Topic Editors

Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (IMM), Italian National Research Council (CNR), via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
Department of Engineering and Aviation Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA

MEMS Sensors and Resonators

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
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43171

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have seen significant development and revolutionized functionalities of many systems in chemical, biological, and physical applications. Thanks to the increased reliability and adaptability of MEMS devices, MEMS technology has the potential of creating new opening in many miniaturization applications. MEMS sensors can be found everywhere, from electronic appliances to medical diagnostics, due to their compact size and reliable performance. MEMS resonators have also received significant research and commercial interest and are widely used in applications including sensing, timing application, filtering, etc. This Topic aims to highlight the latest developments, emerging challenges, and innovative applications in MEMS-based sensors and resonators.

In this Topic, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Microfabrication technology;
  • Design of novel MEMS sensors;
  • Modeling of MEMS systems;
  • Flexible MEMS sensors;
  • BioMEMS sensors;
  • Fluidic MEMS;
  • Micro resonators;
  • Pressure sensors;
  • Inertial measurement unit.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Fabio Di Pietrantonio
Dr. Lanju Mei
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • MEMS sensors
  • MEMS resonators
  • MEMS technology
  • miniaturization applications
  • design of novel MEMS sensors
  • modeling of MEMS systems
  • flexible MEMS sensors
  • BioMEMS sensors
  • fluidic MEMS
  • microresonators
  • pressure sensors
  • inertial measurement unit

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
Eng
eng
- - 2020 18.7 Days CHF 1200
Micromachines
micromachines
3.4 4.7 2010 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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12 pages, 4635 KiB  
Article
A High-Reliability RF MEMS Metal-Contact Switch Based on Al-Sc Alloy
by Zhongxuan Hou, Yongkang Zhang, Chaowei Si, Guowei Han, Yongmei Zhao, Xiaorui Lu, Jiahui Liu, Jin Ning and Tongbo Wei
Micromachines 2023, 14(6), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061098 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
This paper presents a new metal-contact RF MEMS switch based on an Al-Sc alloy. The use of an Al-Sc alloy is intended to replace the traditional Au-Au contact, which can greatly improve the hardness of the contact, and thus improve the reliability of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new metal-contact RF MEMS switch based on an Al-Sc alloy. The use of an Al-Sc alloy is intended to replace the traditional Au-Au contact, which can greatly improve the hardness of the contact, and thus improve the reliability of the switch. The multi-layer stack structure is adopted to achieve the low switch line resistance and hard contact surface. The polyimide sacrificial layer process is developed and optimized, and the RF switches are fabricated and tested for pull-in voltage, S-parameters, and switching time. The switch shows high isolation of more than 24 dB and a low insertion loss of less than 0.9 dB in the frequency range of 0.1–6 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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15 pages, 5711 KiB  
Article
Wide Temperature Range and Low Temperature Drift Eddy Current Displacement Sensor Using Digital Correlation Demodulation
by Tianxiang Ma, Yuting Han, Yongsen Xu, Pengzhang Dai, Honghai Shen and Yunqing Liu
Sensors 2023, 23(10), 4895; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23104895 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Conventional eddy-current sensors have the advantages of being contactless and having high bandwidth and high sensitivity. They are widely used in micro-displacement measurement, micro-angle measurement, and rotational speed measurement. However, they are based on the principle of impedance measurement, so the influence of [...] Read more.
Conventional eddy-current sensors have the advantages of being contactless and having high bandwidth and high sensitivity. They are widely used in micro-displacement measurement, micro-angle measurement, and rotational speed measurement. However, they are based on the principle of impedance measurement, so the influence of temperature drift on sensor accuracy is difficult to overcome. A differential digital demodulation eddy current sensor system was designed to reduce the influence of temperature drift on the output accuracy of the eddy current sensor. The differential sensor probe was used to eliminate common-mode interference caused by temperature, and the differential analog carrier signal was digitized by a high-speed ADC. In the FPGA, the amplitude information is resolved using the double correlation demodulation method. The main sources of system errors were determined, and a test device was designed using a laser autocollimator. Tests were conducted to measure various aspects of sensor performance. Testing showed the following metrics for the differential digital demodulation eddy current sensor: nonlinearity 0.68% in the range of ±2.5 mm, resolution 760 nm, maximum bandwidth 25 kHz, and significant suppression in the temperature drift compared to analog demodulation methods. The tests show that the sensor has high precision, low temperature drift and great flexibility, and it can instead of conventional sensors in applications with large temperature variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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11 pages, 6329 KiB  
Article
A Single-Side Micromachined MPa-Scale High-Temperature Pressure Sensor
by Peng Li, Wei Li, Changnan Chen, Sheng Wu, Pichao Pan, Ke Sun, Min Liu, Jiachou Wang and Xinxin Li
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050981 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
This paper proposes a piezoresistive high-temperature absolute pressure sensor based on (100)/(111) hybrid SOI (silicon-on-insulator) silicon wafers, where the active layer is (100) silicon and the handle layer is (111) silicon. The 1.5 MPa ranged sensor chips are designed with the size as [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a piezoresistive high-temperature absolute pressure sensor based on (100)/(111) hybrid SOI (silicon-on-insulator) silicon wafers, where the active layer is (100) silicon and the handle layer is (111) silicon. The 1.5 MPa ranged sensor chips are designed with the size as tiny as 0.5 × 0.5 mm, and the chips are fabricated only from the front side of the wafer for simple, high-yield and low-cost batch production. Herein, the (100) active layer is specifically used to form high-performance piezoresistors for high-temperature pressure sensing, while the (111) handle layer is used to single-side construct the pressure-sensing diaphragm and the pressure-reference cavity beneath the diaphragm. Benefitting from front-sided shallow dry etching and self-stop lateral wet etching inside the (111)-silicon substrate, the thickness of the pressure-sensing diaphragm is uniform and controllable, and the pressure-reference cavity is embedded into the handle layer of (111) silicon. Without the conventionally used double-sided etching, wafer bonding and cavity-SOI manufacturing, a very small sensor chip size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm is achieved. The measured performance of the 1.5 MPa ranged pressure sensor exhibits a full-scale output of approximately 59.55 mV/1500 kPa/3.3 VDC in room temperature and a high overall accuracy (combined with hysteresis, non-linearity and repeatability) of 0.17%FS within the temperature range of −55 °C to 350 °C. In addition, the thermal hysteresis is also evaluated as approximately 0.15%FS at 350 °C. The tiny-sized high temperature pressure sensors are promising in various industrial automatic control applications and wind tunnel testing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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14 pages, 4413 KiB  
Article
An In-Situ Tester for Extracting Piezoresistive Coefficients
by Fengyang Li, Runze Yu and Dacheng Zhang
Micromachines 2023, 14(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14040885 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
In this study, an electrostatic force-driven on-chip tester consisting of a mass with four guided cantilever beams was employed to extract the process-related bending stiffness and piezoresistive coefficient in-situ for the first time. The tester was manufactured using the standard bulk silicon piezoresistance [...] Read more.
In this study, an electrostatic force-driven on-chip tester consisting of a mass with four guided cantilever beams was employed to extract the process-related bending stiffness and piezoresistive coefficient in-situ for the first time. The tester was manufactured using the standard bulk silicon piezoresistance process of Peking University, and was tested on-chip without additional handling. In order to reduce the deviation from process effects, the process-related bending stiffness was first extracted as an intermediate value, namely, 3590.74 N/m, which is 1.66% lower than the theoretical value. Then, the value was used to extract the piezoresistive coefficient using a finite element method (FEM) simulation. The extracted piezoresistive coefficient was 9.851 × 10−10 Pa−1, which essentially matched the average piezoresistive coefficient of the computational model based on the doping profile we first proposed. Compared with traditional extraction methods, such as the four-point bending method, this test method is on-chip, achieving automatic loading and precise control of the driving force, so it has high reliability and repeatability. Because the tester is manufactured together with the MEMS device, it has the potential to be used for process quality evaluation and monitoring on MEMS sensor production lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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13 pages, 6366 KiB  
Article
A GHz Silicon-Based Width Extensional Mode MEMS Resonator with Q over 10,000
by Wenli Liu, Yujie Lu, Zeji Chen, Qianqian Jia, Junyuan Zhao, Bo Niu, Wei Wang, Yalu Hao, Yinfang Zhu, Jinling Yang and Fuhua Yang
Sensors 2023, 23(8), 3808; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23083808 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
This work presents a silicon-based capacitively transduced width extensional mode (WEM) MEMS rectangular plate resonator with quality factor (Q) of over 10,000 at a frequency of greater than 1 GHz. The Q value, determined by various loss mechanisms, was analyzed and [...] Read more.
This work presents a silicon-based capacitively transduced width extensional mode (WEM) MEMS rectangular plate resonator with quality factor (Q) of over 10,000 at a frequency of greater than 1 GHz. The Q value, determined by various loss mechanisms, was analyzed and quantified via numerical calculation and simulation. The energy loss of high order WEMs is dominated by anchor loss and phonon-phonon interaction dissipation (PPID). High-order resonators possess high effective stiffness, resulting in large motional impedance. To suppress anchor loss and reduce motional impedance, a novel combined tether was designed and comprehensively optimized. The resonators were batch fabricated based on a reliable and simple silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based fabrication process. The combined tether experimentally contributes to low anchor loss and motional impedance. Especially in the 4th WEM, the resonator with a resonance frequency of 1.1 GHz and a Q of 10,920 was demonstrated, corresponding to the promising f × Q product of 1.2 × 1013. By using combined tether, the motional impedance decreases by 33% and 20% in 3rd and 4th modes, respectively. The WEM resonator proposed in this work has potential application for high-frequency wireless communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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11 pages, 15821 KiB  
Article
Detection of In-Plane Movement in Electrically Actuated Microelectromechanical Systems Using a Scanning Electron Microscope
by Tarmo Nieminen, Nikhilendu Tiwary, Glenn Ross and Mervi Paulasto-Kröckel
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030698 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
The measurement of in-plane motion in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a challenge for existing measurement techniques due to the small size of the moving devices and the low amplitude of motion. This paper studied the possibility of using images obtained using a scanning [...] Read more.
The measurement of in-plane motion in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a challenge for existing measurement techniques due to the small size of the moving devices and the low amplitude of motion. This paper studied the possibility of using images obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) together with existing motion detection algorithms to characterize the motion of MEMS. SEM imaging has previously been used to detect motion in MEMS device. However, the differences in how SEM imaging and optical imaging capture motion, together with possible interference caused by electrical actuation, create doubts about how accurately motion could be detected in a SEM. In this work, it is shown that existing motion detection algorithms can be used to detect movement with an amplitude of 69 nm. In addition, the properties of SEM images, such as bright edges, complement these algorithms. Electrical actuation was found to cause error in the measurement, however, the error was limited to regions that were electrically connected to the actuating probes and minimal error could be detected in regions that were electrically insulated from the probes. These results show that an SEM is a powerful tool for characterizing low amplitude motion and electrical contacts in MEMS and allow for the detection of motion under 100 nm in amplitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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15 pages, 5288 KiB  
Article
Stiffness Considerations for a MEMS-Based Weighing Cell
by Karin Wedrich, Valeriya Cherkasova, Vivien Platl, Thomas Fröhlich and Steffen Strehle
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 3342; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23063342 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
In this paper, a miniaturized weighing cell that is based on a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) is discussed. The MEMS-based weighing cell is inspired by macroscopic electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) weighing cells and one of the crucial system parameters, the stiffness, is analyzed. The system [...] Read more.
In this paper, a miniaturized weighing cell that is based on a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) is discussed. The MEMS-based weighing cell is inspired by macroscopic electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) weighing cells and one of the crucial system parameters, the stiffness, is analyzed. The system stiffness in the direction of motion is first analytically evaluated using a rigid body approach and then also numerically modeled using the finite element method for comparison purposes. First prototypes of MEMS-based weighing cells were successfully microfabricated and the occurring fabrication-based system characteristics were considered in the overall system evaluation. The stiffness of the MEMS-based weighing cells was experimentally determined by using a static approach based on force-displacement measurements. Considering the geometry parameters of the microfabricated weighing cells, the measured stiffness values fit to the calculated stiffness values with a deviation from −6.7 to 3.8% depending on the microsystem under test. Based on our results, we demonstrate that MEMS-based weighing cells can be successfully fabricated with the proposed process and in principle be used for high-precision force measurements in the future. Nevertheless, improved system designs and read-out strategies are still required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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18 pages, 3772 KiB  
Article
Study of the Performance Enhancement of Sc-Doped AlN Super High Frequency Cross-Sectional Lamé Mode Resonators
by Meruyert Assylbekova, Michele Pirro, Xuanyi Zhao, Giuseppe Michetti, Pietro Simeoni and Matteo Rinaldi
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030515 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
The increasing use of mobile broadband requires new acoustic filtering technologies that can operate efficiently at frequencies above 6 GHz. Previous research has shown that AlN Super High Frequency (SHF) Cross-Sectional Lamé Mode resonators (CLMRs) can address this challenge, but their performance is [...] Read more.
The increasing use of mobile broadband requires new acoustic filtering technologies that can operate efficiently at frequencies above 6 GHz. Previous research has shown that AlN Super High Frequency (SHF) Cross-Sectional Lamé Mode resonators (CLMRs) can address this challenge, but their performance is limited by the piezoelectric strength of AlN. In this work, we explore the use of substitutional doping of Al in AlN with Sc to enhance the kt2 values of SHF CLMRs. Our results showed that the measured kt2·Qm product of Al72Sc28N CLMRs was four times greater than that of AlN CLMRs operating at the same frequency. Additionally, the measured fractional bandwidth (FWB) of Al72Sc28N 2nd order ladder filters was 4.13%, a fourfold improvement over AlN filters with the same design. We also discuss other aspects of the technology, such as power handling, losses, and spurious mode suppression, and identify potential areas for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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17 pages, 5571 KiB  
Article
Boosting the Electrostatic MEMS Converter Output Power by Applying Three Effective Performance-Enhancing Techniques
by Mona S. Salem, Abdelhalim Zekry, Mohamed Abouelatta, Ahmed Shaker, Marwa S. Salem, Christian Gontrand and Ahmed Saeed
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020485 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
This current study aims to enhance the electrostatic MEMS converter performance mainly by boosting its output power. Three different techniques are applied to accomplish such performance enhancement. Firstly, the power is boosted by scaling up the technology of the converter CMOS accompanied circuit, [...] Read more.
This current study aims to enhance the electrostatic MEMS converter performance mainly by boosting its output power. Three different techniques are applied to accomplish such performance enhancement. Firstly, the power is boosted by scaling up the technology of the converter CMOS accompanied circuit, the power conditioning, and power controlling circuits, from 0.35 µm to 0.6 µm CMOS technology. As the converter area is in the range of mm2, there are no restrictions concerning the scaling up of the accompanied converter CMOS circuits. As a result, the maximum voltage of the system for harvesting energy, Vmax, which is the most effective system constraint that greatly affects the converter’s output power, increases from 8 V to 30 V. The output power of the designed and simulated converter based on the 0.6 µm technology increases from 2.1 mW to 4.5 mW. Secondly, the converter power increases by optimizing its technological parameters, the converter thickness and the converter finger width and length. Such optimization causes the converter output power to increase from 4.5 mW to 11.2 mW. Finally, the converter structure is optimized to maximize its finger length by using its wasted shuttle mass area which does not contribute to its capacitances and output power. The proposed structure increases the converter output power from 11.2 mW to 14.29 mW. Thus, the three applied performance enhancement techniques boosted the converter output power by 12.19 mW, which is a considerable enhancement in the converter performance. All simulations are carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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9 pages, 2994 KiB  
Article
An All-Silicon Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on Eutectic Bonding
by Siyuan Chen, Jiaxin Qin, Yulan Lu, Bo Xie, Junbo Wang, Deyong Chen and Jian Chen
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020441 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
In this paper, an all-Si resonant pressure microsensor based on eutectic bonding was developed, which can eliminate thermal expansion coefficient mismatches and residual thermal stresses during the bonding process. More specifically, the resonant pressure microsensor included an SOI wafer with a pressure-sensitive film [...] Read more.
In this paper, an all-Si resonant pressure microsensor based on eutectic bonding was developed, which can eliminate thermal expansion coefficient mismatches and residual thermal stresses during the bonding process. More specifically, the resonant pressure microsensor included an SOI wafer with a pressure-sensitive film embedded with resonators, which was eutectically bonded with a silicon cap for vacuum encapsulation. The all-Si resonant pressure microsensor was carefully designed and simulated numerically, where the use of the silicon cap was shown to effectively address temperature disturbances of the microsensor. The microsensor was then fabricated based on MEMS processes where eutectic bonding was adopted to link the SOI wafer and the silicon cap. The characterization results showed that the temperature disturbances of the resonant pressure microsensor encapsulated with the silicon cap were quantified as −0.82 Hz/°C of the central resonator and −2.36 Hz/°C of the side resonator within a temperature range from −40 °C to 80 °C, which were at least eight times lower than that of the microsensor encapsulated with the glass cap. Compared with the microsensor using the glass cap, the all-silicon microsensor demonstrated an accuracy improvement from 0.03% FS to 0.01% FS and a reduction in short-term frequency fluctuations from 3.2 Hz to 1.5 Hz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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25 pages, 9226 KiB  
Review
Concepts and Key Technologies of Microelectromechanical Systems Resonators
by Tianren Feng, Quan Yuan, Duli Yu, Bo Wu and Hui Wang
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122195 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
In this paper, the basic concepts of the equivalent model, vibration modes, and conduction mechanisms of MEMS resonators are described. By reviewing the existing representative results, the performance parameters and key technologies, such as quality factor, frequency accuracy, and temperature stability of MEMS [...] Read more.
In this paper, the basic concepts of the equivalent model, vibration modes, and conduction mechanisms of MEMS resonators are described. By reviewing the existing representative results, the performance parameters and key technologies, such as quality factor, frequency accuracy, and temperature stability of MEMS resonators, are summarized. Finally, the development status, existing challenges and future trend of MEMS resonators are summarized. As a typical research field of vibration engineering, MEMS resonators have shown great potential to replace quartz resonators in timing, frequency, and resonant sensor applications. However, because of the limitations of practical applications, there are still many aspects of the MEMS resonators that could be improved. This paper aims to provide scientific and technical support for the improvement of MEMS resonators in timing, frequency, and resonant sensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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12 pages, 2765 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Vertical MEMS Actuator with Hollow Square Electrode for SPR Sensing Applications
by Kihyun Kim, Yeonsu Lee, Ignacio Llamas-Garro and Jung-Mu Kim
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9490; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239490 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
In this study, an electrostatically driven vertical MEMS actuator was designed using a hollow square electrode. To attain vertical actuation, a hollow square-shaped electrode was designed on the glass substrate. The silicon proof mass, containing a step, was utilized to realize analogue actuation [...] Read more.
In this study, an electrostatically driven vertical MEMS actuator was designed using a hollow square electrode. To attain vertical actuation, a hollow square-shaped electrode was designed on the glass substrate. The silicon proof mass, containing a step, was utilized to realize analogue actuation without pull-in. The vertical MEMS actuator was fabricated using the SiOG (Silicon on Glass) process and the total actuator size was 8.3 mm × 8.3 mm. The fabricated proof mass was freestanding due to eight serpentine springs with 30 μm width. The vertical movement of the MEMS actuator was successfully controlled electrostatically. The measured vertical movement was 5.6 µm for a voltage of 40 V, applied between the top silicon structure and the hollow square electrode. The results shown here confirm that the proposed MEMS actuator was able to control the vertical displacement using an applied voltage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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8 pages, 1852 KiB  
Article
Thermal-Resistance Effect of Graphene at High Temperatures in Nanoelectromechanical Temperature Sensors
by Shuai Lei, Ningning Su and Mengwei Li
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122078 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Graphene membranes act as temperature sensors in nanoelectromechanical devices due to their excellent thermal and high-temperature resistance properties. Experimentally, reports on the sensing performance of graphene mainly focus on the temperature interval under 400 K. To explore the sensing performance of graphene temperature [...] Read more.
Graphene membranes act as temperature sensors in nanoelectromechanical devices due to their excellent thermal and high-temperature resistance properties. Experimentally, reports on the sensing performance of graphene mainly focus on the temperature interval under 400 K. To explore the sensing performance of graphene temperature sensors at higher temperature intervals, micro-fabricated single-layer graphene on a SiNX substrate is presented as temperature sensors by semiconductor technology and its electrical properties were measured. The results show that the temperature coefficient of the resistance value is 2.07 × 10−3 in the temperature range of 300–450 K and 2.39 × 10−3 in the temperature range of 450–575 K. From room temperature to high temperature, the “metal” characteristics are presented, and the higher TCR obtained at higher temperature interval is described and analyzed by combining Boltzmann transport equation and thermal expansion theory. These investigations provide further insight into the temperature characteristics of graphene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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0 pages, 5599 KiB  
Article
A Novel Packaged Ultra-High Q Silicon MEMS Butterfly Vibratory Gyroscope
by Lu Jia, Guowei Han, Zhenyu Wei, Chaowei Si, Jin Ning, Fuhua Yang and Weihua Han
Micromachines 2022, 13(11), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13111967 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
A novel three-dimensional (3D) wafer-level sandwich packaging technology is here applied in the dual mass MEMS butterfly vibratory gyroscope (BFVG) to achieve ultra-high Q factor. A GIS (glass in silicon) composite substrate with glass as the main body and low-resistance silicon column as [...] Read more.
A novel three-dimensional (3D) wafer-level sandwich packaging technology is here applied in the dual mass MEMS butterfly vibratory gyroscope (BFVG) to achieve ultra-high Q factor. A GIS (glass in silicon) composite substrate with glass as the main body and low-resistance silicon column as the vertical lead is processed by glass reflow technology, which effectively avoids air leakage caused by thermal stress mismatch. Sputter getter material is used on the glass cap to further improve the vacuum degree. The Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) gyroscope structure is sandwiched between the composite substrate and glass cap to realize vertical electrical interconnection by high-vacuum anodic bonding. The Q factors of drive and sense modes in BFVG measured by the self-developed double closed-loop circuit system are significantly improved to 8.628 times and 2.779 times higher than those of the traditional ceramic shell package. The experimental results of the processed gyroscope also demonstrate a high resolution of 0.1°/s, the scale factor of 1.302 mV/(°/s), and nonlinearity of 558 ppm in the full-scale range of ±1800°/s. By calculating the Allen variance, we obtained the angular random walk (ARW) of 1.281°/√h and low bias instability (BI) of 9.789°/h. The process error makes the actual drive and sense frequency of the gyroscope deviate by 8.989% and 5.367% compared with the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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36 pages, 8024 KiB  
Review
A Review of MEMS Vibrating Gyroscopes and Their Reliability Issues in Harsh Environments
by Waqas Amin Gill, Ian Howard, Ilyas Mazhar and Kristoffer McKee
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7405; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197405 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 11687
Abstract
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) vibrating gyroscopes have gained a lot of attention over the last two decades because of their low power consumption, easy integration, and low fabrication cost. The usage of the gyroscope equipped with an inertial measurement unit has increased tremendously, with [...] Read more.
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) vibrating gyroscopes have gained a lot of attention over the last two decades because of their low power consumption, easy integration, and low fabrication cost. The usage of the gyroscope equipped with an inertial measurement unit has increased tremendously, with applications ranging from household devices to smart electronics to military equipment. However, reliability issues are still a concern when operating this inertial sensor in harsh environments, such as to control the movement and alignment of mini-satellites in space, tracking firefighters at an elevated temperature, and assisting aircraft navigation in gusty turbulent air. This review paper focuses on the key fundamentals of the MEMS vibrating gyroscopes, first discussing popular designs including the tuning fork, gimbal, vibrating ring, and multi-axis gyroscopes. It further investigates how bias stability, angle random walk, scale factor, and other performance parameters are affected in harsh environments and then discusses the reliability issues of the gyroscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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14 pages, 2920 KiB  
Article
Liquid Metal-Based Flexible and Wearable Sensor for Functional Human–Machine Interface
by Ye Tao, Feiyang Han, Changrui Shi, Ruizhe Yang, Yixing Chen and Yukun Ren
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091429 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Rigid sensors are a mature type of sensor, but their poor deformation and flexibility limit their application range. The appearance and development of flexible sensors provide an opportunity to solve this problem. In this paper, a resistive flexible sensor utilizes gallium−based liquid metal [...] Read more.
Rigid sensors are a mature type of sensor, but their poor deformation and flexibility limit their application range. The appearance and development of flexible sensors provide an opportunity to solve this problem. In this paper, a resistive flexible sensor utilizes gallium−based liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium alloy, EGaIn) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and is fabricated using an injecting thin−line patterning technique based on soft lithography. Combining the scalable fabrication process and unique wire−shaped liquid metal design enables sensitive multifunctional measurement under stretching and bending loads. Furthermore, the flexible sensor is combined with the glove to demonstrate the application of the wearable sensor glove in the detection of finger joint angle and gesture control, which offers the ability of integration and multifunctional sensing of all−soft wearable physical microsystems for human–machine interfaces. It shows its application potential in medical rehabilitation, intelligent control, and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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12 pages, 6959 KiB  
Communication
A Study on the Design of Isolator and the Mounting Method for Reducing the Pyro-Shock of a MEMS IMU
by Kyungdon Ryu, ByungSu Park, Hyungsub Lee, Kyungjun Han and Sangwoo Lee
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 5037; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22135037 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 3065
Abstract
In this paper, we proposed two methods for reducing the pyro-shock of the MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). First, we designed the vibration isolator for reducing the pyro-shock inside the IMU. However, it turned out that there is a limit to reducing the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we proposed two methods for reducing the pyro-shock of the MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). First, we designed the vibration isolator for reducing the pyro-shock inside the IMU. However, it turned out that there is a limit to reducing the pyro-shock with only the vibration isolator. Therefore, we improved the pyro-shock reduction performance by changing the method of mounting on the flight vehicle. Four mounting options were tested and one of them was adopted. The results showed the best reduction performance when we designed the vibration isolator with an aluminum integrated structure. When mounting, two methods were applied. One was to insert a bracket with a different material between the mounting surface and IMU and the other was to insert a set of three washers that was stacked in a PEEK-metal-PEEK order at each part of the screw connections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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11 pages, 3377 KiB  
Article
Novel Surface Acoustic Wave Temperature–Strain Sensor Based on LiNbO3 for Structural Health Monitoring
by Xiangrong Li, Qiulin Tan, Li Qin, Xiawen Yan and Xiaorui Liang
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060912 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
In this paper, we present the design of an integrated temperature and strain dual-parameter sensor based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs). First, the COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software is used to determine separate frequencies for multiple sensors to avoid interference from their frequency offsets [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the design of an integrated temperature and strain dual-parameter sensor based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs). First, the COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software is used to determine separate frequencies for multiple sensors to avoid interference from their frequency offsets caused by external physical quantity changes. The sensor consists of two parts, a temperature-sensitive unit and strain-sensitive unit, with frequencies of 94.97 MHz and 90.05 MHz, respectively. We use standard photolithography and ion beam etching technology to fabricate the SAW temperature–strain dual-parameter sensor. The sensing performance is tested in the ranges 0–250 °C and 0–700 μԑ. The temperature sensor monitors the ambient temperature in real time, and the strain sensor detects both strain and temperature. By testing the response of the strain sensor at different temperatures, the strain and temperature are decoupled through the polynomial fitting of the intercept and slope. The relationship between the strain and the frequency of the strain-sensitive unit is linear, the linear correlation is 0.98842, and the sensitivity is 100 Hz/μԑ at room temperature in the range of 0–700 μԑ. The relationship between the temperature and the frequency of the temperature-sensitive unit is linear, the linearity of the fitting curve is 0.99716, and the sensitivity is 7.62 kHz/°C in the range of 25–250 °C. This sensor has potential for use in closed environments such as natural gas or oil pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic MEMS Sensors and Resonators)
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