final review. Only one study intentionally included intergenerational engagement in its design. DST impacted older adults on their personal meaning and catharsis, social connectedness, cognitive function, and spiritual and emotional well-being. Impacts on reviewers and creators were also reported. Overall, the combination of individual reminiscence work with intergenerational engagement and the use of DST is largely understudied. Additional research is warranted given there is a credible evidence base for these types of interventions. Full article
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12 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
Creativity as a Positive Factor in the Adolescence Stage: Relations with Academic Performance, Stress and Self-Esteem
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120997 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Creativity is a construct that aids in conflict resolution. Through the development of creative skills in adolescence, young people can carry out a series of strategies to make decisions or respond to a problem. The possession of creative skills helps students’ personal wellbeing. [...] Read more.
Creativity is a construct that aids in conflict resolution. Through the development of creative skills in adolescence, young people can carry out a series of strategies to make decisions or respond to a problem. The possession of creative skills helps students’ personal wellbeing. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationships established between creativity and other individual variables such as academic performance, self-esteem and stress in adolescent students. The following descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with a total sample of 743 adolescent students, between 14 and 19 years of age, from different educational centers in the province of Almería (Spain). The results obtained indicate a positive correlation between creativity and self-esteem and significant differences in the level of creativity among students who have repeated an academic year. Regression analyses indicate that both stress and creativity are two predictor variables of self-esteem. On the other hand, another of the findings obtained is that creativity acts as a mediating variable between self-esteem and repeating an academic year. It is discussed how creativity is a beneficial element in adolescence and, therefore, how its promotion can help the optimal development of adolescent students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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14 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Everyday Activities of Older Adults in Tianjin, China: Coupling Constraints, Gendered Mobilities and Social Context
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120996 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Many Western studies have indicated that older women are generally more vulnerable in terms of mobility compared to older men, particularly regarding driving. However, the situation may differ in the context of China. This study, based on activity diaries and semi-structured interviews, focuses [...] Read more.
Many Western studies have indicated that older women are generally more vulnerable in terms of mobility compared to older men, particularly regarding driving. However, the situation may differ in the context of China. This study, based on activity diaries and semi-structured interviews, focuses on the spatiotemporal behavior of older adults in Tianjin and explores how the constraints posed by activity companions (in terms of type, size, and composition) shape the mobilities of older men and women, including activity locations, travel distances, and transportation modes. The key findings are as follows: First, older women are more engaged with their families due to a higher percentage and longer duration of activities spent with family members. Second, older men tend to have more concentrated travel distances near their homes compared to older women. Third, older women exhibit a broader range of activities in different locations and engage in longer-distance leisure travel with family members when compared to older men. In the context of Western literature, this study discusses older women’s enhanced social interactions, their earlier retirement in China, and the impact of COVID-19 as factors that help explain these findings. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of accompanied mobilities among Chinese older adults using geographical theory and methods, emphasizing the importance of flexible work schedules for the workforce and the organization of community-based activities to promote the social interactions and mobilities of older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging in Place: The Role of Housing and Social Supports)
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12 pages, 1158 KiB  
Article
Haptic Nudging Using a Wearable Device to Promote Upper Limb Activity during Stroke Rehabilitation: Exploring Diurnal Variation, Repetition, and Duration of Effect
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120995 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1287
Abstract
Haptic nudging via wearable devices promotes physical activity and may increase upper limb movement in stroke rehabilitation. This study investigated the optimal approach to haptic nudging by examining diurnal variation, duration of effect, and repeated nudging. The study analysed data from a multiple-period [...] Read more.
Haptic nudging via wearable devices promotes physical activity and may increase upper limb movement in stroke rehabilitation. This study investigated the optimal approach to haptic nudging by examining diurnal variation, duration of effect, and repeated nudging. The study analysed data from a multiple-period randomised crossover study. A 12 h inpatient rehabilitation day was divided into 72 intervals in which participants with stroke (n = 20) randomly received either a ‘nudge’ or ‘no nudge’. Upper limb movement was observed, classified, and analysed using longitudinal mixed models. The odds of affected upper limb movement following a nudge compared with no nudge were significantly higher during active periods such as breakfast, lunch, and morning and afternoon activities (odds ratios (ORs) 2.01–4.63, 95% CIs [1.27–2.67, 3.17–8.01]), but not dinner (OR 1.36, 95% CI [0.86, 2.16]). The effect of nudging was no longer statistically significant at 50–60 s post-nudge. Consecutive delays in nudging significantly decreased the odds of moving when a nudge was eventually delivered. Contrary to expectations, people with stroke appear more responsive to haptic nudging during active periods rather than periods of inactivity. By understanding the optimal timing and frequency of haptic nudging, the design of wearable devices can be optimised to maximise their therapeutic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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11 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Narrative Approach and Mentalization
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120994 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
The core focus of this research centered on the intricate relationship between mentalization, the fundamental mental process underlying social interactions, and the narrative approach proposed by Bruner. Mentalization, encompassing both implicit and explicit interpretations of one’s and others’ actions, plays a pivotal role [...] Read more.
The core focus of this research centered on the intricate relationship between mentalization, the fundamental mental process underlying social interactions, and the narrative approach proposed by Bruner. Mentalization, encompassing both implicit and explicit interpretations of one’s and others’ actions, plays a pivotal role in shaping the complexity of social interactions. Concurrently, the narrative approach, as elucidated by Bruner, serves as the primary interpretative and cognitive tool through which individuals derive meaning from their experiences. Narrative, in essence, empowers individuals to imbue their experiences with significance, constructing knowledge and enabling a reinterpretation of their lives by reconstructing the meanings attached to events. This intertwining of mentalization and the narrative approach is particularly salient, given their shared reliance on autobiographical narratives and the inference of mental states. In the context of this study, our primary objective was to explore how practical and theoretical activities, rooted in the re-elaboration of personal life information and events, could serve as a catalyst for enhancing mentalization skills. By engaging students in activities specifically designed to encourage the reinterpretation of their life experiences, we aimed to bolster their ability to infer mental states effectively. These enhanced mentalization skills, we hypothesized, form the foundational basis for executing complex educational tasks rooted in constructed teaching methodologies. In summary, this research serves as a pioneering exploration into the synergistic interrelation of mentalization and the narrative approach, offering valuable insights for educators and practitioners aiming to foster enhanced social cognition and enriched educational experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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10 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Role of Acceptance Action and Self-Care in Diabetes Self-Stigma’s Impact on Type 2 Diabetes Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120993 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 862
Abstract
Recently, the quality of life of individuals with diabetes has been reduced, owing to self-stigma that occurs in the process of managing the disease. This process can be improved by accepting diabetes. This study aimed to verify the dual mediating effect of acceptance [...] Read more.
Recently, the quality of life of individuals with diabetes has been reduced, owing to self-stigma that occurs in the process of managing the disease. This process can be improved by accepting diabetes. This study aimed to verify the dual mediating effect of acceptance action and diabetes self-care on the effect of diabetes self-stigma on the quality of life of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. In this study, 300 of 400 data collected to develop and evaluate health equilibrium tools for individuals with T2DM were randomly selected and analyzed. Data were collected from 1 September 2020 to 31 September 2020 using a structured online questionnaire. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 24.0. Additionally, the dual mediation effect was analyzed using PROCESS Macro for SPSS, version 4.1. Acceptance action (B = −0.088, 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.127 to −0.054) and diabetes self-care (B = 0.046, 95% CI, 0.022–0.072) had a mediating effect on the relationship between diabetes self-stigma and quality of life in patients with T2DM in Korea. In particular, these two variables had dual mediating effects (B = 0.017, 95% CI, 0.015–0.019). This study confirmed that diabetes self-care and quality of life can be increased by improving acceptance behavior to overcome the negative impact of self-stigma on the quality of life of patients with T2DM. Establishing a strategy to increase acceptance action as part of an intervention to reduce the negative impact of self-stigma on the quality of life of patients with T2DM is necessary. Full article
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14 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Personal Evaluation and Social Support on Career Expectations of College Students
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120992 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 918
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing career expectations, determine the influence of college students’ personal ability on personal evaluation in the process of gaining employment, and further explore the impact of personal evaluation and social support on career expectations. This study [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing career expectations, determine the influence of college students’ personal ability on personal evaluation in the process of gaining employment, and further explore the impact of personal evaluation and social support on career expectations. This study used a random sampling method to administer questionnaires to final-year undergraduates majoring in the liberal arts, science, art, and sports at two Chinese universities. Career expectations were positively correlated with satisfaction. The preferred employer for graduates is a school. In selecting a career, college students believed that exerting their talents was most important. Personal evaluations had a significant effect on self-development in career expectations. The level of social support had a significant effect on prestige and welfare stability in career expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue External Influences in Adolescents’ Career Development)
27 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Applying the Behaviour Change Wheel to UK Local Authority Policy Documents: A Content Analysis in the Context of Financial Behaviour
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120991 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Local authorities in the UK often try to improve their residents’ financial well-being by promoting changes in behaviour. The extent to which these behaviour change activities are based on relevant theory or evidence is unknown. This research aims to retrospectively analyse the content [...] Read more.
Local authorities in the UK often try to improve their residents’ financial well-being by promoting changes in behaviour. The extent to which these behaviour change activities are based on relevant theory or evidence is unknown. This research aims to retrospectively analyse the content of local authorities’ policies to identify opportunities for improvement. The Action, Actor, Context, Target, Time (AACTT) framework was used to assess the specification of target behaviours. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) process was used to assess intervention content. Within the policy documents, target behaviours were not consistently specified in terms of the AACTT criteria. Descriptions of interventions lacked detail with 28% unable to be categorised and there was a reliance on Education (46%) to change financial behaviour. The designing and reporting of interventions to change residents’ financial behaviour were not always aligned with behavioural science evidence and utilising systematic frameworks could help local authorities achieve policy objectives. Full article
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14 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Linking Distributed Leadership with Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive Schools: The Mediating Roles of Teacher Leadership and Professional Competence
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120990 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
Despite the clear worldwide school inclusion initiative, translating the widely embraced notions of inclusive education into differentiated teaching practice has been recognized as a common difficulty. Based on replies from 780 educators in inclusive schools in Beijing, China, this study explored how distributed [...] Read more.
Despite the clear worldwide school inclusion initiative, translating the widely embraced notions of inclusive education into differentiated teaching practice has been recognized as a common difficulty. Based on replies from 780 educators in inclusive schools in Beijing, China, this study explored how distributed leadership contributes to teachers’ use of differentiated teaching, the mediation role of teacher leadership for inclusion, and teachers’ professional competencies of inclusive education. The results suggest that principals’ distributed leadership directly influences teachers’ employment of differentiated instruction. Teacher leadership for inclusion and professional competencies of inclusive education play a serial mediating role in the relationship between distributed principalship and teachers’ use of differentiated instruction. Implications for implementing inclusive practices were further discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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18 pages, 1033 KiB  
Article
Avoiding Academic Burnout: Academic Factors That Enhance University Student Engagement
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120989 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Burnout is one of the major problems in higher education and is linked to a decline in students’ academic performance and achievement. Burnout, when prolonged over time and added to stress and high workloads, promotes the intention to drop out of studies, which [...] Read more.
Burnout is one of the major problems in higher education and is linked to a decline in students’ academic performance and achievement. Burnout, when prolonged over time and added to stress and high workloads, promotes the intention to drop out of studies, which translates into negative consequences for individuals and groups. Academic engagement is proposed as an effective alternative to offer solutions to improve the quality of education and counteract current negative trends. This study is based on a correlational–descriptive research design. It aimed to find out to what extent students feel engaged in their university studies and to identify and analyze possible correlations between engagement and specific classroom variables. To this end, a sample of 764 college students was studied. The result showed that students feel connected to and interested in their studies and that the area of knowledge impacts student engagement. They also indicate how learning strategies used in the classroom positively impact academic engagement. Full article
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