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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 129 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Maternal obesity, affecting many pregnant women globally, not only poses immediate health risks but also modulates breast milk composition. Obesity is linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, impacting breast milk’s immune properties. This paper explores the intricate relationship between maternal metabolic disorders, such as obesity, and breast milk’s immunological components. We conducted a thorough search for original and review articles published until 17 October 2023 in the PUBMED/Scopus database. This search included several terms related to human breast milk, immunological properties, and obesity. View this paper
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17 pages, 3260 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulated Limosilactobacillus reuteri Encoding Lactoferricin-Lactoferrampin Targeted Intestine against Salmonella typhimurium Infection
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5141; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245141 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects both humans and animals and develops acute gastroenteritis. As porcine intestines are relatively similar to the human ones due to their relatively similar sizes and structural similarity, S. [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects both humans and animals and develops acute gastroenteritis. As porcine intestines are relatively similar to the human ones due to their relatively similar sizes and structural similarity, S. typhimurium causes analogous symptoms in both. Novel strategies for controlling S. typhimurium infection are also desired, such as mucosal-targeted delivery of probiotics and antimicrobial peptides. The bovine lactoferricin-lactoferrampin-encoding Limosilactobacillus reuteri (LR-LFCA) strain improves intestinal barrier function by strengthening the intestinal barrier. Weaned piglets were selected for oral administration of microencapsulated LR-LFCA (microcapsules entrap LR-LFCA into gastro-resistant polymers) and then infected with S. typhimurium for 3 days. We found that orally administering microencapsulated LR-LFCA to weaned piglets attenuated S. typhimurium-induced production of inflammatory factors in the intestinal mucosa by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Moreover, microencapsulated LR-LFCA administration significantly suppressed the oxidative stress that may correlate with gut microbiota (reduced Salmonella population and increased α-diversity and Lactobacillus abundance) and intestinal function (membrane transport and metabolism). Our work demonstrated that microencapsulated LR-LFCA effectively targeted intestine delivery of Lactobacillus and antimicrobial peptides and modulated gut microbiota and mucosal immunity. This study reveals a novel targeting mucosal strategy against S. typhimurium infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics, Prebiotics and Gut Health)
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18 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Diet Quality in Adolescents: Results from the Prospective Population-Based EVA-Tyrol and EVA4YOU Cohorts
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245140 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
(1) Background: Unhealthy dietary behaviors are estimated to be one of the leading causes of death globally and are often shaped at a young age. Here, we investigated adolescent diet quality and its predictors, including nutrition knowledge, in two large Central European cohorts. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Unhealthy dietary behaviors are estimated to be one of the leading causes of death globally and are often shaped at a young age. Here, we investigated adolescent diet quality and its predictors, including nutrition knowledge, in two large Central European cohorts. (2) Methods: In 3056 participants of the EVA-Tyrol and EVA4YOU prospective population-based cohort studies aged 14 to 19 years, diet quality was assessed using the AHEI-2010 and DASH scores, and nutrition knowledge was assessed using the questionnaire from Turconi et al. Associations were examined utilizing multivariable linear regression. (3) Results: The mean overall AHEI-2010 score was 42%, and the DASH score was 45%. Female participants (60.6%) had a significantly higher diet quality according to the AHEI-2010 and DASH score. AHEI-2010 and DASH scores were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with sex, school type, smoking, and total daily energy intake. The DASH score was additionally significantly associated (p < 0.001) with age, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. Participants with better nutrition knowledge were more likely to be older, to attend a general high school, to live in a high-income household, to be non-smokers, and to have a higher diet quality according to the AHEI-2010 and DASH score. (4) Conclusions: Predictors of better diet quality included female sex, physical activity, educational level, and nutrition knowledge. These results may aid focused interventions to improve diet quality in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Sedentary Behavior in Children and Adolescents)
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12 pages, 4059 KiB  
Article
Toll-like Receptor 4 Differentially Modulates Cardiac Function in Response to Chronic Exposure to High-Fat Diet and Pressure Overload
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245139 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Background/Aim: The impact of myocardial stressors such as high-fat diet (HFD) and pressure overload has been extensively studied. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficiency has been suggested to have a protective role in response to these stressors, although some conflicting data exist. Furthermore, there [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: The impact of myocardial stressors such as high-fat diet (HFD) and pressure overload has been extensively studied. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficiency has been suggested to have a protective role in response to these stressors, although some conflicting data exist. Furthermore, there is limited information about the role of TLR4 on cardiac remodeling in response to long-term exposure to stressors. This study aims to investigate the effects of TLR4 deficiency on cardiac histology and physiology in response to chronic stressors. Methods: TLR4-deficient (TLR4−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to either HFD or a normal diet (ND) for 28 weeks. Another group underwent abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or a sham procedure and was monitored for 12 weeks. Inflammatory markers, histology, and echocardiography were used to assess the effects of these interventions. Results: TLR4−/− mice exhibited reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis after long-term HFD exposure compared to ND without affecting cardiac function. On the other hand, TLR4 deficiency worsened cardiac function in response to AAC, leading to decreased ejection fraction (EF%) and increased end-systolic volume (ESV). Conclusions: TLR4 deficiency provided protection against HFD-induced myocardial inflammation but impaired hemodynamic cardiac function under pressure overload conditions. These findings highlight the crucial role of TLR4 and its downstream signaling pathway in maintaining cardiac output during physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Factors on Cardiovascular and Endocrine Health)
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13 pages, 2060 KiB  
Article
Active Hexose-Correlated Compound Shows Direct and Indirect Effects against Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245138 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of mature CD19+CD5+CD23+ B cells in the bloodstream and in lymphoid organs. It usually affects people over 70 years of age, which limits the options for treatments. [...] Read more.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of mature CD19+CD5+CD23+ B cells in the bloodstream and in lymphoid organs. It usually affects people over 70 years of age, which limits the options for treatments. The disease is typically well-managed, but to date is still incurable. Hence, the need for novel therapeutic strategies remains. Nurse-like cells (NLCs) are major components of the microenvironment for CLL, supporting tumor cell survival, proliferation, and even drug resistance. They are of myeloid lineage, guided toward differentiating into their tumor-supportive role by the CLL cells themselves. As such, they are analogous to tumor-associated macrophages and represent a major therapeutic target. Previously, it was found that a mushroom extract, Active Hexose-Correlated Compound (AHCC), promoted the death of acute myeloid leukemia cells while preserving normal monocytes. Given these findings, it was asked whether AHCC might have a similar effect on the abnormally differentiated myeloid-lineage NLCs in CLL. CLL-patient PBMCs were treated with AHCC, and it was found that AHCC treatment showed a direct toxic effect against isolated CLL cells. In addition, it significantly reduced the number of tumor-supportive NLCs and altered their phenotype. The effects of AHCC were then tested in the Eµ-TCL1 mouse model of CLL and the MllPTD/WT Flt3ITD/WT model of AML. Results showed that AHCC not only reduced tumor load and increased survival in the CLL and AML models, but it also enhanced antitumor antibody treatment in the CLL model. These results suggest that AHCC has direct and indirect effects against CLL and that it may be of benefit when combined with existing treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Cancer: 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Dietary Strategies to Reduce Triglycerides in Women of Reproductive Age: A Simulation Modelling Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245137 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Many women of reproductive age have poor diet quality and are at higher risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Triglycerides are a critical risk factor for chronic diseases, and although they can be influenced by diet, there are minimal dietary intervention studies [...] Read more.
Many women of reproductive age have poor diet quality and are at higher risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Triglycerides are a critical risk factor for chronic diseases, and although they can be influenced by diet, there are minimal dietary intervention studies identifying key foods/food groups that reduce triglycerides. We performed data simulation modelling to estimate the potential reductions in fasting triglycerides that could be achieved by different dietary strategies in reproductive age women. The model was created using data from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey and incorporated various factors such as demographics, nutrient intake, and plasma biomarkers. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to estimate triglyceride levels, considering nutrient intake and pre-determined covariates. Dietary scenarios were developed, reducing the consumption of processed/ultra-processed foods, while increasing the intake of minimally processed foods like fruits, vegetables, fish, and nuts. A total of 606 women were included. Reducing processed foods by 50% plus increasing intakes of fruits (75–225 g/day), vegetables (75–225 g/day), or nuts (10–40 g/day) decreased triglycerides by up to 4.3%. Additionally, incorporating 80 g/day of omega 3 fish (>800 mg long-chain omega 3/100 g) decreased triglycerides by 8.2%. The clinical relevance of lowering triglycerides for cardiometabolic disease management should be tested in dietary intervention studies in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Research Methodology on Diet and Dietary Intake)
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32 pages, 858 KiB  
Review
Combined Exercise Training and Nutritional Interventions or Pharmacological Treatments to Improve Exercise Capacity and Body Composition in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245136 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The burden of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation can translate to reduced physical activity, in turn contributing to poor exercise capacity, muscle dysfunction, [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The burden of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation can translate to reduced physical activity, in turn contributing to poor exercise capacity, muscle dysfunction, and body composition abnormalities. These extrapulmonary features of the disease are targeted during pulmonary rehabilitation, which provides patients with tailored therapies to improve the physical and emotional status. Patients with COPD can be divided into metabolic phenotypes, including cachectic, sarcopenic, normal weight, obese, and sarcopenic with hidden obesity. To date, there have been many studies performed investigating the individual effects of exercise training programs as well as nutritional and pharmacological treatments to improve exercise capacity and body composition in patients with COPD. However, little research is available investigating the combined effect of exercise training with nutritional or pharmacological treatments on these outcomes. Therefore, this review focuses on exploring the potential additional beneficial effects of combinations of exercise training and nutritional or pharmacological treatments to target exercise capacity and body composition in patients with COPD with different metabolic phenotypes. Full article
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17 pages, 774 KiB  
Systematic Review
Benefits and Harms of Edible Vegetable Oils and Fats Fortified with Vitamins A and D as a Public Health Intervention in the General Population: A Systematic Review of Interventions
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5135; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245135 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1565
Abstract
This systematic review aims to assess whether edible vegetable oils and fats fortified with vitamin A and/or D are effective and safe in improving vitamin intake and ameliorating deficiency states in the general population. In November 2022, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, [...] Read more.
This systematic review aims to assess whether edible vegetable oils and fats fortified with vitamin A and/or D are effective and safe in improving vitamin intake and ameliorating deficiency states in the general population. In November 2022, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, Scopus, Global Index Medicus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSI) investigating the fortification of edible vegetable oils and fats with either vitamin A or vitamin D or both as compared to the same vegetable oils and/or fats without vitamin A and D fortification or no interventions, in the general population, without age restriction. We assessed the methodological quality of included RCTs using Cochrane’s risk of bias tool 2.0 and of NRSIs using ROBINS-I tool. We performed random-effects meta-analysis and assessed certainty of evidence using GRADE. We included eight studies. Available evidence showed no significant effect of fortification with vitamin A on serum retinol levels (RCTs: MD 0.35 µmol/L, 95% CI −0.43 to 1.12; two trials; 514 participants; low-certainty evidence; CCTs: MD 0.31 µmol/L, 95% CI −0.18 to 0.80; two trials; 205 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and on subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Low-certainty evidence showed no effect of vitamin D fortification on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration (MD 6.59 nmol/L, 95% CI −6.89 to 20.07; one trial; 62 participants). In conclusion, vitamin A-fortified vegetable oils and fats may result in little to no difference in serum retinol levels in general populations. The dose of vitamin A used in the trials may be safe but may not be sufficient to reduce subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Further, the evidence suggests that vitamin D fortification results in little to no difference in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration. Several aspects of providing fortified oils and fats to the general population as a public health intervention should be further investigated, including optimal fortification dose, effects on vitamin D deficiency and its clinical symptoms and potential adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Food Fortification on Health and Nutrition Outcomes)
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10 pages, 851 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation, with and without Creatine, on Occupational Performance in Firefighters
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245134 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2156
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of protein and carbohydrate supplementation, with and without creatine, on occupational performance in firefighters. Methods: Using a randomized, double-blind approach, thirty male firefighters (age: 34.4 ± 8.4 yrs., height: 1.82 ± 0.07 [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of protein and carbohydrate supplementation, with and without creatine, on occupational performance in firefighters. Methods: Using a randomized, double-blind approach, thirty male firefighters (age: 34.4 ± 8.4 yrs., height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m; weight: 88.6 ± 12.5 kg; BF%: 17.2 ± 5.8%) were randomized to receive either (A.) 25 g of whey protein isolate + 25 g of carbohydrate powder (ProCarb group); or (B.) ProCarb + 5 g of creatine (Creatine group) in a double-blind fashion over a period of 21–26 days (depending on shift rotations) to evaluate the impact of supplementation on occupation-specific performance. At baseline and following supplementation, firefighters completed a battery of tests. These tests included an aerobic speed test on an air-braked cycle ergometer followed by the hose carry, body drag, stair climb, and Keiser sled hammer for time. Results: No significant differences in measures of performance were observed at baseline (p > 0.05). There was a significant main effect for time observed for rescue, stair climb, total time to completion, and time trial performance (p < 0.05). There was a significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction for rescue and forcible entry. Independent sample t-tests indicated that the Creatine group experienced a greater reduction (from baseline) in completion time for the rescue (1.78 ± 0.57 s, 95% CI: 0.61, 2.95 s, p = 0.004) and forcible entry (2.66 ± 0.97 s, 95% CI: 0.68, 4.65 s, p = 0.01) tests compared to the ProCarb group. No significant group × time interactions were observed for the hose line advance, stair climb, total time to completion, and time trial performance (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The addition of supplemental creatine to a protein and carbohydrate supplement to the diet of career firefighters throughout a three week period improves occupational performance in firefighters in specific areas of high-intensity, repetitive actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Intake on Athletic Performance)
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33 pages, 2137 KiB  
Review
Body Composition Evaluation and Clinical Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Phenylketonuria
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245133 (registering DOI) - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) may be at increased cardiovascular risk. This review provides an overview of clinical and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, explores the connections between body composition (including fat mass and ectopic fat) [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) may be at increased cardiovascular risk. This review provides an overview of clinical and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, explores the connections between body composition (including fat mass and ectopic fat) and cardiovascular risk, and examines various methods for evaluating body composition. It particularly focuses on nutritional ultrasound, given its emerging availability and practical utility in clinical settings. Possible causes of increased cardiometabolic risk in PKU are also explored, including an increased intake of carbohydrates, chronic exposure to amino acids, and characteristics of microbiota. It is important to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and body composition in patients with PKU. We suggest systematic monitoring of body composition to develop nutritional management and hydration strategies to optimize performance within the limits of nutritional therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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16 pages, 951 KiB  
Review
Peanut Allergy and Component-Resolved Diagnostics Possibilities—What Are the Benefits?
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245132 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Peanut allergy is a widespread and potentially life-threatening condition that affects both children and adults, with a growing incidence worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 1–2% of the population in several developed countries. Component-resolved diagnostics is a modern approach to allergy diagnosis [...] Read more.
Peanut allergy is a widespread and potentially life-threatening condition that affects both children and adults, with a growing incidence worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 1–2% of the population in several developed countries. Component-resolved diagnostics is a modern approach to allergy diagnosis that focuses on identifying specific allergenic proteins to provide precise diagnoses and personalized treatment plans. It is a technique that enables the analysis of specific IgE antibodies against tightly defined molecules (components) that constitute the allergen. Component-resolved diagnostics is particularly valuable in peanut allergy diagnosis, helping to determine allergen components associated with severe reactions. It also aids in predicting the course of the allergy and enables the development of personalized immunotherapy plans; however, the full application of it for these purposes still requires more precise studies. In this paper, we present the current knowledge about peanut allergy and component-resolved diagnostics possibilities. We discuss the possibilities of using molecular diagnostics in the diagnosis of peanut allergy. We focus on examining and predicting the development of peanut allergy, including the risk of anaphylaxis, and describe the latest data related to desensitization to peanuts. Full article
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14 pages, 1037 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Nutrient Supply on Prostate Cancer Risk Worldwide
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245131 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
We aim to explore the association between nutrient supply and the incidence of prostate cancer globally. We utilized national nutrient supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for 150 countries, including the average supply of total protein (APS), [...] Read more.
We aim to explore the association between nutrient supply and the incidence of prostate cancer globally. We utilized national nutrient supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for 150 countries, including the average supply of total protein (APS), animal protein (AAPS), fat (AFS), animal protein/total protein ratio (ATR), and share of dietary energy supply derived from cereals, roots, and tubers (CR). Prostate cancer incidence data were sourced from the Global Burden Disease 2019 (GBD2019). Correlation, regression analyses, and subgroup analysis were conducted. Our findings imply that incidence of prostate cancer is significantly correlated to APS (ρ = 0.394, p < 0.01), AAPS (ρ = 0.560, p < 0.01), AFS (ρ = 0.522, p < 0.01), ATR (ρ = 0.592, p < 0.01), and CR (ρ = −0.667, p < 0.01). After adjusting for confounders, regression analysis showed linear relationships between the AAPS (β = 0.605, p = 0.006), ATR (β = 70.76, p = 0.005), CR (β = −1.4451, p < 0.01), and age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) of prostate cancer, while no association was observed with APS (β = 0.030, p = 0.483) or AFS (β = 0.237, p = 0.405). Subgroup analysis suggested that dietary supply indicators were associated with ASIR in middle, middle-high, and high SDI, but not in countries with low and middle-low SDI. In summary, prostate cancer rates globally correlate significantly with AAPS, ATR, and CR, but not with APS and AFS. When considering the SDI of countries, the relationship is generally more pronounced in economically advanced nations, but not evident in low and middle-low SDI countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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13 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Nucleotides Ameliorate Age-Related Decline in Testosterone in Male Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone-8 (SAMP8) Mice by Modulating the Local Renin–Angiotensin System Antioxidant Pathway
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5130; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245130 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2880
Abstract
In older men, an age-related decline in testosterone is closely associated with various adverse health outcomes. With the progression of aging, hyperactivation of the local renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress increase in the testis. The regulation of RAS antioxidants may be a [...] Read more.
In older men, an age-related decline in testosterone is closely associated with various adverse health outcomes. With the progression of aging, hyperactivation of the local renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress increase in the testis. The regulation of RAS antioxidants may be a target to delay testicular aging and maintain testosterone levels. Exogenous nucleotides (NTs) have anti-aging potential in several systems, but there are no studies of their effects on the reproductive system. In our study, we examined the effects of exogenous NTs on testosterone synthesis and explored possible mechanisms of action. Therefore, senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice and senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) were used in the experiment, and they were randomly divided into an NTs free group (NTs-F), a normal control group (control), a low-dose NTs group (NTs-L), a middle-dose NTs (NTs-M), a high-dose NTs group (NTs-H) and SAMR1 groups, and the testis of the mice were collected for testing after 9 months of intervention. The results showed that exogenous NTs could increase the testicular organ index in mice during aging, and delayed the age-associated decline in testosterone levels in SAMP8 male mice, possibly by modulating the local RAS antioxidant pathway and reducing oxidative stress to protect the testis. The present study provides new research clues for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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17 pages, 2833 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing the Degree of Employee Involvement in Preventive Nutrition and Physical Activity Web-Based Programs in Medium and Small Enterprises
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245129 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 671
Abstract
This cross-sectional study was part of a comprehensive workplace health promotion program (WHPP) implemented in the work environment of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Western Slovenia, which included web-based educational campaigns aimed at promoting positive lifestyle changes among workers, including healthy eating [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study was part of a comprehensive workplace health promotion program (WHPP) implemented in the work environment of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Western Slovenia, which included web-based educational campaigns aimed at promoting positive lifestyle changes among workers, including healthy eating habits and physical activity. As part of this program, which included campaigns in the areas of stress management, ergonomics, sleep hygiene, communication, work climate, and absenteeism, we developed and examined the engagement frequency in web-based content on healthy eating and physical activity for the companies included in the WHPP. This part of the project lasted from 2020 to 2022. Prior to the educational campaign, participants voluntarily completed a screening questionnaire. We analyzed the patterns of 370 workers in terms of their job classification (predominantly sedentary, predominantly standing, or predominantly physical), body mass index (BMI), gender, age, and selected indicators of diet and physical activity. Of the 88 companies participating in the WHPP, 26 took part in our web-based educational campaigns on nutrition and physical activity. Through an empirical analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics and a linear regression, we found that, on average, the engagement frequency (i.e., proportion of educational personal e-mails read) was highest among men with sedentary work, with older employees participating more actively than expected. Moreover, workers with good dietary habits and a favorable BMI proved to be the most avid readers of the web-based campaigns. Despite the overall low participant engagement frequency, it is clear that web-based educational campaigns are more appealing to workers with sedentary jobs and good dietary habits. This study provides valuable information on the potential effectiveness of appropriate workplace health promotion campaigns for SMEs and public health practices. Full article
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11 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
Malnutrition Screening Tools Are Not Sensitive Enough to Identify Older Hospital Patients with Malnutrition
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245126 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
This study evaluates the concurrent validity of five malnutrition screening tools to identify older hospitalized patients against the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) diagnostic criteria as limited evidence is available. The screening tools Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the concurrent validity of five malnutrition screening tools to identify older hospitalized patients against the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) diagnostic criteria as limited evidence is available. The screening tools Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Mini Nutritional Assessment—Short Form (MNA-SF), and the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment—Short Form (PG-SGA-SF) with cut-offs for both malnutrition (conservative) and moderate malnutrition or risk of malnutrition (liberal) were used. The concurrent validity was determined by the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the level of agreement by Cohen’s kappa. In total, 356 patients were included in the analyses (median age 70 y (IQR 63–77); 54% male). The prevalence of malnutrition according to the GLIM criteria without prior screening was 42%. The conservative cut-offs showed a low-to-moderate sensitivity (32–68%) and moderate-to-high specificity (61–98%). The PPV and NPV ranged from 59 to 94% and 67–86%, respectively. The Cohen’s kappa showed poor agreement (k = 0.21–0.59). The liberal cut-offs displayed a moderate-to-high sensitivity (66–89%) and a low-to-high specificity (46–95%). The agreement was fair to good (k = 0.33–0.75). The currently used screening tools vary in their capacity to identify hospitalized older patients with malnutrition. The screening process in the GLIM framework requires further consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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14 pages, 2490 KiB  
Article
Nitric Oxide in the Field: Prevalence and Use of Nitrates by Dietitians and Nutritionists in Spanish Elite Soccer
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5128; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245128 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Soccer players make frequent use of dietary supplements to improve performance. One of the most widely used strategies to optimize performance is to increase the bioavailability of nitric oxide through nitrates, as it could delay fatigue during physical exertion, among other benefits. This [...] Read more.
Soccer players make frequent use of dietary supplements to improve performance. One of the most widely used strategies to optimize performance is to increase the bioavailability of nitric oxide through nitrates, as it could delay fatigue during physical exertion, among other benefits. This may be positive for performance in soccer, although there is almost no research in professional soccer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of nitrates and behaviours related to their consumption in Spanish elite soccer clubs. Dietitian–nutritionist representatives from 45 teams from the most important Spanish soccer leagues completed an online survey to determine if, when, how and why nitrates are prescribed to soccer players. Of the total sample, 55.6% indicated providing nitrates, always before matches, but only 36% in training. There was a wide variation and lack of consistency in the timing, dosage and form of administration of nitrates. The use of mouthwashes or the protocol of chronic nitrate intake was not taken into account in most cases. The present study indicates a lack of interpretation between scientific knowledge and its application in practice, highlighting the need for future research to better understand how to optimize the use of nitrates in professional soccer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition: Current and Novel Insights)
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27 pages, 4775 KiB  
Review
The Integral Role of Magnesium in Muscle Integrity and Aging: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245127 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Aging is characterized by significant physiological changes, with the degree of decline varying significantly among individuals. The preservation of intrinsic capacity over the course of an individual’s lifespan is fundamental for healthy aging. Locomotion, which entails the capacity for independent movement, is intricately [...] Read more.
Aging is characterized by significant physiological changes, with the degree of decline varying significantly among individuals. The preservation of intrinsic capacity over the course of an individual’s lifespan is fundamental for healthy aging. Locomotion, which entails the capacity for independent movement, is intricately connected with various dimensions of human life, including cognition, vitality, sensory perception, and psychological well-being. Notably, skeletal muscle functions as a pivotal nexus within this intricate framework. Any perturbation in its functionality can manifest as compromised physical performance and an elevated susceptibility to frailty. Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a central role in approximately 800 biochemical reactions within the human body. Its distinctive physical and chemical attributes render it an indispensable stabilizing factor in the orchestration of diverse cellular reactions and organelle functions, thereby rendering it irreplaceable in processes directly impacting muscle health. This narrative review offers a comprehensive exploration of the pivotal role played by magnesium in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity, emphasizing the critical importance of maintaining optimal magnesium levels for promoting healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lifestyle Interventions for Frailty and Sarcopenia)
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15 pages, 539 KiB  
Article
Perceived Quality of Life Is Related to a Healthy Lifestyle and Related Outcomes in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The Physical Activity, Sedentarism, and Obesity in Spanish Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245125 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Background: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is crucial for safeguarding the well-being and quality of life perception, appropriate growth, and development of children and adolescents, while also mitigating the risk of future adult-onset diseases. Objective: To assess associations between perceived quality of life and [...] Read more.
Background: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is crucial for safeguarding the well-being and quality of life perception, appropriate growth, and development of children and adolescents, while also mitigating the risk of future adult-onset diseases. Objective: To assess associations between perceived quality of life and healthy lifestyle and related outcomes in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 8–16-year-old children and adolescents (n = 3534) were included in the nationwide study of Physical Activity, Sedentarism, and Obesity in Spanish Youth (PASOS). Data were collected through (1) questionnaires on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), healthy lifestyle outcomes (dietary intake, physical fitness, sleep, and screen time), and (2) anthropometric measurements for weight status assessment. Data were analysed by logistic regression, using the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as the grouping variable. Results: Participants with a lower HRQoL were those with a lower adherence to the MedDiet and lower achievement of the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables. They were also less likely to follow the recommendations for screen time and sleep (with the exception of the weekend) compared to participants with a higher HRQoL. Participants with a lower HRQoL showed a lower healthy weight status and poorer physical fitness than those with a higher HRQoL. Conclusions: Healthy eating habits, healthy weight status (normal weight), appropriate sleep time, physical fitness, and limited screen time play a crucial role in the perceived quality of life in children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Nutrition and Lifestyle: The Role of the School)
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19 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Improving Children’s Lifestyle and Quality of Life through Synchronous Online Education: The Nutritional Adventures School-Based Program
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245124 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
The early introduction of effective nutritional educational programs is pivotal for instilling sustainable healthy behaviors. The present work aims to present a best practice example of a nutrition and overall lifestyle school-based training program, the Nutritional Adventures (“Diatrofoperipeteies”). Conducted during 2020–2022 in Greek [...] Read more.
The early introduction of effective nutritional educational programs is pivotal for instilling sustainable healthy behaviors. The present work aims to present a best practice example of a nutrition and overall lifestyle school-based training program, the Nutritional Adventures (“Diatrofoperipeteies”). Conducted during 2020–2022 in Greek primary schools, this synchronous, online educational initiative included two 1-school-hour activities with a nutrition instructor. Additionally, schools were randomly assigned to supplementary “at-home” supported-by-parents or “in-class” supported-by-educators educational activities. In total, n = 12,451 students of 84 primary schools participated. Parent-completed questionnaires were selected in the recruitment and post-intervention phase (40% participation rate); overall, the working sample was n = 1487 students. In the post-intervention phase, a significant increase in Mediterranean diet adherence was observed (KIDMED score: mean increment = 0.25 units; p < 0.001), particularly fruit and vegetable consumption. Time spent on physical activity increased, while screen time decreased. Students’ total quality of life significantly improved (PedsQL; mean increment = 1.35 units; p < 0.001), including on all of its subscales (physical, emotional, social, and school function). Supplementary educational activities that were supported by educators rather than parents yielded a more favorable impact on students’ lifestyle and quality of life. The Nutritional Adventures program can be regarded as a successful initiative in primary schools, yielding immediate advantages that extend beyond promoting healthy dietary habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating Behaviors in School Students)
15 pages, 2672 KiB  
Article
Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Alters the Oral Microbiome without Negating the Nitrite Response to Beetroot Juice Supplementation
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245123 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
A low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet in athletes increases fat oxidation but impairs sports performance, potentially due to impaired exercise economy. Dietary nitrate supplementation can improve exercise economy via an increase in nitric oxide production, which is initiated by the reduction of [...] Read more.
A low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet in athletes increases fat oxidation but impairs sports performance, potentially due to impaired exercise economy. Dietary nitrate supplementation can improve exercise economy via an increase in nitric oxide production, which is initiated by the reduction of nitrate to nitrite within the oral cavity. This reaction is dependent on the presence of nitrate-reducing oral bacteria, which can potentially be altered by dietary changes, including a LCHF diet. This study explored the effect of a LCHF diet on the oral microbiome and subsequent changes to plasma nitrite concentration following nitrate supplementation. Following five days of LCHF or high carbohydrate (HCHO) control dietary intervention, highly trained male race walkers consumed 140 mL beetroot juice containing 8.4 mmol nitrate; they then provided (a) blood samples for plasma nitrate and nitrite analysis and (b) saliva samples for 16S rRNA sequencing of the oral microbiome. The LCHF diet (n = 13) reduced oral bacterial diversity and changed the relative abundance of the genera Neisseria (+10%), Fusobacteria (+3%), Prevotella (−9%), and Veillonella (−4%), with no significant changes observed following the HCHO diet (n = 11). Following beetroot juice ingestion, plasma nitrite concentrations were higher for the LCHF diet compared to the HCHO diet (p = 0.04). However, the absence of an interaction with the trial (pre–post) (p = 0.71) suggests that this difference was not due to the dietary intervention. In summary, we found an increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations in response to nitrate supplementation independent of diet. This suggests the oral microbiome is adaptive to dietary changes and can maintain a nitrate reduction capacity despite a decrease in bacterial diversity following the LCHF diet. Full article
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15 pages, 732 KiB  
Article
Influence of Sociodemographic Variables and Healthy Habits on the Values of Insulin Resistance Indicators in 386,924 Spanish Workers
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245122 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is an alteration of the action of insulin in cells, which do not respond adequately to this action, leading to an increase in blood glucose levels. IR produces a very diverse clinical picture and increases the cardiometabolic risk of [...] Read more.
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is an alteration of the action of insulin in cells, which do not respond adequately to this action, leading to an increase in blood glucose levels. IR produces a very diverse clinical picture and increases the cardiometabolic risk of the population that suffers from it. Among the factors that influence IR are genetics, unhealthy lifestyle habits, overweight, and obesity. The objective of this work was to determine how different sociodemographic variables and healthy habits influence the values of different scales that assess the risk of presenting IR in a group of Spanish workers. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out in 386,924 workers from different Spanish regions. Different sociodemographic variables and lifestyle habits were studied (age, social class, educational level, smoking, Mediterranean diet, physical exercise) along with their association with four scales to evaluate the risk of insulin resistance (TyG index, TyG-BMI, METS-IR, TG/HDL-c). To analyse the quantitative variables, Student’s t test was used, while the Chi-squared test was used for the qualitative variables. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed, calculating the odds ratio with its 95% confidence intervals. The accepted level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: In the multivariate analysis, all variables, except educational level, increased the risk of presenting high values on the IR risk scales, especially a sedentary lifestyle and low adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate an association between the practice of regular physical exercise and a reduction in the risk of IR; a strong role of the Mediterranean diet as a protective factor for IR; an association between aging and increased IR, which has also been suggested in other studies; and, finally, a relationship between a low socioeconomic level and an increase in IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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12 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Association between Physical Activity, Diet Quality and Leisure Activities of Young Poles
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245121 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 730
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the association between eating behaviours, sedentary behaviours and physical activity based on a self-reported survey conducted on a sample of the Polish population of adolescents aged 13–16. The field survey was conducted on a nationwide [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the association between eating behaviours, sedentary behaviours and physical activity based on a self-reported survey conducted on a sample of the Polish population of adolescents aged 13–16. The field survey was conducted on a nationwide group of 6818 respondents. The object of the statistical analysis was to develop a model regarding the influence of selected socio-demographic characteristics on engaging in physical activity and selected dietary behaviours. Due to the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable, logistic regression models were used in the model. It was found that the higher the level of physical activity, the more well-balanced the diet, including higher levels of fruit consumption, water consumption and protein-containing products, as well as the relatively less frequent occurrence of sedentary behaviour as a form of leisure activity. However, there is a constant need to develop, in cooperation with scientific and research institutions and educational establishments, mechanisms for influencing a change in the behaviour of young people towards a more pro-healthy lifestyle so that the effects of these educational activities are not only reflected in an increase in the level of knowledge in this area but also contribute to real changes in dietary behaviour. Full article
13 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
Plant-Based Diet Indices and Their Association with Frailty in Older Adults: A CLHLS-Based Cohort Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245120 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Within the realm of aging, the nexus between diet and health has garnered considerable attention. However, only select studies have amalgamated insights into the correlation between plant and animal food consumption and frailty. Our aim was to appraise the connections between the overall [...] Read more.
Within the realm of aging, the nexus between diet and health has garnered considerable attention. However, only select studies have amalgamated insights into the correlation between plant and animal food consumption and frailty. Our aim was to appraise the connections between the overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI) and frailty in the elderly, utilizing data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). This cohort study drew upon CLHLS data spanning from 2008 to 2018. The PDI, hPDI, and uPDI were gauged using a simplified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A frailty index, encompassing 35 variables across major health domains, was formulated. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to scrutinize the associations between the three plant-based dietary indices and frailty in older adults, including an exploration of gender disparities in these associations. A cohort of 2883 study participants was encompassed, with 1987 (68.9%) observed to be either frail or in the pre-frail stage. The Cox model with penalized spline exhibited linear associations of PDI, hPDI, and uPDI with the frailty index. Following covariate adjustments, it was discerned that older adults situated in the highest quartiles of PDI (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77–0.95) and hPDI (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74–0.93) experienced a 14% and 17% diminished risk of frailty compared to those in the lowest quartiles of PDI and hPDI, respectively. Conversely, when contrasted with those in the lowest quartile of uPDI, older adults adhering to the highest tertile of uPDI exhibited a 21% elevated risk of frailty (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08–1.36), with both associations achieving statistical significance (p < 0.01). Moreover, additional subgroup analyses revealed that the protective effects of PDI and hPDI against frailty and the deleterious effects of uPDI were more conspicuous in men compared to women. To forestall or decelerate the progression of frailty in the elderly, tailored dietary interventions are imperative, particularly targeting male seniors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition in Health Improvement)
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14 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Strain Shirota on Daytime Performance in Healthy Office Workers: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Crossover, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245119 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain Shirota (LcS) modulates psychological homeostasis via the gut–brain axis. To explore the possible efficacy of LcS for improving daytime performance, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy office workers with sleep complaints. The participants received fermented [...] Read more.
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain Shirota (LcS) modulates psychological homeostasis via the gut–brain axis. To explore the possible efficacy of LcS for improving daytime performance, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy office workers with sleep complaints. The participants received fermented milk containing viable LcS (daily intake of 1 × 1011 colony-forming units) and non-fermented placebo milk, each for a 4-week period. In the last week of each period, the participants underwent assessments of their subjective mood and measurements of physiological state indicators via an electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability in the morning and afternoon. The attention score in the afternoon as assessed by the visual analog scale was higher in the LcS intake period than in the placebo intake period (p = 0.041). Theta power on EEG measured at rest or during an auditory oddball task in the afternoon was significantly lower in the LcS period than in the placebo period (p = 0.025 and 0.009, respectively). The change rate of theta power was associated with the change in attention score. Treatment-associated changes were also observed in heart rate and the sympathetic nerve activity index. These results indicate that LcS has possible efficacy for improving daytime performance, supported by observations of the related physiological state indicators. Full article
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18 pages, 3263 KiB  
Review
Advances in Research on Marine-Derived Lipid-Lowering Active Substances and Their Molecular Mechanisms
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245118 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 871
Abstract
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is a metabolic disorder caused by abnormal lipid metabolism. Recently, the prevalence of HLP caused by poor dietary habits in the population has been increasing year by year. In addition, lipid-lowering drugs currently in clinical use have shown significant improvement in [...] Read more.
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is a metabolic disorder caused by abnormal lipid metabolism. Recently, the prevalence of HLP caused by poor dietary habits in the population has been increasing year by year. In addition, lipid-lowering drugs currently in clinical use have shown significant improvement in blood lipid levels, but are accompanied by certain side effects. However, bioactive marine substances have been shown to possess a variety of physiological activities such as hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antithrombotic and effects on blood pressure. Therefore, the hypolipidemic efficacy of marine bioactive substances with complex and diverse structures has also attracted attention. This paper focuses on the therapeutic role of marine-derived polysaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides in HLP, and briefly discusses the main mechanisms by which these substances exert their hypolipidemic activity in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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12 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
Sodium L-Aspartate Supplementation Improves Repeated-Sprint Performance
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245117 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Aspartate supplementation has been reported to improve endurance performance by facilitating the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of aspartate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance and blood pH. Following an overnight fast, fourteen healthy males completed three [...] Read more.
Aspartate supplementation has been reported to improve endurance performance by facilitating the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of aspartate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance and blood pH. Following an overnight fast, fourteen healthy males completed three sets of 10 × 6 s maximal sprints after consuming sodium L-aspartate (ASP) or placebo (PLA), in a double-blind manner. Both supplements were taken twice on each test day (2 × 4.5 g). Exercise performance (e.g., cadence and power output) and blood variables (e.g., pH and plasma amino acid levels) were measured. The ASP trial evidenced significantly higher plasma aspartate concentration during the first (ASP, 45.3 ± 9.2 μM; PLA, 6.1 ± 0.8 μM) and the second exercise sets (ASP, 24.2 ± 4.5 μM; PLA, 6.6 ± 0.9 μM) and peak cadence during the second set (ASP, 153 ± 3 rpm; PLA, 152 ± 3 rpm) compared with the PLA trial (all p < 0.05). The peak power output during the second exercise set (ASP, 743 ± 32 W; PLA, 734 ± 31 W; p = 0.060) and the blood pH immediately before (ASP, 7.280 ± 0.020; PLA, 7.248 ± 0.016; p = 0.087) and after the third exercise set (ASP, 7.274 ± 0.019; PLA, 7.242 ± 0.018; p = 0.093) tended to be higher in the ASP than in the PLA trial. In conclusion, ASP supplementation partially improved repeated-sprint performance (peak cadence during the second exercise set). However, it did not affect the mean power output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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32 pages, 691 KiB  
Review
Improving Cognitive Function with Nutritional Supplements in Aging: A Comprehensive Narrative Review of Clinical Studies Investigating the Effects of Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, and Other Dietary Supplements
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245116 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 4152
Abstract
Cognitive impairment and dementia are burgeoning public health concerns, especially given the increasing longevity of the global population. These conditions not only affect the quality of life of individuals and their families, but also pose significant economic burdens on healthcare systems. In this [...] Read more.
Cognitive impairment and dementia are burgeoning public health concerns, especially given the increasing longevity of the global population. These conditions not only affect the quality of life of individuals and their families, but also pose significant economic burdens on healthcare systems. In this context, our comprehensive narrative review critically examines the role of nutritional supplements in mitigating cognitive decline. Amidst growing interest in non-pharmacological interventions for cognitive enhancement, this review delves into the efficacy of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and other dietary supplements. Through a systematic evaluation of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and meta-analysis, this review focuses on outcomes such as memory enhancement, attention improvement, executive function support, and neuroprotection. The findings suggest a complex interplay between nutritional supplementation and cognitive health, with some supplements showing promising results and others displaying limited or context-dependent effectiveness. The review highlights the importance of dosage, bioavailability, and individual differences in response to supplementation. Additionally, it addresses safety concerns and potential interactions with conventional treatments. By providing a clear overview of current scientific knowledge, this review aims to guide healthcare professionals and researchers in making informed decisions about the use of nutritional supplements for cognitive health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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15 pages, 334 KiB  
Article
Berry Consumption and Sleep in the Adult US General Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2018
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245115 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Introduction: Poor sleep is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Berries are rich in micronutrients and antioxidants that may improve sleep quality and duration. We determined the association of berry consumption and sleep duration and sleep difficulty among adult participants in NHANES. Methods: [...] Read more.
Introduction: Poor sleep is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Berries are rich in micronutrients and antioxidants that may improve sleep quality and duration. We determined the association of berry consumption and sleep duration and sleep difficulty among adult participants in NHANES. Methods: We analyzed the diet of US adults aged ≥ 20 y using two non-consecutive 24 h recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2018 (N = 29,217). Poor sleep quality was measured by sleep duration (short sleep duration: <7 h), long sleep (≥9 h), and reported sleep difficulty. The relative risk of poor sleep outcomes for berry consumers vs. nonconsumers was modelled using population weight-adjusted multivariable general logistic regression. Results: About 46% of participants reported inadequate sleep duration, and 27% reported sleep difficulties. Twenty-two percent reported consuming berries. Berry consumers had a 10–17% decreased risk of short sleep. The findings were consistent for specific berry types including strawberries and blueberries (p < 0.05). No significant associations with long sleep were found for total berries and any berry types. A decreased risk of sleep difficulties was found to be linked to blackberry consumption (adjusted OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40–0.97; p = 0.036) but not for other berries. Conclusions: US adult berry consumers had a decreased risk of reporting short sleep compared to nonconsumers. Berries are underconsumed foods in the US adult population, and increased berry consumption may improve sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
12 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
Maternal Diet Quality during Pregnancy Is Associated with Neonatal Brain White Matter Development
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245114 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Maternal diet and nutrient intake are important for fetal growth and development. In this study, we aim to evaluate whether there are associations between maternal diet quality and the offspring’s brain white matter development. Healthy pregnant women’s (N = 44) nutrition intake was [...] Read more.
Maternal diet and nutrient intake are important for fetal growth and development. In this study, we aim to evaluate whether there are associations between maternal diet quality and the offspring’s brain white matter development. Healthy pregnant women’s (N = 44) nutrition intake was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Correlations between MRI diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) of the neonatal brain and the HEI-2015 scores were evaluated using voxel-wise analysis with appropriate multiple comparisons correction and post hoc analysis based on regions of interest. Significant correlations were found between sodium scores at the first trimester of pregnancy and mean neonatal FA values in parietal white matter (R = 0.39, p = 0.01), anterior corona radiata (R = 0.43, p = 0.006), posterior limb of internal capsule (R = 0.53, p < 0.001), external capsule (R = 0.44, p = 0.004), and temporal white matter (R = 0.50, p = 0.001) of the left hemisphere. No other correlations were identified. In conclusion, the relationships between the maternal sodium intake score and the neonatal white matter microstructural development indicate sodium intake patterns better aligned with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans during early pregnancy are associated with greater white matter development in the offspring’s brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Nutrition and Neurodevelopment)
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22 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Usual Nutrient Intake Distribution and Prevalence of Nutrient Intake Inadequacy among Japanese Children and Adults: A Nationwide Study Based on 8-Day Dietary Records
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245113 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1663
Abstract
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated nutrient intake adequacy in 4450 Japanese people aged 1–79 years. Dietary data was collected through non-consecutive 8-day weighed dietary records. Usual nutrient intakes from foods and beverages were estimated using the Multiple Source Method. Participant proportions with [...] Read more.
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated nutrient intake adequacy in 4450 Japanese people aged 1–79 years. Dietary data was collected through non-consecutive 8-day weighed dietary records. Usual nutrient intakes from foods and beverages were estimated using the Multiple Source Method. Participant proportions with intakes below and above the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (2020) were calculated. Usual intakes of most nutrients were below the Estimated Average Requirement; calcium showed a high percentage of inadequacy across all sex and age groups (29–88%), and iron showed a high inadequacy among females aged 12–64 years (79–95%). The percentages of energy from protein and carbohydrates, dietary fibre, and potassium were typically below the lower limit of the Tentative Dietary Goal for Preventing Lifestyle-related Diseases (DG). Furthermore, over 20% of the participants exceeded the upper limit of the DG for the percentages of energy from total and saturated fats, and over 88% exceeded the upper limit of the DG for sodium. Japanese children and adults could improve their nutrient intake by increasing calcium, iron, dietary fibre, and potassium and reducing total and saturated fats and sodium. These findings can inform policies and interventions to improve nutrient intake in Japan. Full article
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17 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Chinese Yam and Its Active Components Regulate the Structure of Gut Microbiota and Indole-like Metabolites in Anaerobic Fermentation In Vitro
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245112 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 899
Abstract
As a medicinal and edible plant, Chinese yam (CY) can promote the enrichment of intestinal probiotics. Mucilage polysaccharides, diosgenin and taxifolin are the dominant components of CY. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the impact of Chinese yam on gut [...] Read more.
As a medicinal and edible plant, Chinese yam (CY) can promote the enrichment of intestinal probiotics. Mucilage polysaccharides, diosgenin and taxifolin are the dominant components of CY. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the impact of Chinese yam on gut microbiome structure and metabolism is attributable to its components. In the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colon fermentation system, the changes in gut microbiota composition and function were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, and the levels of bacterial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and indole-like metabolites were detected by gas chromatography and an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The results show that CY, mucilage polysaccharides, diosgenin and taxifolin could increase the microbial diversity index. Furthermore, probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly increased, while harmful bacteria such as Escherichia and Proteus declined. CY could increase the production of SCFAs including acetic acid and butyric acid. Of note, CY and diosgenin displayed similar impacts on enhancing the abundance of Clostridium and promoting the production of indole-3-lactic acid and lactic acid. These findings provide evidence supporting Chinese yam as a natural food to regulate intestinal health. Diosgenin as a component of CY contributes mostly to the impact on regulating intestinal flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Metabolic Health)
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