Stress Markers in Plants: Importance of Selection and Investigation 2.0

A special issue of Stresses (ISSN 2673-7140). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 2102

Special Issue Editors

Department of Plant Physiology, Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, H-2462 Martonvásár, Hungary
Interests: abiotic stress; acclimation; heavy metal stress; oxidative stress; polyamines; plant stress physiology; salicylic acid; signalling
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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Physiology and Metabolomics, Centre for Agricultural Research, H-2462 Martonvásár, Hungary
Interests: gas chromatography; heavy metal stress; salicylic acid derivatives; volatile organic compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are continuously exposed to various stress factors. Biotic and abiotic stress-condition-induced changes and responses have been studied in plants at physiological, morphological, metabolite, and gene expression levels. However, all the investigations should start with the same question: what is the level of stress? Several stress markers have been used in plant physiology, such as photosynthesis-related parameters, biomass parameters, relative water content, level of lipid peroxidation, ROS content, induction of antioxidant system, osmolite concentration, hormone content, etc. Some of them are non-invasive, fast, and high-throughput due to phenotyping technology. Others are invasive and time-consuming, but more selective. It is very important to choose the most reliable stress marker under adequate stress conditions, which can depend not only on the applied stress factor, but also on the plant species, the plant development stage, and the organ that is the subject of the investigation. On one hand, some of these markers can be informative by themselves, as unique, early signals of a stress factor; on the other hand, the same response may appear only after a severe stress in case of another stress factor. Although the investigation of a limited set of stress markers is usually enough, their proper combination is more expedient.

This Special Issue aims to provide the latest updates on plant stress markers, their importance of selection and investigation. We welcome original manuscripts and review articles addressing this topic.

Dr. Magda Pál
Dr. Orsolya Kinga Gondor
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • severity of stress
  • morphological markers
  • physiological markers
  • molecular markers

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1806 KiB  
Article
Insights into Key Biometric, Physiological and Biochemical Markers of Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency Stress in the Halophyte Cakile maritima
by Hayet Houmani, Rabaa Hidri, Nèjia Farhat and Ahmed Debez
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 342-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020022 - 23 May 2024
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Abstract
Magnesium is a key element for plant growth and development. Plant responses to Mg deficiency were well investigated, especially in glycophytes. Such responses include a reduction in plant growth and biomass allocation between shoots and roots, photosynthates partitioning from source to sink organs, [...] Read more.
Magnesium is a key element for plant growth and development. Plant responses to Mg deficiency were well investigated, especially in glycophytes. Such responses include a reduction in plant growth and biomass allocation between shoots and roots, photosynthates partitioning from source to sink organs, the accumulation of carbohydrates, and an induction of several Mg transporters. Some physiological and biochemical parameters are good markers of Mg deficiency stress even though they are not well investigated. In the present study, the halophyte Cakile maritima was subjected to Mg shortage, and several Mg stress indices were analyzed. Our data showed that Mg starvation affected shoot and plant length, leaf number, and plant organ growth. A significant decrease in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthetic activity was also recorded. Mg deficiency triggered oxidative damage as electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation were increased by Mg deficiency while the membrane stability index decreased. For a deeper understanding of the effect of Mg starvation on C. maritima, several tolerance stress indices were evaluated, demonstrating a negative impact of Mg stress on almost all those parameters. This study provided important insights on several markers of Mg deficiency stress, which were informative by themselves as unique and early signals of Mg deficiency stress in this halophyte. Full article
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11 pages, 2205 KiB  
Article
Mapping Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Associated with the Pre-Flowering Morphological Performance of Fenugreek under Different Levels of Salt Stress
by Amani Mahmoud Dobeie, Rahma A. Nemr, Mustafa M. H. Abd El-Wahab, Mohamed Shahba and Mohamed El-Soda
Stresses 2024, 4(2), 282-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4020017 - 11 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Salinity is a significant factor restricting plant growth and production. The effect of salinity stress on different growth parameters of 111 fenugreek genotypes was examined in an experiment with three salinity levels (0, 3000, 6000 mgL−1). A completely randomized block design [...] Read more.
Salinity is a significant factor restricting plant growth and production. The effect of salinity stress on different growth parameters of 111 fenugreek genotypes was examined in an experiment with three salinity levels (0, 3000, 6000 mgL−1). A completely randomized block design with two replicated pots per treatment was used. Non-significant treatment effects were observed on fresh weight (FW); however, all traits showed significant genotype-by-treatment (GxT) interactions. This GxT was reflected in substantial SNP x environment interactions. Of 492 significant SNPs associated with the measured traits, 212 SNPs were linked to the correlated traits using an arbitrary threshold of three. Several SNPs were associated with FW and dry weight, measured under the same salinity treatment. The correlation between both traits was 0.98 under the three salinity treatments. In addition, 280 SNPs with conditional neutrality effects were mapped. The identified SNPs can be used in future marker-assisted breeding programs to select salt-tolerant genotypes. The results of this research shed light on the salt-tolerant properties of fenugreek. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 3633 KiB  
Review
Sydnone Imines as a New Class of Promising Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance Modulators—A First Experimental Structure–Activity Overview
by Maria Cherevatskaya, Ilia Cherepanov, Natalia Kalganova, Natalia Erofeeva, Ekaterina Romanovskaya, Andrej Frolov, Tatiana Bilova, Sergey Moiseev and Ludger A. Wessjohann
Stresses 2024, 4(1), 133-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4010008 - 16 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Due to the oncoming climate changes, various environmental stresses (drought, salinity, heavy-metals, low or high temperatures, etc.) might dramatically affect crop yields and the quality of produced foods. Therefore, to meet the growing food demand of the human population, improvement of stress tolerance [...] Read more.
Due to the oncoming climate changes, various environmental stresses (drought, salinity, heavy-metals, low or high temperatures, etc.) might dramatically affect crop yields and the quality of produced foods. Therefore, to meet the growing food demand of the human population, improvement of stress tolerance of the currently cultured crops is required. The knowledge of the molecular underlying mechanisms provides a versatile instrument to correct plant metabolism via chemical tools and to thereby increase their adaptive potential. This will preserve crop productivity and quality under abiotic stress conditions. Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key signaling factors activating stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Thus, the application of synthetic NO donors as stress-protective phytoeffectors might support maintaining plant growth and productivity under stressful conditions. Sydnone imines (sydnonimines) are a class of clinically established mesoionic heterocyclic NO donors which represent a promising candidate group for such phytoeffectors. Therefore, here, we provide an overview of the current progress in the application of sydnone imines as exogenous NO donors in plants, with a special emphasis on their potential as herbicides as well as herbicide antidotes, growth stimulants and stress protectors triggering plant tolerance mechanisms. We specifically address the structure–activity relationships in the context of the growth modulating activity of sydnone imines. Growth stimulating or antidote effects are typical for 4-α-hydroxybenzyl derivatives of sydnone imines containing an alkyl substituent in position N-3. The nature of the substituent of the N-6 atom has a significant influence on the activity profile and the intensity of the effect. Nevertheless, further investigations are necessary to establish reliable structure–activity relationships (SAR). Consequently, sydnone imines might be considered promising phytoeffector candidates, which are expected to exert either protective effects on plants growing under unfavorable conditions, or herbicidal ones, depending on the exact structure. Full article
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