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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 23 (December-1 2023) – 161 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Achieving optimal glucose control in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) continues to pose a significant challenge. While continuous insulin infusion systems have shown promise as an alternative to conventional insulin therapy, there remains a crucial need for greater awareness regarding the necessary adaptations for various special circumstances. Nutritional choices play an essential role in the efficacy of diabetes management and overall health status for patients with T1DM. Factors such as effective carbohydrate counting, assessment of the macronutrient composition of meals, and comprehending the concept of the glycemic index of foods are paramount in making informed pre-meal adjustments when utilizing insulin pumps. View this paper
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18 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Development and Functionality of a Parsimonious Digital Food Frequency Questionnaire for a Clinical Intervention among an Indigenous Population
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235012 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Nutrition-related chronic diseases are a major problem among Indigenous populations. Appropriate dietary intake assessment tools are needed for nutritional surveillance and intervention; however, tools designed to measure the habitual dietary intake of Indigenous persons are largely lacking. We developed a digital food frequency [...] Read more.
Nutrition-related chronic diseases are a major problem among Indigenous populations. Appropriate dietary intake assessment tools are needed for nutritional surveillance and intervention; however, tools designed to measure the habitual dietary intake of Indigenous persons are largely lacking. We developed a digital food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure habitual consumption among Australian Aboriginal adults and support personalized nutrition counseling. The primary contributors to energy, select nutrients, and inter-person variation (83 food groups) were identified from nationally representative 24 h recall (24HR) data, and they accounted for >80% of the total intake and inter-person variation of the nutrients of interest. Based on community input, a meal-based FFQ format was adopted, with a main food/beverage list of 81 items and the capacity to report on >300 additional items via the digital platform. The nutrient database was based on the Australian Food and Nutrient Database. Data for the first 60 study participants (70% female; median age: 48 years) were used to assess the FFQ’s utility. The participants’ median [IQR] reported energy intake (10,042 [6968–12,175] kJ/day) was similar to their median [IQR] estimated energy expenditure (10,197 [8636–11,551] kJ/day). Foods/beverages on the main FFQ list accounted for between 66% and 90% of the participants’ reported energy and nutrient intakes; the remainder came from participant-selected extra items. The digital FFQ platform provides a potentially valuable resource for monitoring habitual dietary intake among Aboriginal adults and supporting chronic disease prevention and management interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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15 pages, 6560 KiB  
Article
Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolomics Reveal the Role of Auricularia delicate in Regulating Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235011 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
Background: The edible fungus Auricularia delicate (ADe) is commonly employed in traditional medicine for intestinal disorders; however, its inhibitory effect on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) and the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. (2) Methods: The inhibitory effect of ADe on CAC was investigated using [...] Read more.
Background: The edible fungus Auricularia delicate (ADe) is commonly employed in traditional medicine for intestinal disorders; however, its inhibitory effect on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) and the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. (2) Methods: The inhibitory effect of ADe on CAC was investigated using a mouse model induced by azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium. Results: ADe effectively suppressed the growth and number of intestinal tumors in mice. Intestinal microbiota analyses revealed that ADe treatment increased Akkermansia and Parabacteroides while it decreased Clostridium, Turicibacter, Oscillospira, and Desulfovibrio. ADe regulated the levels of 2′-deoxyridine, creatinine, 1-palmitoyl lysophosphatidylcholine, and choline in serum. Furthermore, the levels of these metabolites were associated with the abundance of Oscillospira and Paraacteroides. ADe up-regulated the free fatty acid receptor 2 and β-Arrestin 2, inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, and significantly attenuated the levels of inflammatory cytokines, thereby mitigating the inflammatory in CAC mice. Conclusions: The protective effect of ADe in CAC mice is associated with the regulation of intestinal microbiota, which leads to the inhibition of NF-kB pathway and regulation of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Evaluation of Edible Mushrooms and Their Active Materials)
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12 pages, 5045 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Anticancer Potential of Origanum majorana Essential Oil Monoterpenes Alone and in Combination against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235010 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and has the highest mortality rate worldwide despite the remarkable advances in its treatment. Origanum majorana Essential Oil (OMEO) has been shown to be effective against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, decreasing their [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and has the highest mortality rate worldwide despite the remarkable advances in its treatment. Origanum majorana Essential Oil (OMEO) has been shown to be effective against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, decreasing their viability and colony growth in vitro, as well as inhibiting tumor growth in chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and nude mice in vivo. OMEO is mainly composed of four monoterpenes, namely terpinen-4-ol, sabinene hydrate, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential anticancer effects of these monoterpenes, either alone or in combination, on NSCLC. Our findings indicate that these four monoterpenes significantly decreased NSCLC cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced their colony growth in vitro, and also downregulated survivin expression in these cells. Moreover, different combined mixtures of these monoterpenes further enhanced their anticancer effects on cellular viability, with a terpinen-4-ol and sabinene hydrate combination being the most potent. We also found that terpinen-4-ol, in combination with sabinene hydrate, markedly enhanced the anticancer effect of the individual monoterpenes on NSCLC viability within a shorter treatment duration through, at least in part, survivin downregulation. Furthermore, this combination enhanced the inhibition of colony growth in vitro and the tumor growth of NSCLC cells xenografted onto chick embryo CAM in vivo. Altogether, our study highlights the potential of these monoterpenes for use in further pre-clinical investigations against various cancer hallmarks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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17 pages, 5760 KiB  
Article
The Causal Association between Alcohol, Smoking, Coffee Consumption, and the Risk of Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis of Mendelian Randomization Studies
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235009 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the genetic causality between alcohol intake, smoking, coffee consumption, and arthritis. Methods: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies with alcohol, smoking, and coffee consumption behaviors as exposures, and osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as outcomes were retrieved from up [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the genetic causality between alcohol intake, smoking, coffee consumption, and arthritis. Methods: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies with alcohol, smoking, and coffee consumption behaviors as exposures, and osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as outcomes were retrieved from up to July 2023. Two researchers with relevant professional backgrounds independently assessed the quality and extracted data from the included studies. Meanwhile, we applied MR analyses of four lifestyle exposures and five arthritis outcomes (two for OA and three for RA) with gene-wide association study (GWAS) data that were different from the included studies, and the results were also included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 16.0 and R software version 4.3.1. Results: A total of 84 studies were assessed. Of these, 11 were selected for meta-analysis. As a whole, the included studies were considered to be at a low risk of bias and were of high quality. Results of the meta-analysis showed no significant genetic causality between alcohol intake and arthritis (odds ratio (OR): 1.02 (0.94–1.11)). Smoking and arthritis had a positive genetic causal association (OR: 1.44 (1.27–1.64)) with both OA (1.44 (1.22–1.71)) and RA (1.37 (1.26–1.50)). Coffee consumption and arthritis also had a positive genetic causal association (OR: 1.02 (1.01–1.03)). Results from the subgroup analysis showed a positive genetic causality between coffee consumption and both OA (OR: 1.02 (1.00–1.03)) and RA (OR: 1.56 (1.19–2.05)). Conclusion: There is positive genetic causality between smoking and coffee consumption and arthritis (OA and RA), while there is insufficient evidence for genetic causality between alcohol intake and arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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13 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
The Association between Tooth Loss and Insulin Resistance Mediated by Diet Quality and Systemic Immunoinflammatory Index
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235008 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
(1) Background: Both tooth loss and diabetes have high global prevalence, and both have a significant influence on patients’ general health and quality of life. Previous research has indicated a possible connection between tooth loss and diabetes, but it has been unclear whether [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Both tooth loss and diabetes have high global prevalence, and both have a significant influence on patients’ general health and quality of life. Previous research has indicated a possible connection between tooth loss and diabetes, but it has been unclear whether tooth loss has an effect on the development of diabetes and how it affects it. We aim to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and tooth loss and examine how the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) level and diet quality mediate it. (2) Methods: The cross-sectional study data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). After describing and comparing baseline data, we used regression models to evaluate the relationship between IR and tooth loss, diet quality and tooth loss and IR, SII and tooth loss and IR. Furthermore, we applied bootstrapping to test the mediation effect of diet quality and SII between tooth loss and IR. Diet quality is reflected by the HEI (Healthy Eating Index)-2015 score. (3) Results: The total number of subjects included was 8197, with 3861 individuals belonging to the IR group (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) and 4336 in the non-IR group (HOMA-IR < 2.5). In the model with all covariates adjusted, tooth loss in the fourth quartile was found to be positively correlated with an increase in HOMA-IR (OR = 1.301; 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.102, 1.537]; p < 0.001) compared to the first quartile; tooth loss in the fourth quartile correlated with the HEI-2015 score compared to the first quantile (β = −0.121, 95% CI = [−4.839, −2.974], p < 0.001); and the highest number of tooth loss was found to have a significant effect on SII (β = 0.032; 95%CI = [1.777, 47.448]; p < 0.05). Compared to average diet quality, best diet quality acts as a safeguard against elevated HOMA-IR (OR = 0.776; 95% CI = [0.641, 0.939]; p < 0.01); inadequate diet quality is a risk factor (OR = 1.267; 95%CI = [1.138, 1.411]; p < 0.001) conversely. Meanwhile, it can be seen that compared with the first quantile of SII, the highest score is significantly correlated with the higher incidence of IR (OR = 1.363; 95%CI = [1.179, 1.575]; p < 0.001). Diet quality and SII played a partial mediating role in the relationship between HOMA-IR and tooth loss, and the mediating effect ratio for the total effect value was 4.731% and 4.576%, respectively. The mediating effect of SII and diet quality in the association of the relationship between HOMA-IR and tooth loss both was 0.003 (95%CI = [0.001, 0.004]). (4) Conclusions: Our study revealed the relationship between IR and tooth loss, and further explored the mediating role of SII and diet quality between the number of missing teeth and IR, emphasizing that improving diet quality and reducing SII can effectively prevent and treat IR and related diseases. It provides new theoretical support for the study of IR mechanisms and new ideas and approaches to deal with related diseases. Full article
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14 pages, 3659 KiB  
Article
Thyme Extract Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Gut Dysfunction
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235007 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Prolonged intake of a high-fat diet (HFD) disturbs the composition of gut microbiota, contributing to the development of metabolic diseases, notably obesity and increased intestinal permeability. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), an aromatic plant, is known for its several therapeutic properties. In this [...] Read more.
Prolonged intake of a high-fat diet (HFD) disturbs the composition of gut microbiota, contributing to the development of metabolic diseases, notably obesity and increased intestinal permeability. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), an aromatic plant, is known for its several therapeutic properties. In this study, we explored the potential of thyme extract (TLE) to mitigate HFD-induced metabolic derangements and improve the gut environment. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were administered 50 or 100 mg/kg TLE for eight weeks. Administration of 100 mg/kg TLE resulted in decreased weight gain and body fat percentage, alongside the regulation of serum biomarkers linked to obesity induced by a HFD. Moreover, TLE enhanced intestinal barrier function by increasing the expression of tight junction proteins and ameliorated colon shortening. TLE also altered the levels of various metabolites. Especially, when compared with a HFD, it was confirmed that 2-hydroxypalmitic acid and 3-indoleacrylic acid returned to normal levels after TLE treatment. Additionally, we investigated the correlation between fecal metabolites and metabolic parameters; deoxycholic acid displayed a positive correlation with most parameters, except for colon length. In contrast, hypoxanthine was negatively correlated with most parameters. These results suggest a promising role for thyme in ameliorating obesity and related gut conditions associated with a HFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 3444 KiB  
Article
Application of a Two-Dimensional Mapping-Based Visualization Technique: Nutrient-Value-Based Food Grouping
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235006 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Worldwide, several food-based dietary guidelines, with diverse food-grouping methods in various countries, have been developed to maintain and promote public health. However, standardized international food-grouping methods are scarce. In this study, we used two-dimensional mapping to classify foods based on their nutrient composition. [...] Read more.
Worldwide, several food-based dietary guidelines, with diverse food-grouping methods in various countries, have been developed to maintain and promote public health. However, standardized international food-grouping methods are scarce. In this study, we used two-dimensional mapping to classify foods based on their nutrient composition. The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan were used for mapping with a novel technique—t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding—to visualize high-dimensional data. The mapping results showed that most foods formed food group-based clusters in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan. However, the beverages did not form large clusters and demonstrated scattered distribution on the map. Green tea, black tea, and coffee are located within or near the vegetable cluster whereas cocoa is near the pulse cluster. These results were ensured by the k-nearest neighbors. Thus, beverages made from natural materials can be categorized based on their origin. Visualization of food composition could enable an enhanced comprehensive understanding of the nutrients in foods, which could lead to novel aspects of nutrient-value-based food classifications. Full article
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33 pages, 986 KiB  
Review
The Beneficial Effects of Dietary Interventions on Gut Microbiota—An Up-to-Date Critical Review and Future Perspectives
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5005; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235005 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Different dietary interventions, especially intermittent fasting, are widely used and promoted by physicians; these regimens have been studied lately for their impact on the gut microbiota composition/function and, consequently, on the general physiopathological processes of the host. Studies are showing that dietary components [...] Read more.
Different dietary interventions, especially intermittent fasting, are widely used and promoted by physicians; these regimens have been studied lately for their impact on the gut microbiota composition/function and, consequently, on the general physiopathological processes of the host. Studies are showing that dietary components modulate the microbiota, and, at the same time, the host metabolism is deeply influenced by the different products resulting from nutrient transformation in the microbiota compartment. This reciprocal relationship can potentially influence even drug metabolism for chronic drug regimens, significantly impacting human health/disease. Recently, the influence of various dietary restrictions on the gut microbiota and the differences between the effects were investigated. In this review, we explored the current knowledge of different dietary restrictions on animal and human gut microbiota and the impact of these changes on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermittent Fasting on Human Health and Disease)
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18 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Exercise and Caloric Restriction Exert Different Benefits on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Aging Condition
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5004; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235004 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Exercise and caloric restriction improve skeletal muscle metabolism. However, the benefits of exercise and caloric restriction on skeletal muscle metabolism in aging have never been compared. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 [...] Read more.
Exercise and caloric restriction improve skeletal muscle metabolism. However, the benefits of exercise and caloric restriction on skeletal muscle metabolism in aging have never been compared. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group) to receive either normal saline solution for 28 weeks, 150 mg/kg/day of D-galactose for 28 weeks to induce premature aging, 150 mg/kg/day of D-galactose for 28 weeks plus exercise for 16 weeks (week 13–28), or 150 mg/kg/day of D-galactose for 28 weeks plus 30% caloric restriction for 16 weeks (week 13–28). The 17-month-old rats (n = 6) were also injected with normal saline solution for 28 weeks as the naturally aged controls. At the end of week 28, total walking distance and fatty acid and carbohydrate oxidation during physical activity were determined. Then, all rats were euthanized for the collection of blood and tibialis anterior muscle. The results showed that D-galactose successfully mimicked the natural aging of skeletal muscle. Exercise and caloric restriction equally improved carbohydrate oxidation during physical activity and myogenesis. However, exercise was superior to caloric restriction in terms of improving fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, caloric restriction decreased oxidative stress, whereas exercise increased oxidative stress of skeletal muscle. All of these findings indicated that the benefits of exercise and caloric restriction on skeletal muscle metabolism during aging were different, and therefore the combination of exercise and caloric restriction might provide greater efficacy in ameliorating skeletal muscle aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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16 pages, 732 KiB  
Article
Chrono-Nutritional Patterns, Medical Comorbidities, and Psychological Status in Patients with Severe Obesity
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235003 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Chrono-nutrition studies dietary habits and their role in the onset of metabolic diseases. The aim of this study is to describe chrono-nutritional patterns based on the analysis of the eating habits of patients with severe obesity during the 24-h cycle and investigate a [...] Read more.
Chrono-nutrition studies dietary habits and their role in the onset of metabolic diseases. The aim of this study is to describe chrono-nutritional patterns based on the analysis of the eating habits of patients with severe obesity during the 24-h cycle and investigate a possible relationship between these profiles, the comorbidities, and the psychological status. From the overall evaluation of the chrono-nutritional profiles of 173 patients with severe obesity, four predominant eating patterns were obtained with a refined statistical model. A regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between chrono-nutritional patterns, medical comorbidities, and psychological status. Profile 1 was the most frequent (46.2%) and characterised by the regular presence of the three main meals. The distribution of the chrono-nutritional profiles did not vary with BMI. Chrono-nutritional profiles affected predominantly psychological variables, with lower performances among chrono-nutritional profiles 3 (to eat during all the 24-h, with nibbling and snacking also during the night) and 4 (like the fourth but without night-eating). This finding could be useful in the assessment and treatment of patients with obesity, allowing the identification of patients with a higher probability of suffering from a psychopathological condition simply by knowing the patients’ dietary profiles. Full article
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11 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Carrot Juice Intake Affects the Cytokine and Chemokine Response in Human Blood after Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5002; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235002 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1894
Abstract
In vitro and animal studies have shown that carrot juice containing bioactive natural products, such as falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH), can affect inflammation. The present study was designed to test whether oral intake of carrot juice containing the bioactive acetylenic oxylipins FaOH [...] Read more.
In vitro and animal studies have shown that carrot juice containing bioactive natural products, such as falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH), can affect inflammation. The present study was designed to test whether oral intake of carrot juice containing the bioactive acetylenic oxylipins FaOH and FaDOH affects mediators of acute inflammation or the innate immune response in human blood. Carrot juice (500 mL) was administered orally to healthy volunteers, and blood samples were drawn before and 1 h after juice intake. Next, the blood samples were split in two, and one sample was stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The concentrations of 44 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined using multiplex electrochemiluminescence analysis. In blood samples not stimulated with LPS, a significant increase in IL-15 was measured 1 h after carrot juice intake. Cytokines like IFN-ɣ, IL-12/IL-23(p40), IL-23, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17D, and IL-22 were significantly increased in LPS-stimulated blood samples after carrot juice intake. The upregulation of the immunostimulating cytokines belonging to the IL-23/IL-17 Th17 axis suggests that carrot juice intake could benefit diseases where inflammation plays a role, like in the early stages of diabetes or cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Micronutrient Intake and Health)
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16 pages, 488 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Iron-Fortified Lentils on Blood and Cognitive Status among Adolescent Girls in Bangladesh
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5001; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235001 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Background: Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in South Asia, especially among women and children in Bangladesh. Declines in cognitive performance are among the many functional consequences of iron deficiency. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that, over the course of a 4-month iron fortification [...] Read more.
Background: Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in South Asia, especially among women and children in Bangladesh. Declines in cognitive performance are among the many functional consequences of iron deficiency. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that, over the course of a 4-month iron fortification trial, cognitive performance would improve, and that improvement would be related to improvements in iron status. Methods: Participants included 359 adolescent girls attending Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) clubs as a subsample of a larger double-blind, cluster-randomized community trial in which participants were assigned to one of three conditions: a condition in which no lentils were supplied (NL, n = 118, but which had the usual intake of lentils), a control (non-fortified) lentil condition (CL, n = 124), and an iron-fortified lentil condition (FL, n = 117). In the FL and CL conditions, approximately 200 g of cooked lentils were served five days per week for a total of 85 feeding days. In addition to biomarkers of iron status, five cognitive tasks were measured at baseline (BL) and endline (EL): simple reaction time task (SRT), go/no-go task (GNG), attentional network task (ANT), the Sternberg memory search Task (SMS), and a cued recognition task (CRT). Results: Cognitive performance at EL was significantly better for those in the FL relative to the CL and NL conditions, with this being true for at least one variable in each task, except for the GNG. In addition, there were consistent improvements in cognitive performance for those participants whose iron status improved. Although there were overall declines in iron status from BL to EL, the declines were smallest for those in the FL condition, and iron status was significantly better for those in FL condition at EL, relative to those in the CL and NL conditions. Conclusions: the provision of iron-fortified lentils provided a protective effect on iron status in the context of declines in iron status and supported higher levels of cognitive performance for adolescent girls at-risk of developing iron deficiency. Full article
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10 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Late Luteal Subphase Food Craving Is Enhanced in Women with Obesity and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235000 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Dysregulated food craving is a complex weight-related behavior. To identify novel targets for enhancing the efficacy of weight loss interventions, we examined whether food craving varies across the menstrual cycle according to the abdominal obesity type and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) diagnosis, and, [...] Read more.
Dysregulated food craving is a complex weight-related behavior. To identify novel targets for enhancing the efficacy of weight loss interventions, we examined whether food craving varies across the menstrual cycle according to the abdominal obesity type and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) diagnosis, and, if so, whether it is related to affective symptomatology. Reproductive-age women were classified into one of the four study groups according to whether they have abdominal obesity (AO) or are abdominally lean (AL), and the presence of PMDD: (1) AO:PMDD+ (n = 13), (2) AL:PMDD+ (n = 14), (3) AO:PMDD− (n = 15), and (4) AL:PMDD− (n = 16). Self-report measures as well as urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) tests were provided by the participants across 2–3 menstrual cycles. The ratings of food cravings were similar across the menstrual cycle, except the last, late luteal subphase as the AO:PMDD+ participants had the highest food craving rating. Irritability and depression were correlated with food cravings, but not in a distinctive manner across the menstrual cycle by group. Our study found that women with abdominal obesity and PMDD display a temporal vulnerability to a food-related behavior. The possibility of shared neurobiology between the two conditions is discussed and should be examined in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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12 pages, 594 KiB  
Review
Nutrition, Immune Function, and Infectious Disease in Military Personnel: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234999 - 02 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Consuming a diet that meets energy demands and provides essential nutrients promotes a healthy immune system, while both under- and over-nutrition have been associated with immune dysfunction. Military personnel comprise a unique population who frequently endure multi-stressor environments, predisposing them to immune decrements. [...] Read more.
Consuming a diet that meets energy demands and provides essential nutrients promotes a healthy immune system, while both under- and over-nutrition have been associated with immune dysfunction. Military personnel comprise a unique population who frequently endure multi-stressor environments, predisposing them to immune decrements. Additionally, 49% and 22% of active duty U.S. military personnel are classified as overweight and obese, respectively. A literature search on PubMed was conducted to identify studies, reports, review papers, and references within those sources relevant to the topic area. Military personnel experiencing either under- or over-nutrition can suffer from degraded health, readiness, and performance. Insufficient intake of nutrients during military operations increases infection risk and negatively impacts infection recovery. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and vitamins C and D are nutritional areas of concern that may impact immune competence in a multi-stressor environment. Over-nutrition can promote accretion of excess body fat and obesity, which contributes to a chronic inflammatory state that coincides with immune impairments. Prioritizing efforts to optimize nutrient intake is one approach for reducing disease burden and improving readiness. This review discusses nutritional concerns concomitant to multi-stressor environments that impact immune function, and the relevance of obesity to infectious disease risk in the military population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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14 pages, 1337 KiB  
Review
The Ketogenic Diet in the Prevention of Migraines in the Elderly
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234998 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Migraines display atypical age dependence, as the peak of their prevalence occurs between the ages of 20–40 years. With age, headache attacks occur less frequently and are characterized by a lower amplitude. However, both diagnosis and therapy of migraines in the elderly are [...] Read more.
Migraines display atypical age dependence, as the peak of their prevalence occurs between the ages of 20–40 years. With age, headache attacks occur less frequently and are characterized by a lower amplitude. However, both diagnosis and therapy of migraines in the elderly are challenging due to multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. Dietary components and eating habits are migraine triggers; therefore, nutrition is a main target in migraine prevention. Several kinds of diets were proposed to prevent migraines, but none are commonly accepted due to inconsistent results obtained in different studies. The ketogenic diet is featured by very low-carbohydrate and high-fat contents. It may replace glucose with ketone bodies as the primary source of energy production. The ketogenic diet and the actions of ketone bodies are considered beneficial in several aspects of health, including migraine prevention, but studies on the ketogenic diet in migraines are not standardized and poorly evidenced. Apart from papers claiming beneficial effects of the ketogenic diet in migraines, several studies have reported that increased levels of ketone bodies may be associated with all-cause and incident heart failure mortality in older adults and are supported by research on mice showing that the ketogenic diets and diet supplementation with a human ketone body precursor may cause life span shortening. Therefore, despite reports showing a beneficial effect of the ketogenic diet in migraines, such a diet requires further studies, including clinical trials, to verify whether it should be recommended in older adults with migraines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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14 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Adherence to a Traditional Mexican Diet Is Associated with Lower Hepatic Steatosis in US-Born Hispanics of Mexican Descent with Overweight or Obesity
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234997 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Hispanics of Mexican descent have disproportionate rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this work is to investigate the association between the traditional Mexican diet score (tMexS) and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, two NAFLD-related clinical endpoints, in Hispanic adults of [...] Read more.
Hispanics of Mexican descent have disproportionate rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this work is to investigate the association between the traditional Mexican diet score (tMexS) and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, two NAFLD-related clinical endpoints, in Hispanic adults of Mexican descent. Data from 280 Hispanic adults of Mexican descent (n = 102 men, 178 women) with overweight or obesity enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study were analyzed. The tMexS was calculated from 24 h dietary recalls. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis measurements were assessed using transient elastography (Fibroscan®). Linear regression models testing the association between tMexS and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were run individually and through the stratification of significant modifiers. Mean tMexS were 5.9 ± 2.1, hepatic steatosis scores were 288.9 ± 48.9 dB/m, and fibrosis scores were 5.6 ± 2.2 kPa. Among the US-born group, with every point increase in the tMexS, there was a statistically significant 5.7 lower hepatic steatosis point (95% CI: −10.9, −0.6, p-value = 0.07). Higher adherence to a traditional Mexican diet was associated with lower hepatic steatosis in US-born Hispanics of Mexican descent. Findings from the current work may serve to inform future culturally relevant interventions for NAFLD prevention and management in individuals of Mexican descent. Full article
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10 pages, 271 KiB  
Brief Report
Beef Intake Is Associated with Higher Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Adequacy in U.S. Adolescents, NHANES 2001–2018
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234996 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Nutrient adequacy among adolescents is of concern due to higher nutrient requirements for their developing bodies as well as the gap between the current nutrient intake and the recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine beef intake and assess the relationship [...] Read more.
Nutrient adequacy among adolescents is of concern due to higher nutrient requirements for their developing bodies as well as the gap between the current nutrient intake and the recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine beef intake and assess the relationship between beef consumption and nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in male and female adolescents, 14–18 years of age. Dietary recalls collected during the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) portion of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2001–2018 were utilized to determine beef intake. Usual nutrient intakes were determined with the National Cancer Institute method in conjunction with day 1 and day 2 total nutrient files. Nutrient adequacy was assessed by calculating the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI). The average beef intake of male and female adolescent beef consumers was 57.9 ± 2.4 and 46.8 ± 2.2 g with a 90th percentile of 82.3 ± 4.3 and 67.8 ± 3.5 g, respectively. Compared to non-consumers, beef consumers had a 10% or higher intake of calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, total choline, vitamin B12, and zinc. Over 50% of the adolescent population (regardless of beef consumption) had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E. The percentage of the beef-consuming population below the EAR was lower for calcium, copper, folate, iron, phosphorus, zinc, and vitamins B12 and B6 as compared to non-consumers. Additionally, the portion of the population above the AI for sodium was higher in female beef consumers as compared to non-consumers. We estimate approximately 900,000 to 1,400,000, 400,000–700,000, 200,000–600,000, and 200,000–400,000 fewer adolescents to be below the EAR for zinc, phosphorus, vitamin B12, and iron, respectively if beef non-consumers were to consume beef. This study suggests beef can help increase the nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in the diets of adolescents, helping to close important gaps for this nutritionally vulnerable population. While recommendations to reduce beef intake are widely prevalent, this could result in unintended nutritional consequences regarding under-consumed nutrients including those of public health concern important for adolescent health. Full article
14 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Modifiable Risk Factors and Trends in Changes in Glucose Regulation during the First Three Years Postdelivery: The St Carlos Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Cohort
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234995 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Objective: Evaluation of the influence of potential risk factors (RFs) on glycemic changes at 3 years postpartum. Methods: The glycemic status of 1400 women, in absence of a new pregnancy, was evaluated at 3 months (3 m) and 3 years (3 y) postpartum, [...] Read more.
Objective: Evaluation of the influence of potential risk factors (RFs) on glycemic changes at 3 years postpartum. Methods: The glycemic status of 1400 women, in absence of a new pregnancy, was evaluated at 3 months (3 m) and 3 years (3 y) postpartum, after participation in the St. Carlos Gestational Study (2228 normoglycemic pregnant women followed from before gestational week 12 to delivery, from 2015–2017). Abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) was defined as fasting serum glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and/or HbA1c ≥ 5.7% and/or 2 h 75 g OGTT glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL. In total, 12 modifiable and 3 unmodifiable RFs were analyzed. Results: 3 m postpartum, 110/1400 (7.9%) women had AGR; 3 y postpartum, 137 (9.8%) women exhibited AGR (110 with 3 m normal glucose tolerance [NGT]); 1263 (90.2%) had NGT (83 with 3 m AGR). More women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) progressed to AGR at 3 y (OR: 1.60 [1.33–1.92]) than women without GDM. Yet, most women with 3 m and/or 3 y AGR had no GDM history. Having ≥2 unmodifiable RFs was associated with increased risk for progression to AGR (OR: 1.90 [1.28–2.83]) at 3 y postpartum. Having >5/12 modifiable RFs was associated with increased progression from NGT to AGR (OR: 1.40 [1.00–2.09]) and AGR persistence (OR: 2.57 [1.05–6.31]). Pregestational BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (OR: 0.59 [0.41–0.85]), postdelivery weight gain (OR: 0.53 [0.29–0.94]), and waist circumference > 89.5 cm (OR: 0.54 [0.36–0.79]) reduced the likelihood of NGT persisting at 3 y. Conclusions: 3-month and/or 3-year postpartum AGR can be detected if sought in women with no prior GDM. Modifiable and unmodifiable RF predictors of AGR at 3 y postpartum were identified. Universal screening for glycemic alterations should be considered in all women following delivery, regardless of prior GDM. These findings could be useful to design personalized strategies in women with risk factors for 3 y AGR. Full article
12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Sarcopenia in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Conservative Treatment
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234994 - 01 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Sarcopenia is a poor prognostic factor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate dietary patterns are important for preventing sarcopenia; however, evidence regarding the underlying association between sarcopenia and diet is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the association [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is a poor prognostic factor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate dietary patterns are important for preventing sarcopenia; however, evidence regarding the underlying association between sarcopenia and diet is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenia and dietary patterns in CKD patients receiving conservative treatment. In this cross-sectional study, 441 patients with conservative CKD were examined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia diagnostic criteria. CKD was defined as an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 present for >3 months. The participants were divided into sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups, and dietary patterns were compared between the two groups using the dietary variety score, a simple dietary survey method that investigates the weekly frequency of consumption of 10 food groups. Logistic regression analysis for CKD G3 showed that female sex (odds ratio (OR): 0.166, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.086–0.320), increased body mass index (OR: 0.663, 95% CI: 0.590–0.745), and almost daily consumption of green/yellow vegetables (OR: 0.350, 95% CI: 0.176–0.695) were positively associated with non-sarcopenia. Although further prospective studies are required, the results suggest that low frequent consumption of vegetables is associated with sarcopenia in patients with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
16 pages, 2374 KiB  
Article
A Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234993 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease associated with overactive inflammation and gut dysbiosis. Owing to the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria on IBD treatment, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammation effects of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 through a [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease associated with overactive inflammation and gut dysbiosis. Owing to the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria on IBD treatment, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammation effects of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 through a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model. B. pseudocatenulatum treatment improved DSS-induced colitis symptoms and maintained intestinal barrier integrity by up-regulating MUC2 and tight junctions’ expression. The oxidative stress was reduced after B. pseudocatenulatum treatment by increasing the antioxidant enzymes of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in colon tissues. Moreover, the overactive inflammatory responses were also inhibited by decreasing the pro-inflammatory cytokines of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, but increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine of IL-10. The EPS-producing strain Bi-OTA128 showed better effects than that of a non-EPS-producing stain BLYR01-7 in modulating DSS-induced gut dysbiosis. The Bi-OTA128 treatment increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and decreased the maleficent bacteria Escherichia-Shigella, Enterorhabuds, Enterobacter, and Osillibacter associated with intestinal inflammation. Notably, the genera Clostridium sensu stricto were only enriched in Bi-OTA128-treated mice, which could degrade polysaccharides to produce acetic acid and butyrate in the gut. This finding demonstrated a cross-feeding effect induced by the EPS-producing strain in gut microbiota. Collectively, these results highlighted the anti-inflammatory effects of the EPS-producing strain B. pseudocatenulatum Bi-OTA128 on DSS-induced colitis, which could be used as a candidate probiotic supporting recovery from ongoing colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Health Outcomes)
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19 pages, 4946 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastasis and Apoptotic Cell Death
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234992 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Oral cancer ranks sixth among Taiwan’s top 10 cancers and most patients with poor prognosis acquire metastases. The essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has been found to diminish many cancer properties. However, the anti-cancer activity of ALA in oral cancer has yet [...] Read more.
Oral cancer ranks sixth among Taiwan’s top 10 cancers and most patients with poor prognosis acquire metastases. The essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has been found to diminish many cancer properties. However, the anti-cancer activity of ALA in oral cancer has yet to be determined. We examined the mechanisms underlying ALA inhibition of metastasis and induction of apoptotic cell death in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Migration and invasion assays confirmed the cancer cells’ EMT capabilities, whereas flow cytometry and Western blotting identified molecular pathways in OSCC. ALA dramatically reduced cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner according to the findings. Low concentrations of ALA (100 or 200 μM) inhibit colony formation, the expression of Twist and EMT-related proteins, the expression of MMP2/-9 proteins, and enzyme activity, as well as cell migration and invasion. Treatment with high concentrations of ALA (200 or 400 μM) greatly increases JNK phosphorylation and c-jun nuclear accumulation and then upregulates the FasL/caspase8/caspase3 and Bid/cytochrome c/caspase9/caspase3 pathways, leading to cell death. Low concentrations of ALA inhibit SAS and GNM cell migration and invasion by suppressing Twist and downregulating EMT-related proteins or by decreasing the protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2/-9, whereas high concentrations of ALA promote apoptosis by activating the JNK/FasL/caspase 8/caspase 3-extrinsic pathway and the Bid/cytochrome c/caspase 9 pathway. ALA demonstrates potential as a treatment for OSCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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10 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
Phase Angle as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234991 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Phase angle (PhA) is measured using bioimpedance analysis and calculated using body reactance and resistance in the waveform at 50 kHz. Further studies are necessary to clarify the predictive efficacy of PhA in the mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The objective of [...] Read more.
Phase angle (PhA) is measured using bioimpedance analysis and calculated using body reactance and resistance in the waveform at 50 kHz. Further studies are necessary to clarify the predictive efficacy of PhA in the mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of PhA for predicting patient mortality and technique failure and compare the predictability of PhA with other risk factors. Our study had a retrospective cohort design. Our center routinely evaluates bioimpedance measurements for all prevalent PD patients (n = 199). The PhA was measured using multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Our study evaluated patient and technique survival. There were 66, 68, and 65 patients in the low, middle, and high tertiles of PhA, respectively. The PhA values of the low, middle, and high tertiles were 3.6° (3.4–3.9), 4.4° (4.2–4.7), and 5.5° (5.2–6.0), respectively. The 5-year patient survival rates for the high, middle, and low tertiles were 100%, 81.7%, 69.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). The 5 year technique survival rates for the high, middle, and low tertiles were 91.9%, 74.8%, 63.7%, respectively (p = 0.004). Patient and technique survival increased as the PhA tertiles increased. Both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated a consistent pattern. The prediction of patient or technique survival was better in PhA than in the other classical indicators. The present study demonstrated that PhA may be an effective indicator for predicting patient or technique survival in PD patients. Furthermore, it suggests that routine measurement of PhA and pre-emptive intervention to recover PhA according to causes of low PhA may help improve patient or technique survival in PD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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18 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
US Adults’ Perceptions, Beliefs, and Behaviors towards Plant-Rich Dietary Patterns and Practices: International Food Information Council Food and Health Survey Insights, 2012–2022
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234990 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Expert groups recommend that populations adopt dietary patterns higher in whole, plant-based foods and lower in red and processed meat as a high-impact climate action. Yet, there is limited understanding of populations’ willingness to adopt plant-rich dietary patterns. This study examined United States [...] Read more.
Expert groups recommend that populations adopt dietary patterns higher in whole, plant-based foods and lower in red and processed meat as a high-impact climate action. Yet, there is limited understanding of populations’ willingness to adopt plant-rich dietary patterns. This study examined United States (US) adults’ perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors towards plant-rich dietary patterns and practices over a decade. Fifteen questions from the International Food Information Council’s Food and Health Surveys (2012–2022) were analyzed across four sustainability domains (i.e., human health, environmental, social, and economic domains). Most respondents had favorable perceptions of environmentally sustainable food and beverages, but sustainability influenced less than half of consumers’ purchase decisions. Plant-rich dietary pattern adherence increased across survey years (12.1% [2019] to 25.8% [2022], p < 0.001). One-quarter (28.1%) of Americans reported reducing their red meat intake over 12 months (2020–2022). Yet, another 15.5% reported greater red meat intake, and 18.8% reported greater plant-based meat alternative (PBMA) intake over 12 months. The percentage of respondents who reported greater red meat and PBMA consumption in the previous 12 months significantly increased across the years surveyed (2020–2022, p < 0.05). IFIC Survey findings highlight growing US consumer awareness of health, environmental, and social sustainability but low adoption of plant-rich dietary patterns and practices. Government leadership and coordinated actions by health professionals, civil society, and businesses are needed to educate and incentivize Americans to adopt plant-rich dietary behaviors, and greater industry transparency is needed to show how food and beverage products support human and planetary health. Full article
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13 pages, 2227 KiB  
Article
Observational Cross-Sectional Study on Mediterranean Diet and Sperm Parameters
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4989; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234989 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Infertility, affecting 15 to 25% of couples in the most developed countries, is recognized by the World Health Organization as a public health issue at a global level. Different causes are acknowledged to reduce fertility in both sexes. In particular, about 40–50% of [...] Read more.
Infertility, affecting 15 to 25% of couples in the most developed countries, is recognized by the World Health Organization as a public health issue at a global level. Different causes are acknowledged to reduce fertility in both sexes. In particular, about 40–50% of cases recognize a male factor. Dietary habits and lifestyle are acknowledged to influence sperm quality and are therefore important modifiable factors in male reproductive health. Conditions such as overweight/obesity, impaired glucose metabolism and determinants of metabolic syndrome, together with unhealthy lifestyle behavior, i.e., smoking cigarettes and physical inactivity, are suggested to have a negative impact on male fertility. While individual elements and characteristics of the Western diet and habits are considered risk factors for male infertility, the Mediterranean diet (MD) seems to promote reproductive potential for improving sperm quality. It is also interesting to note that previous observational studies reported a positive correlation between the consumption of the single food classes of the MD pattern (i.e., vegetables and fruits, poultry, fish and seafood, whole grains, low-fat dairy products) and the quality of several sperm parameters. To evaluate the relationship between sperm parameters and MD adherence, we performed a cross-sectional study on the seminal data of 300 males (mean age 34.6 ± 9.1 years) who spontaneously referred to our center of reproductive medicine. The evaluation of adherence to MD was performed with a validated 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) questionnaire. Our findings showed that sperm parameters such as sperm count, motility, viability and normal morphology are significantly and positively correlated with MEDAS, independently of BMI and age. In addition, the application of an ROC curve on MEDAS value vs. seminal alterations identified 6.25 as the score threshold value below which altered sperm parameters were more likely to occur [AUC = 0.096 (CI: 0.059–0.133; p < 0.00)]. Therefore, adhering to the MD with at least a MEDAS score of 6.26 increases the probability of normozoospermia. Moreover, subjects who had a MEDAS value lower than 6.25 had an Odds Ratio of 6.28 (CI = 3.967–9.945) for having at least one altered sperm parameter compared to those who were more adherent to the MD. In conclusion, our findings show that a higher adherence to the MD is associated with better semen parameters, in particular in relation to sperm count, sperm concentration, typical sperm morphology, and sperm progressive motility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 2495 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Eradication of Planktonic, Saliva and Biofilm Bacteria Using Lingonberry Extract as a Photosensitizer for Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A Irradiation
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4988; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234988 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (aPDT) with visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A irradiation (VIS-wIRA) and natural single- or multi-component photosensitizers (PSs) was shown to have potent antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the antimicrobial effects of aPDT-VIS-wIRA with lingonberry [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (aPDT) with visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A irradiation (VIS-wIRA) and natural single- or multi-component photosensitizers (PSs) was shown to have potent antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the antimicrobial effects of aPDT-VIS-wIRA with lingonberry extract (LE) against bacteria that play a role in oral health. Planktonic bacterial cultures of the Gram-positive E. faecalis T9, S. mutans DSM20523, S. oralis ATCC 35037 and S. sobrinus PSM 203513, the Gram-negative N. oralis 14F2 FG-15-7B, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586, and V. parvula DSM, the anaerobic F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and V. parvula DSM 2008, and the total mixed bacteria from pooled saliva and supra- and subgingival plaques of volunteers were all treated and compared. aPDT-VIS-wIRA with LE as PS significantly (p < 0.008) reduced the growth of all tested Gram-positive, Gram-negative, as well as aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, whereas without irradiation no reductions were seen (p < 0.0001). NaCl, with or without irradiation, was ineffective. After treatment with CHX 0.2%, the highest killing rate (100%) was observed, and no bacteria (0 log10 CFU) were cultivable. The method also significantly reduced all of the bacteria present in saliva and in the gingival biofilms. Three-dimensional visualization of viable and non-viable microorganisms revealed that LE penetrated deeper into the cell wall layers than CHX 0.2%. LE was an appropriate PS for eradicating microorganisms with VIS-wIRA, either in their planktonic form or in saliva and gingival plaque biofilms. These results encourage further investigation in order to determine which LE compounds contribute to the photosensitizing effect and to evaluate the size of the effect on maintaining oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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16 pages, 2127 KiB  
Review
Brown Seaweed Consumption as a Promising Strategy for Blood Glucose Management: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4987; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234987 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Diabetes is a chronic condition that can lead to various complications; therefore, there is a need to emphasize prevention and management. Dietary interventions, such as the Mediterranean diet or calorie-restricted regimens, coupled with exercise-induced weight reduction, have been recommended for enhancing diabetes management. [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a chronic condition that can lead to various complications; therefore, there is a need to emphasize prevention and management. Dietary interventions, such as the Mediterranean diet or calorie-restricted regimens, coupled with exercise-induced weight reduction, have been recommended for enhancing diabetes management. Seaweeds contain various functional components, such as polyphenols and fucoidan, which have been reported to exert multiple benefits, including blood glucose regulation, improved intestinal health, and enhanced of lipid profiles. The association between blood glucose and seaweed consumption has been established in previous research. We searched the PubMed, RISS, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies after applying the selection/exclusion criteria, and 23 studies were ultimately included in this analysis. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software version 4.0 was used to assess statistical significance and heterogeneity. In this meta-analysis, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) levels demonstrated significant improvements in the seaweed group compared to the control group. Conversely, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels did not show significant associations with seaweed consumption. Subgroup analysis revealed that a high dose (1000 mg or more) was more beneficial than a low dose, and seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida, Acophyllum nodosum, and Fucus vesiculosus were found to be more effective at improving blood glucose levels than control treatments. Therefore, based on our research, seaweed supplementation appears to be a promising strategy for reducing postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR levels, thereby enabling better blood glucose management and leading to a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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17 pages, 6537 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Effects of N-methyl-(2S, 4R)-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (NMP) against Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234986 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that involves the deposition of β-amyloid plaques and the clinical symptoms of confusion, memory loss, and cognitive dysfunction. Despite enormous progress in the field, no curative treatment is available. Therefore, the current study was designed [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that involves the deposition of β-amyloid plaques and the clinical symptoms of confusion, memory loss, and cognitive dysfunction. Despite enormous progress in the field, no curative treatment is available. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the neuroprotective effects of N-methyl-(2S, 4R)-Trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (NMP) obtained from Sideroxylon obtusifolium, a Brazilian folk medicine with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Here, for the first time, we explored the neuroprotective role of NMP in the Aβ1–42-injected mouse model of AD. After acclimatization, a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1–42 (5 µL/5 min/mouse) in C57BL/6N mice induced significant amyloidogenesis, reactive gliosis, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and synaptic and memory deficits. However, an intraperitoneal injection of NMP at a dose of (50 mg/kg/day) for three consecutive weeks remarkably decreased beta secretase1 (BACE-1) and Aβ, activated the astrocyte and microglia expression level as well as downstream inflammatory mediators such as pNF-ĸB, TNF-α, and IL-1β. NPM also strongly attenuated oxidative stress, as evaluated by the expression level of NRF2/HO-1, and synaptic failure, by improving the level of both the presynaptic (SNAP-25 and SYN) and postsynaptic (PSD-95 and SNAP-23) regions of the synapses in the cortexes and hippocampi of the Aβ1–42-injected mice, contributing to cognitive improvement in AD and improving the behavioral deficits displayed in the Morris water maze and Y-maze. Overall, our data suggest that NMP provides potent multifactorial effects, including the inhibition of amyloid plaques, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Natural Products in Health)
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14 pages, 1905 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus paragasseri OLL2809 Improves Premenstrual Psychological Symptoms in Healthy Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234985 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Lactobacillus paragasseri OLL2809 has been shown to ameliorate stress. This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group design to assess the efficacy of continuous ingestion of OLL2809 for managing menstrual symptoms in healthy women. Eighty healthy adult women aged 25–40 years who experienced [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus paragasseri OLL2809 has been shown to ameliorate stress. This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group design to assess the efficacy of continuous ingestion of OLL2809 for managing menstrual symptoms in healthy women. Eighty healthy adult women aged 25–40 years who experienced premenstrual and menstrual symptoms were randomly assigned to either the OLL2809 or placebo group (n = 40 each) and ingested tablets containing OLL2809 or placebo for three menstrual cycles. The OLL2809 group exhibited a significantly greater change in premenstrual ‘arousal’ scores on the menstrual distress questionnaire compared to the placebo group after the three menstrual cycles. Specifically, changes in the ‘activity’ subfactor were significantly higher in the OLL2809 group than in the placebo group. Additionally, the OLL2809 group reported significantly lower premenstrual irritability on the visual analog scale than the placebo group. These results suggest that OLL2809 may contribute to enhancing the quality of life of women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Interventions and Women’s Health)
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12 pages, 501 KiB  
Review
The Role of Nutrition in Pathogenesis of Uterine Fibroids
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4984; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234984 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that arise from the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus and are the most common tumors in women. Due to their high prevalence, costs for the health care system and the substantial impact on women’s quality of life, [...] Read more.
Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that arise from the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus and are the most common tumors in women. Due to their high prevalence, costs for the health care system and the substantial impact on women’s quality of life, they are a significant public health concern. Previous literature on the impact of diet on the occurrence, growth and symptoms of fibroids is limited. Recently, many papers have been written on this topic. A scoping review of PubMed and Cochrane databases was performed using the following keywords: uterine fibroids, antioxidants, diet, diet, vegetarian, vegetables, fruits, meat and soy foods, dairy products, tea, vitamin D, vitamin C, ascorbic acid. Preliminary research has shown a beneficial effect of vegetable and fruit consumption on the occurrence of fibroids. A relationship between hypovitaminosis D and an increased risk of fibroids has also been demonstrated. Studies on epigallocatechin gallate showed its apoptosis-promoting and antifibrinolytic effect in fibroid cells. Initial results are promising, but further randomized trials are needed to draw firm conclusions about the effects of diet and nutrients on uterine fibroids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention in Gynecological Diseases)
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14 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Association between Chewing Difficulty and Dietary Ca, Vitamin D, and Mg Intake in Korean Older Adults: 8th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2020–2021)
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4983; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234983 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Nutrition intake plays a pivotal role in chewing difficulty (CD). This cross-sectional descriptive study aims to explore the associations between CD and the dietary intake of calcium (Ca), vitamin D, and magnesium (Mg) in adults aged 65 and older, utilizing data from the [...] Read more.
Nutrition intake plays a pivotal role in chewing difficulty (CD). This cross-sectional descriptive study aims to explore the associations between CD and the dietary intake of calcium (Ca), vitamin D, and magnesium (Mg) in adults aged 65 and older, utilizing data from the 8th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2020–2021). The chewing function was assessed using a 5-point scale questionnaire that inquired about discomfort experienced during mastication. “Very uncomfortable” and “uncomfortable,” two of the five response options, were categorized as being indicative of CD. Dietary intake was assessed through 24 h dietary recall interviews, and nutrient calculations were based on the 10th revised edition of the Korean Food Composition Table. Data (N = 2942) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multi-logistic regression analyses in a composite sample plan file. Among the 2942 subjects, groups with insufficient daily nutrient intake had significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for CD compared to their counterparts. In men, the ORs for Ca (1.56), Mg (1.75), and the combined intake of Mg (1.64) with Ca were elevated. In women, the ORs for Ca (1.74), Mg (1.53), and the combined intake of Mg (1.43) with Ca showed similar trends. After adjusting for age, family income, and family size variables, men’s ORs for Mg (1.55) and the combined intake of Mg (1.55) with Ca remained elevated, while women’s OR for Ca (1.58), Mg (1.42), and the combined intake of Mg (1.34) with Ca remained significant. Dietary vitamin D intake did not significantly impact the OR for CD. After adjusting for natural tooth numbers, self-perceived oral health, and obesity, no significant association was found between CD and these nutrients. In conclusion, this study underscores the importance of promoting the recommended daily intake of magnesium alongside dietary calcium to address CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Nutrition in Older Adults)
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