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Stresses, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 11 articles

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16 pages, 1806 KiB  
Article
Insights into Key Biometric, Physiological and Biochemical Markers of Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency Stress in the Halophyte Cakile maritima
by Hayet Houmani, Rabaa Hidri, Nèjia Farhat and Ahmed Debez
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 342-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020022 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Magnesium is a key element for plant growth and development. Plant responses to Mg deficiency were well investigated, especially in glycophytes. Such responses include a reduction in plant growth and biomass allocation between shoots and roots, photosynthates partitioning from source to sink organs, [...] Read more.
Magnesium is a key element for plant growth and development. Plant responses to Mg deficiency were well investigated, especially in glycophytes. Such responses include a reduction in plant growth and biomass allocation between shoots and roots, photosynthates partitioning from source to sink organs, the accumulation of carbohydrates, and an induction of several Mg transporters. Some physiological and biochemical parameters are good markers of Mg deficiency stress even though they are not well investigated. In the present study, the halophyte Cakile maritima was subjected to Mg shortage, and several Mg stress indices were analyzed. Our data showed that Mg starvation affected shoot and plant length, leaf number, and plant organ growth. A significant decrease in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthetic activity was also recorded. Mg deficiency triggered oxidative damage as electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation were increased by Mg deficiency while the membrane stability index decreased. For a deeper understanding of the effect of Mg starvation on C. maritima, several tolerance stress indices were evaluated, demonstrating a negative impact of Mg stress on almost all those parameters. This study provided important insights on several markers of Mg deficiency stress, which were informative by themselves as unique and early signals of Mg deficiency stress in this halophyte. Full article
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12 pages, 2620 KiB  
Review
The Science Behind Stress: From Theory to Clinic, Is Basal Septal Hypertrophy the Missing Link between Hypertension and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy?
by Boran Çağatay, Fatih Yalçin, Adnan Kıraç, Nagehan Küçükler and Maria Roselle Abraham
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 330-341; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020021 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The modern theory of stress, initially proposed by Hans Selye in 1956, signifies an important development in our understanding of this phenomenon. Selye’s The Stress of Life serves as a foundational book for subsequent scientific questions. In this article, we focus on a [...] Read more.
The modern theory of stress, initially proposed by Hans Selye in 1956, signifies an important development in our understanding of this phenomenon. Selye’s The Stress of Life serves as a foundational book for subsequent scientific questions. In this article, we focus on a comprehensive look at stress and use a literature review to explain its theoretical foundations as well as its clinical equivalent. Our research focuses on the complex mechanisms of stress, with a particular emphasis on the consequences of cardiac remodeling and adaptation processes. Myocardial remodeling might be seen as a response to increased stress in acute or chronic situations. Stressed heart morphology (SHM) is a very interesting description representing basal septal hypertrophy (BSH), which is detectable in both acute emotional stress and chronic stress due to increased afterload in hypertension. Acute stress cardiomyopathy (ASC) and hypertension in the same individuals could be clinically linked. Also, in this report, we mention the geometric and functional similarity of the left ventricle (LV) septal base in both acute and chronic clinical situations. Therefore, cardiac imaging methods are crucial to assessing LV segmental aspects in ASC patients. We propose a new paradigm that ASC may develop in hypertensive patients with SHM. We document the segmental progression of microscopic LV remodeling using a third-generation microscopic ultrasound and note that BSH takes a longer time to occur morphologically than an acutely developed syndrome. However, the majority of ASC events have a predominant base, and the absence of segmental remodeling details, including BSH and cardiac decompensation with apical ballooning, on echocardiographic reports may mask the possible underlying hypertensive disease. In fact, beyond ASC cases, previously undiagnosed hypertension is very common, even in developed countries, and is associated with masked target organ damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Human and Animal Stresses)
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10 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Waterlogging Tolerance and Morphological Responses of Five Urochloa spp. Grasses
by Rafael Marzall Amaral, Lesly Astrid Calva Sarango, Cristiano Eduardo Rodrigues Reis, Tulio Otávio Jardim D’almeida Lins, Ericka Beatriz Schultz and Daniel Carballo Guerrero
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 320-329; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020020 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Periods with high precipitation and temporary waterlogging in the humid tropics are challenging to the production and survival of some grasses of the genus Urochloa. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of five types of grass belonging to the genus Urochloa [...] Read more.
Periods with high precipitation and temporary waterlogging in the humid tropics are challenging to the production and survival of some grasses of the genus Urochloa. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of five types of grass belonging to the genus Urochloa under waterlogging conditions through productive and morphological traits. The grasses [U. arrecta (Tanner), U. arrecta x U. mutica (Brachipará), U. brizantha cv. Marandú, U. hybrid cv. Cayman and U. humidicola cv. Llanero] were planted in pots and kept under field capacity for 33 days; then, half of them were submitted to (i) field capacity (33% humidity retention) and the other half were submitted to (ii) waterlogging conditions (2 cm of water above soil level) for 28 days. In this study, Tanner and Brachipará grasses showed higher dry shoot mass under waterlogging conditions, which were followed by Llanero, Cayman, and Marandú, respectively. Llanero, Tanner, and Brachipará presented higher waterlogging tolerance coefficients, 78.7, 76.5, and 64.5, respectively, being less affected than Cayman and Marandú (41.0 and 23.1, respectively). Brachipará, Tanner, and Cayman presented a higher root volume under waterlogging conditions, while Marandú root volume decreased by 88.77%. The Tanner, Brachipará, and Llanero genotypes were more tolerant to poorly drained or waterlogged soils than Cayman and Marandú genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Responses to Environmental Stress)
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12 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Gene and Protein Expression of Placental Nutrient-Stress Sensor Proteins in Fetal Growth Restriction
by Elizabeth Morgan, Grace Chung, Seokwon Jo, Briana Clifton, Sarah A. Wernimont and Emilyn U. Alejandro
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 308-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020019 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and low birth weight increase the risk of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart failure in adulthood. Placental insufficiency is widely considered a major contributor to FGR. Two crucial placental proteins involved in nutrient and stress [...] Read more.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and low birth weight increase the risk of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart failure in adulthood. Placental insufficiency is widely considered a major contributor to FGR. Two crucial placental proteins involved in nutrient and stress sensing—O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase—play roles in post-translational protein modification and protein translation, influencing cellular growth and metabolism in response to maternal stress, hypoxia, and nutritional status in the placenta. In our study, we examined the gene and protein profiles of OGT and mTOR in FGR and control placentae, comparing those appropriate for gestational age (AGA), while also considering potential confounding effects of fetal sex and delivery mode. Our findings revealed no significant differences in gene expression, protein levels, or activity of OGT, OGA, mTOR, or their associated markers between female AGA and FGR cesarean placentae, nor between female AGA and male AGA cesarean placentae. Additionally, the mode of delivery in female AGA placentae did not affect the levels or activity of these proteins. Overall, our study did not observe significant differences in nutrient sensor protein expression after stratifying by FGR, sex, and delivery mode. Nevertheless, these unbiased results provide a more comprehensive understanding of the complexities of placental gene expression involving OGT and mTOR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Human and Animal Stresses)
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15 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Phytogenic Feed Additive on Redox Status, Blood Haematology, and Piglet Mortality in Primiparous Sows
by Vasileios G. Papatsiros, Georgios I. Papakonstantinou, Eleni Katsogiannou, Dimitrios A. Gougoulis, Nikolaos Voulgarakis, Konstantinos Petrotos, Sofia Braimaki, Dimitrios A. Galamatis, Amr El-Sayed and Labrini V. Athanasiou
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 293-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020018 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenolic phytogenic feed additive (PFA) based on plant extracts, such as Embelia officinalis, Ocimum sanctum and nut fibre, on the redox status, haematological parameters, and piglet mortality in sows. A total of 64 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenolic phytogenic feed additive (PFA) based on plant extracts, such as Embelia officinalis, Ocimum sanctum and nut fibre, on the redox status, haematological parameters, and piglet mortality in sows. A total of 64 primiparous sows were divided into two groups: T1-control group: regular gestation (GF) and lactation feed (LF), T2 group: regular GF and LF supplemented with a PFA (10 g daily) for 14 days before and 7 days after the farrowing. Blood samples were collected 0–3 h after farrowing. Haematological parameters (Packed Cell Volume/PCV, White Blood Cells/WBC, Platelets/PLTs) were counted in blood smears. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (CARBS) levels were determined in sow plasma. The performance and reproductive parameters of sows at farrowing and weaning days were recorded. The mean numbers of PCV and PLT counts in the T2 group were higher in comparison to the T1 group (p = 0.041, p = 0.033, respectively). In contrast, the mean numbers of WBC and neutrophils were almost significantly higher in the T2 group (p = 0.051). The mean number of stillborn piglets was significantly higher in the T1 group (2.12) compared to the T2 group (1.03). The mean number of alive piglets 24 h after farrowing and the mean number of the weaned piglets were significantly higher in group T2 (13.9 vs. 15.4 and 12.6 vs. 14.3). Sows in group T2 had significantly more backfat at weaning than the sows in group T1 (13.3 vs. 12.7). The mean levels of CARBS (nmol/mL) and TBARS (μmol/L) in group T1 (24.8 and 18.7) were significantly higher in comparison to group T2 (18.3 and 14.9). In conclusion, the use of a polyphenolic PFA in sows has beneficial effects on their welfare and performance due to its antioxidative effects. Furthermore, PFAs appear to exert antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects on PLTs, WBCs, and RBCs, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Human and Animal Stresses)
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11 pages, 2205 KiB  
Article
Mapping Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Associated with the Pre-Flowering Morphological Performance of Fenugreek under Different Levels of Salt Stress
by Amani Mahmoud Dobeie, Rahma A. Nemr, Mustafa M. H. Abd El-Wahab, Mohamed Shahba and Mohamed El-Soda
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 282-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020017 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Salinity is a significant factor restricting plant growth and production. The effect of salinity stress on different growth parameters of 111 fenugreek genotypes was examined in an experiment with three salinity levels (0, 3000, 6000 mgL−1). A completely randomized block design [...] Read more.
Salinity is a significant factor restricting plant growth and production. The effect of salinity stress on different growth parameters of 111 fenugreek genotypes was examined in an experiment with three salinity levels (0, 3000, 6000 mgL−1). A completely randomized block design with two replicated pots per treatment was used. Non-significant treatment effects were observed on fresh weight (FW); however, all traits showed significant genotype-by-treatment (GxT) interactions. This GxT was reflected in substantial SNP x environment interactions. Of 492 significant SNPs associated with the measured traits, 212 SNPs were linked to the correlated traits using an arbitrary threshold of three. Several SNPs were associated with FW and dry weight, measured under the same salinity treatment. The correlation between both traits was 0.98 under the three salinity treatments. In addition, 280 SNPs with conditional neutrality effects were mapped. The identified SNPs can be used in future marker-assisted breeding programs to select salt-tolerant genotypes. The results of this research shed light on the salt-tolerant properties of fenugreek. Full article
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13 pages, 967 KiB  
Review
Role of microRNA in Oxidative Stress
by Sarmistha Saha
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 269-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020016 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
An imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reaction of antioxidant proteins is referred to as oxidative stress. NFE2L2/Nrf2, also known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2, is a critical enabler of cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic [...] Read more.
An imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reaction of antioxidant proteins is referred to as oxidative stress. NFE2L2/Nrf2, also known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2, is a critical enabler of cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic insults. When Nrf2 is activated, it triggers the transcription of numerous cytoprotective genes, whose promoter regions contain antioxidant response elements (AREs). In recent times, the regulation of Nrf2 by miRNAs has garnered significant attention, among the various mechanisms that govern Nrf2 signaling. It has been reported that a number of miRNAs directly suppress the expression of Nrf2s, which in turn negatively regulates the Nrf2-dependent cellular cytoprotective response. Furthermore, it has been shown that Nrf2 itself regulates miRs, which carry out some of Nrf2’s unique metabolic regulation functions. Here, we provide an overview of the functions and mechanisms of action of miRs as downstream effectors of Nrf2, as well as in their regulation of its activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal and Human Stresses)
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18 pages, 1338 KiB  
Article
Phosphorus Dynamics in Stressed Soil Systems: Is There a Chemical and Biological Compensating Effect?
by Bruna Arruda, Fábio Prataviera, Wilfrand Ferney Bejarano Herrera, Denise de Lourdes Colombo Mescolotti, Antonio Marcos Miranda Silva, Hudson Wallace Pereira de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio Pavinato and Fernando Dini Andreote
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 251-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020015 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Here, we hypothesized the occurrence of a compensatory relationship between the application of P and different microbial communities in the soil, specifically in relation to the chemical and biological effects in the soil–plant–microorganisms’ interaction. We aimed to evaluate the plant–microbiota responses in plants [...] Read more.
Here, we hypothesized the occurrence of a compensatory relationship between the application of P and different microbial communities in the soil, specifically in relation to the chemical and biological effects in the soil–plant–microorganisms’ interaction. We aimed to evaluate the plant–microbiota responses in plants grown in soils hosting distinct microbial communities and rates of P availability. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. The first experiment evaluated four manipulated soil microbiome compositions, four P rates, and two plant species. Manipulated soil systems were obtained by the following: (i) autoclaving soil for 1 h at 121 °C (AS); (ii) inoculating AS with soil suspension dilution (AS + 10−3); (iii) heating natural soil at 80 °C for 1 h (NH80); or (iv) using natural soil (NS) without manipulation. The P rates added were 0, 20, 40, and 60 mg kg−1, and the two plant species tested were grass (brachiaria) and leguminous (crotalaria). Inorganic labile P (PAER), microbial P (PMIC), acid phosphatase activity (APASE), and shoot P uptake (PUPT) were assessed for each system. Brachiaria presented a compensatory effect for PUPT, whereby the addition of P under conditions of low microbial community enhanced P absorption capacity from the soil. However, in a system characterized by low P input, the increase in the soil biodiversity was insufficient to enhance brachiaria PUPT. Likewise, crotalaria showed a higher PUPT under high P application and low microbial community. The second experiment used three manipulated microbiome compositions: AS + 10−3; NH80; and NS and three P rates added: 0, 20, and 40 mg kg−1. In addition, two treatments were set: without and with mycorrhiza inoculation. Brachiaria showed an increase in the PUPT under low microbial communities (AS + 10−3; NH80) with P addition (20 and 40 mg kg−1 of P), but no mycorrhization was observed. In the undisturbed microbial community (NS), under no P input (0 mg kg−1 of P), brachiaria showed low mycorrhization and low PUPT. Finally, NS and the recommended P input (40 mg kg−1 of P) represented a balance between chemical and biological fertility, promoting the equilibrium between mycorrhization and PUPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Responses to Environmental Stress)
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13 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
Effects in Sleep and Recovery Processes of NESA Neuromodulation Technique Application in Young Professional Basketball Players: A Preliminary Study
by Raquel Medina-Ramírez, Milos Mallol Soler, Franc García, Francesc Pla, Aníbal Báez-Suárez, Esther Teruel Hernández, D. David Álamo-Arce and María del Pino Quintana-Montesdeoca
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 238-250; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020014 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
The competitive calendars in sports often lead to fluctuations in the effort-recovery cycle and sleep quality. NESA noninvasive neuromodulation, achieved through microcurrent modulation of the autonomic nervous system, holds promise for enhancing sleep quality and autonomic activation during stressful situations. The objective of [...] Read more.
The competitive calendars in sports often lead to fluctuations in the effort-recovery cycle and sleep quality. NESA noninvasive neuromodulation, achieved through microcurrent modulation of the autonomic nervous system, holds promise for enhancing sleep quality and autonomic activation during stressful situations. The objective of this study was to analyze the sleep and recovery responses of basketball players over six weeks of training and competition, with the integration of NESA noninvasive neuromodulation. A preliminary experimental study involving 12 participants was conducted, with a placebo group (n = 6) and an intervention group (n = 6) treated with NESA noninvasive neuromodulation. Sleep variables and biomarkers such as testosterone, cortisol, and the cortisol:testosterone ratio were analyzed to assess player recovery and adaptations. Significant differences were observed in total, duration, and REM sleep variables (p-value= < 0.001; 0.007; <0.001, respectively) between the intervention and placebo groups. The intervention group demonstrated increased duration of sleep variables. Cortisol levels showed normalization in the experimental group, particularly in the last two weeks coinciding with the start of playoffs. This study highlights the potential of NESA noninvasive neuromodulation to enhance sleep quality despite challenging circumstances, providing valuable insights into the management of athlete recovery in competitive sports settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal and Human Stresses)
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13 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Effects of Gradual and Acute Treatment with Mn on Physiological Responses of Rumex hydrolapathum Plants
by Ineta Samsone and Gederts Ievinsh
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 225-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020013 - 30 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 448
Abstract
An understudied problem in plant heavy metal biology is the effects of acute versus gradual or chronic metal exposure. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth and physiological responses of Rumex hydrolapathum Huds. plants subjected to gradual or acute [...] Read more.
An understudied problem in plant heavy metal biology is the effects of acute versus gradual or chronic metal exposure. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth and physiological responses of Rumex hydrolapathum Huds. plants subjected to gradual or acute Mn stress treatment in controlled conditions. Heavy metal was applied to substrate either as one 1.00 g L−1 Mn dose (acute treatment) or the same dose in four steps of increasing amounts within 12 days (gradual treatment). Peroxidase activity in actively photosynthesizing leaves was used for monitoring induced biochemical changes resulting from Mn treatment. The number of leaves per plant significantly increased in the case of gradual treatment with Mn, but this effect was not statistically significant for acute treatment. Leaf fresh mass significantly decreased in both cases due to the decrease in leaf water content, but dry biomass of leaves was not affected, with no significant differences between the two types of treatments. A significantly lower chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Performance Index in large leaves of plants under the acute Mn treatment than in plants under the gradual treatment was evident. An increase in leaf peroxidase activity by Mn treatment was proportional to the metal dose received, but plants in the acute treatment with 1.00 g L−1 Mn had a significantly lower peroxidase response in comparison to the gradual treatment with 1.00 g L−1 Mn. In conclusion, under gradual treatment, biochemical changes related to the induction of tolerance to the heavy metal are expressed, as indicated by the continuous increase in leaf peroxidase activity after each treatment step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses)
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15 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
Alleviating Salt Stress in Tomatoes through Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Chloride Combination
by Nasratullah Habibi, Naoki Terada, Atsushi Sanada and Kaihei Koshio
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 210-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020012 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Tomato cultivation grapples with salt stress, disrupting growth parameters and physiological processes. High salinity levels induce osmotic stress, impacting cellular integrity and hindering metabolic activities. Salt accumulation at the root zone alters key physiological attributes, compromising overall harvestable output. Seed priming emerges as [...] Read more.
Tomato cultivation grapples with salt stress, disrupting growth parameters and physiological processes. High salinity levels induce osmotic stress, impacting cellular integrity and hindering metabolic activities. Salt accumulation at the root zone alters key physiological attributes, compromising overall harvestable output. Seed priming emerges as a potential solution to enhance plant resilience. A research gap exists in understanding the combined influence of polyethylene glycol and sodium chloride as seed priming agents under salt stress conditions. The study occurred in the Greenhouse of Laboratory Horticultural Science at Tokyo University of Agriculture. Micro Tom seeds underwent a factorial randomized design, involving five salinity and four priming treatments. Replicated ten times, totaling 200 plants, seed priming used polyethylene glycol, inducing salinity stress with sodium chloride. Meticulous measurements of growth parameters, photosynthetic traits, yield attributes, and electrolyte leakage were conducted. Statistical analyses discerned treatment effects at a 5% significance level. Seed priming, especially with ‘PEG plus NaCl’, effectively mitigated salt stress effects on tomato plants. Under severe salt stress, primed plants exhibited increased plant height, trusses, leaves, and leaf area. Photosynthetic efficiency and yield attributes demonstrated significant improvements with seed priming. Electrolyte leakage, indicative of leaf damage, was notably reduced by seed priming treatments, with ‘PEG plus NaCl’ exhibiting the highest efficacy. These results offer valuable guidance for optimizing agricultural practices in saline environments, contributing to sustainable strategies for food security amidst escalating environmental challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses)
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