Feature Papers in Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses

A topical collection in Stresses (ISSN 2673-7140). This collection belongs to the section "Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Department of Plant Physiology, Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, H-2462 Martonvásár, Hungary
Interests: abiotic stress; acclimation; heavy metal stress; oxidative stress; polyamines; plant stress physiology; salicylic acid; signalling
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Collection Editor
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
Interests: antioxidants; abiotic stress tolerance; plant metabolites; ROS signaling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection “Feature Papers in Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses” aims to collect high-quality research articles, short communications, and review articles in the field of stress and its impact on organisms that are capable of photosynthesis.

Since the aim of this Topical Collection is to illustrate, via the selected works, pioneering research in stress physiology, we encourage scientists to contribute papers that reflect the latest advances in their field of research.

This Topical Collection will contain articles that describe, in particular, but not exclusively, phenotypical, morphological and physiological responses, and changes in plant metabolite and gene expression levels. The topics of interest relate primarily to various biotic and abiotic stresses; for example, those caused by interactions with deleterious microorganisms, to the use of beneficial microorganisms, or from the effect of light quality and quantity and mineral limitation, to global climate change. Methodological studies are also welcome, in order to highlight the importance of the early recognition and accurate detection of stress symptoms.

Dr. Magda Pál
Prof. Dr. Luigi Sanita' di Toppi
Prof. Dr. Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Stresses is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (13 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023

25 pages, 2796 KiB  
Review
Organic Amendments: Enhancing Plant Tolerance to Salinity and Metal Stress for Improved Agricultural Productivity
by Israt Jahan Irin and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Stresses 2024, 4(1), 185-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4010011 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2048
Abstract
Salinity and metal stress are significant abiotic factors that negatively influence plant growth and development. These factors lead to diminished agricultural yields on a global scale. Organic amendments have emerged as a potential solution for mitigating the adverse effects of salinity and metal [...] Read more.
Salinity and metal stress are significant abiotic factors that negatively influence plant growth and development. These factors lead to diminished agricultural yields on a global scale. Organic amendments have emerged as a potential solution for mitigating the adverse effects of salinity and metal stress on plants. When plants experience these stresses, they produce reactive oxygen species, which can impair protein synthesis and damage cellular membranes. Organic amendments, including biochar, vermicompost, green manure, and farmyard manure, have been shown to facilitate soil nitrogen uptake, an essential component for protein synthesis, and enhance various plant processes such as metabolism, protein accumulation, and antioxidant activities. Researchers have observed that the application of organic amendments improves plant stress tolerance, plant growth, and yield. They achieve this by altering the plant’s ionic balance, enhancing the photosynthetic machinery, boosting antioxidant systems, and reducing oxidative damage. The potential of organic amendments to deal effectively with high salinity and metal concentrations in the soil is gaining increased attention and is becoming an increasingly popular practice in the field of agriculture. This review aims to provide insights into methods for treating soils contaminated with salinity and heavy metals by manipulating their bioavailability through the use of various soil amendments. Full article
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26 pages, 5737 KiB  
Review
Role of Ethylene in the Regulation of Plant Developmental Processes
by Sheen Khan, Ameena Fatima Alvi and Nafees A. Khan
Stresses 2024, 4(1), 28-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4010003 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Ethylene, a gaseous phytohormone, is emerging as a central player in the intricate web of plant developmental processes from germination to senescence under optimal and stressed conditions. The presence of ethylene has been noted in different plant parts, including the stems, leaves, flowers, [...] Read more.
Ethylene, a gaseous phytohormone, is emerging as a central player in the intricate web of plant developmental processes from germination to senescence under optimal and stressed conditions. The presence of ethylene has been noted in different plant parts, including the stems, leaves, flowers, roots, seeds, and fruits. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the regulatory impact of ethylene on pivotal plant developmental processes, such as cell division and elongation, senescence, abscission, fruit and flower development, root hair formation, chloroplast maturation, and photosynthesis. The review also encompasses ethylene biosynthesis and signaling: a snapshot of the regulatory mechanisms governing ethylene production. Understanding of the impact of ethylene’s regulatory functions on plant developmental processes has significant implications for agriculture, biotechnology, and our fundamental comprehension of plant biology. This review underscores the potential of ethylene to revolutionize plant development and crop management. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024

16 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
Bioinput Inoculation in Common Beans to Mitigate Stresses Caused by a Period of Drought
by Bruna Arruda, Wilfrand Ferney Bejarano-Herrera, Maria Camila Ortega-Cepeda, Jose Manuel Campo-Quesada, Gabriela Toro-Tobón, German Andres Estrada-Bonilla, Antonio Marcos Miranda Silva and Fernando Ferrari Putti
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 842-857; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040057 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Drought conditions have made it difficult for farmers to ensure the productivity of their crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of bioinputs in stress mitigation after a drought event in common beans. Two experiments were set up in [...] Read more.
Drought conditions have made it difficult for farmers to ensure the productivity of their crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of bioinputs in stress mitigation after a drought event in common beans. Two experiments were set up in a greenhouse. Firstly, two types of soils (clayey and sandy loam) were used. After seedling emergence, treatments were set: no bacteria inoculation (NB) and inoculation with Herbaspirillum frisingense AP21. Then, a differentiation on the irrigation (15 days) was performed with no water restriction (NWR) and with water restriction (WWR). Transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf dry matter and proline were measured. Secondly, in the clayey soil, the bacteria treatments were NB, Herbaspirillum frisingense AP21, Rhizobium leguminosarum T88 and co-inoculation (AP21 + T88). A differentiation on the irrigation (15 days) was performed: NWR and WWR. Then, Fv/Fm, photosynthetic rate, proline and sugars were assessed, and the harvest occurred 97 days after emergence. For sandy loam soil bioinputs, they did not have an effect on the parameters evaluated. For clayey soil, H. frisingense AP21 increased the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance and hence improved the leaf dry matter in comparison to NB. Under WWR, the isolated inoculations of AP21 and T88 increased grain dry matter, but the co-inoculation showed low grain production, similar to no bacteria inoculation. Full article
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15 pages, 6940 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Changes during Phytophthora capsici Infection Reveal Potential Defense Mechanisms in Squash
by Shailesh Raj Acharya, Swati Shrestha, Vincent Njung’e Michael, Yuqing Fu, Prerna Sabharwal, Shallu Thakur and Geoffrey Meru
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 827-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040056 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Phytophthora capsici incites foliar blight, root, fruit, and crown rot in squash (Cucurbita spp.) and limits production worldwide. Resistance to crown rot in C. moschata breeding line #394-1-27-12 is conferred by three dominant genes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance are [...] Read more.
Phytophthora capsici incites foliar blight, root, fruit, and crown rot in squash (Cucurbita spp.) and limits production worldwide. Resistance to crown rot in C. moschata breeding line #394-1-27-12 is conferred by three dominant genes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance are poorly understood. In the current study, RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptional changes in #394-1-27-12 (resistant) and Butterbush (susceptible) following infection by P. capsici at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 h post inoculation (hpi). Overall, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Butterbush (2648) exceeded those in #394-1-27-12 (1729), but in both genotypes, the highest number of DEGs was observed at 72 hpi and least at 24 hpi. Our gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed a downregulation of the genes involved in polysaccharide and lignin metabolism in Butterbush but as an upregulation of those associated with regulation of peptidase activity. However, in #394-1-27-12, the downregulated genes were primarily associated with response to stimuli, whereas those upregulated were involved in oxidation–reduction and response to stress. The upregulated genes in #394-1-27-12 included defensin-like proteins, respiratory-burst oxidases, ethylene-responsive transcription factors, cytochrome P450 proteins, and peroxidases. These findings provide a framework for the functional validation of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to P. capsici in cucurbits. Full article
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14 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
Osmotic Stress Alleviation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for High Ethanol Fermentations with Different Wort Substrates
by Rafael Douradinho, Pietro Sica, Fernando Tonoli, Eduardo Mattos, Matheus Oliveira, Alana Pinto, Layna Mota, Tamires Faria, Vitória Franco Costa, Gabriela Leite, Valter Arthur, Suani Coelho and Antonio Baptista
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 813-826; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040055 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
High-gravity fermentation, used for ethanol production from sugarcane, corn, and mixed substrates, offers several benefits. Yeast, a rapidly multiplying unicellular microorganism, can be adapted for high sugar and ethanol tolerance on a lab scale. However, different substrates can enhance fermentation efficiency. Our study [...] Read more.
High-gravity fermentation, used for ethanol production from sugarcane, corn, and mixed substrates, offers several benefits. Yeast, a rapidly multiplying unicellular microorganism, can be adapted for high sugar and ethanol tolerance on a lab scale. However, different substrates can enhance fermentation efficiency. Our study consisted of two experiments. In the first, we compared simple batch feeding with a fed-batch system for yeast selection in high-gravity fermentation. We ran eight cycles with increasing initial sugar contents (50 to 300 g L−1). No significant differences were observed in the first seven cycles, but in the eighth, the fed-batch system showed lower glycerol and fructose contents and higher cell viability than the simple batch system. In the second experiment, we used the fed-batch system with 300 g L−1 from sugarcane, corn, and mixed wort. The results showed that mixed wort produced higher ethanol contents and greater fermentation efficiency compared to corn and sugarcane as substrates. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the fed-batch system is more suitable for high-gravity fermentation on a lab scale, and the combination of sugarcane juice and corn can enhance fermentation efficiency, paving the way for integrating these substrates in industrial ethanol production. Full article
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Anti-Diabetic Activities of Scorzonera phaeopappa Boiss
by Leina El Hosry, Souad Al Ayash, Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh and Elias Bou-Maroun
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 773-784; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040053 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Wild edible plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers because of their richness in biologically active phytochemicals. These are found to be a potential remedy for oxidative-stress-mediated diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In this study, total phenol, total terpene, and total flavonoid content [...] Read more.
Wild edible plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers because of their richness in biologically active phytochemicals. These are found to be a potential remedy for oxidative-stress-mediated diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In this study, total phenol, total terpene, and total flavonoid content as well as antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Scorzonera phaeopappa Boiss from Lebanon were determined. Using dichloromethane, dichloromethane ammonia, methanol, acetone, and ethanol, extracts were prepared from the edible leaves. The antioxidant activity and the antidiabetic activity were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, Fe2+-chelating and α-amylase/α-glucosidase inhibitory assays, respectively. Dichloromethane ammonia was found to have the highest extraction capacity on phenols (2.73 mg GAE /100 mg extract) and terpenes (232.42 mg LE/100 mg extract). Methanol was found to have the highest extraction capacity on total flavonoids (63.05 mg QE/100 mg extract). The methanol extract exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 0.07 mg/mL) and the highest chelating activity as compared to other extracts (0.08 mg/mL, chelating activity 50%). The acetone extract was two times more active than acarbose against α-amylase enzyme and was the most active against α-glucosidase (6.3 mg/mL). Significant positive correlations were observed between total phenol content and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay and total terpene content and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. Full article
13 pages, 4659 KiB  
Article
Bacillus Strains with Catalase Enzyme Improve the Physiology and Growth of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Syeda Wadia Zainab Saeed, Iqra Naseer, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Thomas Hilger, Shumila Shahid, Zafar Iqbal and Maqshoof Ahmad
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 736-748; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040050 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Catalase can decompose hydrogen peroxide in plants under controlled and stressed conditions. In a stressed environment, an increase in hydrogen peroxide production makes catalase activity a major defense system for plant growth. The current study was conducted to evaluate the catalase activity of [...] Read more.
Catalase can decompose hydrogen peroxide in plants under controlled and stressed conditions. In a stressed environment, an increase in hydrogen peroxide production makes catalase activity a major defense system for plant growth. The current study was conducted to evaluate the catalase activity of the pre-isolated and identified bacterial strains Bacillus aryabhattai (AN30), Bacillus megaterium (AN24), Bacillus megaterium (AN31) and Bacillus megaterium (AN35) and their potential for rice seedling growth promotion. These strains were characterized for quantitative catalase, urease, siderophore and exopolysaccharide production using LB media. Subsequently, the effectiveness of these strains was checked by quantifying the catalase activity in the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of rice seedlings. The secretion of organic and phenolic compounds produced by the tested strains in liquid culture was also investigated. Plant growth parameters were also studied in a growth room trial. Our results showed that the strain AN24 showed the maximum catalase activity (1.36 mol cm−1), urease activity (1.35 mol cm−1) and exopolysaccharide (4.20 µg mL−1) and siderophore (2.32%) production in LB media. All tested strains showed significantly higher catalase activity in soil compared to the control. Among sole applications, strain AN24 showed better results; however, the consortium application of strains AN24 + AN30 + AN35 + AN31 showed the maximum improvement in dry biomass, shoot and root length, and increase in catalase activity of rice seedlings. The results showed that a consortium of these Bacillus strains with catalase activity has greater potential to enhance the antioxidant defense system and growth promotion of rice seedlings. However, further experimentation under natural conditions is required before using these strains as potential bioinoculants for improving rice growth and yield. Full article
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19 pages, 1709 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Traits of Salt Stress Tolerance in Asian Rice Cultivars at Seedling and Early Vegetative Stages
by Jawaher Alkahtani and Yheni Dwiningsih
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 717-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040049 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary energy food for the Asian population. One of the greatest constraints in rice production is soil salinity because rice is very susceptible to salt. Meanwhile, many agricultural lands in Asia are in saline areas. It [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary energy food for the Asian population. One of the greatest constraints in rice production is soil salinity because rice is very susceptible to salt. Meanwhile, many agricultural lands in Asia are in saline areas. It is important to identify and develop salt-tolerant rice varieties that highly adapt to Asian climates. By combining morphological, physiological, and biochemical assessments for screening the salt tolerance of 116 Asian rice cultivars, we were able to classify them into tolerant, moderate, and sensitive rice cultivars under salinity stress conditions and also understand salt tolerance mechanisms. The rice cultivars that are salt-tolerant include Pokkali from India, TCCP 266 and IR 45427 from the Philippines, and Namyang 7 from Republic of Korea. However, salt-sensitive rice varieties like IR29 and IR58 are from the Philippines, and Daegudo and Guweoldo are from Korea. The salt-tolerant varieties showed signs of tolerance, including a lower percent reduction in germination percentage, root length, root fresh weight, shoot length, plant biomass, and chlorophyll content. In order to maintain the cellular osmotic balance under saline conditions, the salt-tolerant varieties exhibited less membrane damage, a lower Na/K ratio, high proline and sugar accumulation, and lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pokkali from India, TCCP 266 and IR 45427 from the Philippines, and Namyang 7 from Republic of Korea are recommended as valuable germplasm resources for Asian rice breeding programs in saline agricultural areas. Full article
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16 pages, 1701 KiB  
Article
Nitric Oxide Modulates Salt Stress Tolerance in Lettuce
by Isabelly Cristina da Silva Marques, Dayane Mércia Ribeiro Silva, Geane Lourenço Bispo, Francisco de Assis de Oliveira, Elizabeth Orika Ono and João Domingos Rodrigues
Stresses 2023, 3(4), 701-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3040048 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Crops are constantly threatened by salinity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an attenuating agent for salt stress; however, the specific roles of NO in gas exchange and lettuce production are not well established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of [...] Read more.
Crops are constantly threatened by salinity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an attenuating agent for salt stress; however, the specific roles of NO in gas exchange and lettuce production are not well established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as an agent to mitigate salt stress in lettuce plants. Lettuce seedlings in pots were subjected to irrigation without and with saline water (0.2 and 3.5 dS m−1) and applications of different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µM) of SNP, a NO donor. Saline stress negatively affected lettuce development with a reduction of 29.5% in leaf area, 6.3% in relative water content in the leaf, 17.2% in stem diameter, and 10.7% in dry matter mass in the control, but the application of SNP mitigated the deleterious effects of salt stress. Concentrations between 100 and 150 µM of SNP improved the photosynthetic metabolism of lettuce under salinity, with an increase of 46.7% in CO2 assimilation and 42.3% in fresh matter mass. Pearson’s correlation showed that fresh matter correlated positively with CO2 assimilation. Therefore, SNP can be used to mitigate salt stress in lettuce. Full article
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12 pages, 2558 KiB  
Article
Preserving the Authenticity of ST25 Rice (Oryza sativa) from the Mekong Delta: A Multivariate Geographical Characterization Approach
by Dinh Tri Bui, Ngoc Minh Truong, Viet Anh Le, Hoang Khanh Nguyen, Quang Minh Bui, Van Thinh Pham and Quang Trung Nguyen
Stresses 2023, 3(3), 653-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3030045 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
The research centers around ST25, a recently acclaimed rice variety lauded as Vietnam’s premier offering. However, its ability to substantiate its origin is impeded by the rampant proliferation of counterfeit derivatives within the market. A distinctive methodology is posited herein, intertwining the attributes [...] Read more.
The research centers around ST25, a recently acclaimed rice variety lauded as Vietnam’s premier offering. However, its ability to substantiate its origin is impeded by the rampant proliferation of counterfeit derivatives within the market. A distinctive methodology is posited herein, intertwining the attributes of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses, augmented using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The primary objective is to meticulously ascertain the unadulterated geographic provenance of the ST25 rice cultivar. The findings unequivocally underscore the emergence of a conspicuous taxonomy within the ST25 rice samples sourced from Soc Trang, underpinned by the utilization of both FTIR and ICP-MS datasets. Remarkably, the discernment of eight elemental constituents (27Al, 59Co, 44Ca, 57Fe, 60Ni, 63Cu, 93Nb, and 98Mo) has been adjudicated as pivotal in ascribing geospatial classification. The ramifications of this proposed modality encompass not only the authentication of the subject rice variety but also extend to the validation of similar grain types. Functioning as a potent deterrent against the omnipresent specter of food counterfeiting within the market milieu, this methodology occupies a pivotal niche. Full article
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19 pages, 2603 KiB  
Article
Assessing Combining Abilities of Popcorn Inbred Lines for Agronomic and Root Traits under Contrasting Water Conditions: Towards Developing Drought-Tolerant Genotypes
by Rosimeire Barboza Bispo, Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Junior, Samuel Henrique Kamphorst, Valter Jário de Lima, Guilherme Ferreira Pena, Talles de Oliveira Santos, Jhean Torres Leite, Flávia Nicácio Viana, Divino Rosa dos Santos Júnior, Danielle Leal Lamêgo, Uéliton Alves de Oliveira, Rodrigo Moreira Ribeiro, Telma Nair Santana Pereira and Shahid Khan
Stresses 2023, 3(3), 586-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3030041 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Developing popcorn genotypes that are adapted to water-deficit conditions is crucial due to the significant impact of this abiotic stress on grain yield. This study aimed to assess the combining abilities of preselected popcorn lines for agronomic and root traits under well-watered and [...] Read more.
Developing popcorn genotypes that are adapted to water-deficit conditions is crucial due to the significant impact of this abiotic stress on grain yield. This study aimed to assess the combining abilities of preselected popcorn lines for agronomic and root traits under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. A circulating diallel analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of the general and specific combining abilities of 10 lines and their respective hybrids for various traits, including productivity, popping expansion, expanded popcorn volume, 100-grain weight, ear length, ear width, support root angle, crown root angle, number of support roots, number of crown roots, density of support roots, and density of crown roots. Non-additive action genes predominantly influenced the agronomic traits under both water conditions. In contrast, the root traits displayed a greater proportion of additive action gene expression under both conditions, despite being significantly affected by the environment. Lines L61, L71, and L76 demonstrated positive and high effects for general combining ability. The hybrids L65/L76, L71/L76, and L61/L75, in addition to exhibiting satisfactory effects of their specific combining ability, also displayed the most favorable phenotypic responses for most agronomic and root traits, making them ideal candidates for inclusion in popcorn breeding programs aiming to develop drought-tolerant genotypes. Full article
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16 pages, 1935 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Plant Phenolics and Their Involvement in Abiotic Stress Tolerance
by Krishna Kumar, Pratima Debnath, Sailendra Singh and Navin Kumar
Stresses 2023, 3(3), 570-585; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3030040 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4049
Abstract
Secondary metabolites, such as phenols and salicylic, play a crucial role in the regulation of development and tolerance mechanisms against a wide range of stresses. During adverse conditions such as biotic and abiotic stresses, plants induce the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds to provide [...] Read more.
Secondary metabolites, such as phenols and salicylic, play a crucial role in the regulation of development and tolerance mechanisms against a wide range of stresses. During adverse conditions such as biotic and abiotic stresses, plants induce the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds to provide tolerance. Phenolics are secondary aromatic metabolites synthesized through the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway or polyketide acetate/malonate pathway, which produce monomeric and polymeric phenolics. Phenolic compounds in plants not only take part in preventing stresses but also in regulating physiological activities. These compounds significantly regulate both below- and above-ground defense mechanisms. Plants synthesize thousands of phenolic compounds throughout their evolution to survive in changing environments. Environmental factors, such as high light, cold, drought, heavy metals, etc., increase the accumulation of phenolics to neutralize any toxic effects. This review focuses on the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and their updated studies against abiotic stresses. Full article
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14 pages, 2373 KiB  
Article
Varietal Differences of Yield, Morphological, and Biochemical Parameters of Allium cepa L. under Precipitation Excess in Different Phenological Phases
by Nadezhda Golubkina, Olga Romanova, Valery Romanov, Leonid Krivenkov, Tatiana Shevchenko, Otilia Cristina Murariu, Lorenzo Vecchietti, Silvia Brindusa Hamburda and Gianluca Caruso
Stresses 2023, 3(3), 541-554; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3030038 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Flooding is an important factor, decreasing Allium cepa bulb yield and quality. A comparison, in terms of biometrical and biochemical parameters, of five Allium cepa cultivars, grown at two different locations, characterized by contrasting conditions of water availability, i.e., precipitation excess at the [...] Read more.
Flooding is an important factor, decreasing Allium cepa bulb yield and quality. A comparison, in terms of biometrical and biochemical parameters, of five Allium cepa cultivars, grown at two different locations, characterized by contrasting conditions of water availability, i.e., precipitation excess at the end (A) or at the beginning (B) of plant growth, revealed a significant decrease in bulb weight, height, and diameter, and an increase in oxidative stress parameters, such as total antioxidant activity and polyphenol content, monosaccharides, proline, malonic dialdehyde in the condition of excessive soil humidity at the end of the vegetation period (A). Among the five cultivars studied (Zolotnichok, Zolotie cupola, Black prince, Globus, and Myachkovsky), the lowest variations of the above parameters under precipitation excess at cycle end or beginning were recorded in Zolotnichok and Zolotie cupola, which was in accordance with their high adaptability. Cultivar Myachkovsky showed the highest differences of the parameters examined between A and B conditions. Outer scale biochemical parameters demonstrated the highest stability in both regions. The participation of proline, monosaccharides, total polyphenols, and total antioxidant activity in plant defense against hypoxia, caused by waterlogging, was proved by high correlation coefficients between inner scale parameters (‘r’ from +0.714 to +0.920) and the latter with bulb yield (‘r’ from −0.745 to −0.924). High adaptability cultivars (Zolotie cupola, Zolotnichok, Black prince) showed significantly lower MDA inner/outer scales ratio and lipids outer/inner scales ratio compared to cultivars with moderate adaptability in (B) conditions. The results provide important information regarding biochemical peculiarities of Allium cepa in diverse soil humidity, which should be considered in future breeding activities of onion genotypes, characterized by high adaptability to different water excess conditions. Full article
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