Stress Responses in Crops

A special issue of Stresses (ISSN 2673-7140). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant and Photoautotrophic Stresses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2022) | Viewed by 35496

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
Interests: antioxidants; abiotic stress tolerance; plant metabolites; ROS signaling
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Guest Editor
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, 1575 Varsity Drive, VRB, Module # 6, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Interests: rice, wheat, strawberry and tomato diseases; integrated disease management; plant-pathogen interactions, genetic mapping, and GWAS; RNA-seq analysis; genotyping-by-sequencing, and plant microbiomes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Ensuring food security for the increasing global population is one of the challenges for the coming decades. As frontiers of crop production, plant biologists and agronomists are the most responsible for the steady improvement of crop production. However, there are several challenges which hinder crop production, including various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, flooding, metal/metalloid toxicity, extreme temperature, etc.) and biotic stresses (weeds, insects, pathogens, etc.). Recently, researchers have been trying to mechanistically understand the basis of stress responses and tolerance in crops. Thus, in this Special Issue we aim to publish research articles and reviews on various aspects of crop responses and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, which will also help to serve as a foundation for climate change adaptation in agriculture.

Prof. Dr. Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Prof. Dr. Luigi Sanita' di Toppi
Dr. Tika Adhikari
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
Stress Responses in Crops
by Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Luigi Sanità di Toppi and Tika Adhikari
Stresses 2022, 2(2), 231-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses2020016 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Plants undergo a simultaneous interaction with numerous environmental stresses in the ever-changing climate, making sustainable crop production for the increased global population more challenging [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)

Research

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23 pages, 2581 KiB  
Article
Comparative Physiology of Indica and Japonica Rice under Salinity and Drought Stress: An Intrinsic Study on Osmotic Adjustment, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Defense and Methylglyoxal Detoxification
by Md. Shahadat Hossen, Md. Fazlul Karim, Masayuki Fujita, M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Kamrun Nahar, Abdul Awal Chowdhury Masud, Jubayer Al Mahmud and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Stresses 2022, 2(2), 156-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses2020012 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3026
Abstract
Salinity and drought stress are significant environmental threats, alone or in combination. The current study was conducted to investigate the morpho-physiology, osmotic adjustment, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification of three rice genotypes from the indica (cv. BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan48) [...] Read more.
Salinity and drought stress are significant environmental threats, alone or in combination. The current study was conducted to investigate the morpho-physiology, osmotic adjustment, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification of three rice genotypes from the indica (cv. BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan48) and japonica (cv. Koshihikari) groups. Eighteen-day-old seedlings of these genotypes were exposed to either in alone salinity (150 mM NaCl) and drought (15% PEG 6000) or in the combination of salinity and drought (150 mM NaCl + 15% PEG 6000) stress in vitro for 72 h. Compared with the control, the water status, biomass and photosynthetic pigments were decreased, where a significant increase was seen in the mortality rate, hydrogen peroxide content, electrolyte leakage, lipoxygenase activity, level of malondialdehyde and methylglyoxal, indicating increased lipid peroxidation in rice genotypes in stress conditions. The non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) pool in rice genotypes were disrupted under all stress treatments, resulting imbalance in the redox equilibrium. In contrast, compared to other rice genotypes, BRRI dhan48 revealed a lower Na+/K+ ratio, greater proline (Pro) levels, higher activity of AsA, dehydroascorbate (DHA) and GSH, lower glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and a higher ratio of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG, whereas enzymatic components increased monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glyoxalase enzymes. The results showed that a stronger tolerate ability for BRRI dhan48 against stress has been connected to a lower Na+/K+ ratio, an increase in Pro content and an improved performance of the glyoxalase system and antioxidant protection for scavenging of reactive oxygen species. These data can give insight into probable responses to single or combination salinity and drought stress in rice genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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20 pages, 917 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Physiological Response of Different Lettuce Genotypes to Salt Stress
by Bikash Adhikari, Omolayo J. Olorunwa, Jeff C. Wilson and T. Casey Barickman
Stresses 2021, 1(4), 285-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1040021 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4288
Abstract
Salt stress (SS) refers to excessive soluble salt concentrations in the plant root zone. SS also causes cellular water deficits, ion toxicity, and oxidative stress in plants, all of which can cause growth inhibition, molecular damage, and even plant mortality. Lettuce (Lactuca [...] Read more.
Salt stress (SS) refers to excessive soluble salt concentrations in the plant root zone. SS also causes cellular water deficits, ion toxicity, and oxidative stress in plants, all of which can cause growth inhibition, molecular damage, and even plant mortality. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) has a threshold electrical conductivity of 1.3–2.0 dS/m. Thus, this research focused on physiological, morphological, and biochemical attributes in multiple lettuce genotypes under SS compared to plants grown under control conditions. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. One month after planting, the salt treatment was applied at the rate of 100 millimoles (mM). The 0 mM salt in water treatment was considered the control. A significant effect of SS on different morphological and physiological traits was observed in one-month-old lettuce plants. PI 212099, Buttercrunch-1, and PI 171676 were highly salt-tolerant. Genotypes with high salt tolerance usually had poor growth potential under control conditions. This suggests that the morphological and physiological response of 38 lettuce cultivars towards SS is genotype dependent. Identifying SS’s physiological, morphological, and biochemical attributes in lettuce may help plant-breeders develop salt-tolerant lettuce genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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15 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
Drought and Elevated CO2 Impacts Photosynthesis and Biochemicals of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)
by T. Casey Barickman, Bikash Adhikari, Akanksha Sehgal, C. Hunt Walne, K. Raja Reddy and Wei Gao
Stresses 2021, 1(4), 223-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1040016 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3413
Abstract
Drought-induced reduction in crop growth and productivity can be compensated by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a significant contributor to climate change. Drought stress (DS) affects crops worldwide due to dwindling water resources and irregular rainfall patterns. The experiment was set [...] Read more.
Drought-induced reduction in crop growth and productivity can be compensated by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a significant contributor to climate change. Drought stress (DS) affects crops worldwide due to dwindling water resources and irregular rainfall patterns. The experiment was set up under a randomized complete block design within a three-by-two factorial arrangement. Six SPAR chambers represent three blocks (10 replications each), where each chamber has 30 pots in three rows. Each chamber was maintained with 30/22 (day/night) °C temperature, with either ambient (aCO2; 420 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 720 ppm) concentrations. This experiment was designed to address the impact of DS on the physiological and biochemical attributes and study how the eCO2 helps alleviate the adversity of DS in basil. The study demonstrated that DS + eCO2 application highly accelerated the decrease in all forms of carotene and xanthophylls. eCO2 positively influenced and increased anthocyanin (Antho) and chlorophyll (LChl). eCO2 supplementation increased LChl content in basil under DS. Furthermore, DS significantly impeded the photosynthetic system in plants by decreasing CO2 availability and causing stomatal closure. Although eCO2 did not increase net photosynthesis (Pn) activity, it decreased stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf transpiration rate (E) under DS, showing that eCO2 can improve plant water use efficiency by lowering E and gs. Peroxidase and ascorbate activity were higher due to the eCO2 supply to acclimate the basil under the DS condition. This study suggests that the combination of eCO2 during DS positively impacts basil’s photosynthetic parameters and biochemical traits than aCO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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19 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Abscisic Acid in Coordination with Nitrogen Alleviates Salinity-Inhibited Photosynthetic Potential in Mustard by Improving Proline Accumulation and Antioxidant Activity
by Arif Majid, Bilal A. Rather, Asim Masood, Zebus Sehar, Naser A. Anjum and Nafees A. Khan
Stresses 2021, 1(3), 162-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1030013 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
This investigation was done to assess the role of abscisic acid (ABA; 25 µM) and/or nitrogen (N; 10 mM) in the alleviation of salinity (NaCl; 100 mM)-induced reduction in photosynthetic activity and growth, N and sulfur (S) assimilation of mustard (Brassica juncea [...] Read more.
This investigation was done to assess the role of abscisic acid (ABA; 25 µM) and/or nitrogen (N; 10 mM) in the alleviation of salinity (NaCl; 100 mM)-induced reduction in photosynthetic activity and growth, N and sulfur (S) assimilation of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. RH0-749. Salinity treatment caused oxidative stress and significantly elevated the content of both H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and impaired photosynthetic activity and growth, but increased the content of nitrogenous osmolyte proline and the activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species. The application of 25 µM ABA under a controlled condition negatively affected photosynthesis and growth. However, ABA, when combined with N, minimized oxidative stress and mitigated the salinity-inhibited effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione reductase, GR; ascorbate peroxidase, APX) and proline content. Overall, the supplementation of 10 mM N combined with 25 µM ABA provides an important strategy for enhancing the photosynthetic potential of B. juncea under saline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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20 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
Fertilisation with Potassium Silicate Exerted Little Effect on Production Parameters of Cucumbers Exposed to UV and Drought
by Mateja Grašič, Mateja Germ, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, Nik Ojdanič, Alenka Gaberščik and Aleksandra Golob
Stresses 2021, 1(3), 142-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1030012 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
(1) Background: Cucumbers are highly sensitive to drought and UV-B radiation, which may also act synergistically. Silicon is a beneficial element for plants, as it can alleviate negative effects of different environmental constraints. Studies revealed that fertilisation of cucumbers with silicon showed a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Cucumbers are highly sensitive to drought and UV-B radiation, which may also act synergistically. Silicon is a beneficial element for plants, as it can alleviate negative effects of different environmental constraints. Studies revealed that fertilisation of cucumbers with silicon showed a variety of positive effects, which increased plant vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of potassium silicate in shaping cucumber traits and in mitigating potential adverse effects of drought and UV radiation. (2) Methods: Plants were exposed to different treatments regarding water availability, UV radiation, and potassium silicate addition. During the experiment, the level of plant-available silicon and total silicon content in the soil were monitored along with soil moisture. At the end of the experiment, the leaf element composition, leaf biochemical and leaf physiological properties were analysed in addition to growth and production parameters of these cucumbers. (3) Results: Among the three studied factors, insufficient water supply had the most negative impact on measured parameters, causing a significant decline in cucumber growth and production. UV radiation had an adverse impact on various studied parameters, while potassium silicate addition negatively affected production parameters. Fertilisation with potassium silicate increased the level of plant-available silicon in the soil and leaf silicon content. (4) Conclusions: Fertilisation with potassium silicate exerted little impact on production parameters of cucumbers exposed to ambient UV radiation and drought. Significant interactions between the studied factors were detected for the aboveground vegetative plant parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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15 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Zerovalent Iron Modulates the Influence of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil on Growth, Yield and Grain Quality of Rice
by Sanjida Akter, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur Rahman, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Zakaria Alam, Toshihiro Watanabe and Tofazzal Islam
Stresses 2021, 1(2), 90-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1020008 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4122
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of zerovalent iron (ZVI/Fe0) on growth, yield and grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. BRRI dhan49 in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils. The pot experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD). [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of zerovalent iron (ZVI/Fe0) on growth, yield and grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. BRRI dhan49 in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils. The pot experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD). The treatments on rice applied were As in soils at As0 (0 mg kg−1), As20 (20 mg kg−1), and As40 (40 mg kg−1) with a combination of ZVI at ZVI0 (0%), ZVI0.5 (0.5%), ZVI1.0 (1.0%), and ZVI1.5 (1.5%) with three replications. Contents of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and As in grains of rice; and Fe and As content in cultivated soils were determined. The application of ZVI had negative or no effect on shoot weight, tiller number, and grain yield. Although application of ZVI had little or no effect on thousand grain weight, P, K, Zn, and Mn of rice grains, Fe content in rice grains was increased by ZVI treatments in a dose-dependent manner. The grain As content was non-significantly reduced by the ZVI application. Soil bacterial population was negatively influenced by the ZVI in a dose-dependent manner which might be linked with As content in the soils. Therefore, a further elaborative study is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ZVI and soil As on rice and rhizosphere soil microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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Review

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31 pages, 3531 KiB  
Review
Arsenic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Plants
by Kamrun Nahar, Mohammad Saidur Rhaman, Khursheda Parvin, Kirti Bardhan, Deyvid Novaes Marques, Pedro García-Caparrós and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Stresses 2022, 2(2), 179-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses2020013 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 7519
Abstract
The non-essential metalloid arsenic (As) is widely distributed in soil and underground water of many countries. Arsenic contamination is a concern because it creates threat to food security in terms of crop productivity and food safety. Plants exposed to As show morpho-physiological, growth [...] Read more.
The non-essential metalloid arsenic (As) is widely distributed in soil and underground water of many countries. Arsenic contamination is a concern because it creates threat to food security in terms of crop productivity and food safety. Plants exposed to As show morpho-physiological, growth and developmental disorder which altogether result in loss of productivity. At physiological level, As-induced altered biochemistry in chloroplast, mitochondria, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, cell wall, plasma membrane causes reactive oxygen species (ROS) overgeneration which damage cell through disintegrating the structure of lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, plants tolerance to ROS-induced oxidative stress is a vital strategy for enhancing As tolerance in plants. Plants having enhanced antioxidant defense system show greater tolerance to As toxicity. Depending upon plant diversity (As hyperaccumulator/non-hyperaccumulator or As tolerant/susceptible) the mechanisms of As accumulation, absorption or toxicity response may differ. There can be various crop management practices such as exogenous application of nutrients, hormones, antioxidants, osmolytes, signaling molecules, different chelating agents, microbial inoculants, organic amendments etc. can be effective against As toxicity in plants. There is information gap in understanding the mechanism of As-induced response (damage or tolerance response) in plants. This review presents the mechanism of As uptake and accumulation in plants, physiological responses under As stress, As-induced ROS generation and antioxidant defense system response, various approaches for enhancing As tolerance in plants from the available literatures which will make understanding the to date knowledge, knowledge gap and future guideline to be worked out for the development of As tolerant plant cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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19 pages, 1521 KiB  
Review
Coordinated Role of Nitric Oxide, Ethylene, Nitrogen, and Sulfur in Plant Salt Stress Tolerance
by Badar Jahan, Faisal Rasheed, Zebus Sehar, Mehar Fatma, Noushina Iqbal, Asim Masood, Naser A. Anjum and Nafees A. Khan
Stresses 2021, 1(3), 181-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses1030014 - 8 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4788
Abstract
Salt stress significantly contributes to major losses in agricultural productivity worldwide. The sustainable approach for salinity-accrued toxicity has been explored. The use of plant growth regulators/phytohormones, mineral nutrients and other signaling molecules is one of the major approaches for reversing salt-induced toxicity in [...] Read more.
Salt stress significantly contributes to major losses in agricultural productivity worldwide. The sustainable approach for salinity-accrued toxicity has been explored. The use of plant growth regulators/phytohormones, mineral nutrients and other signaling molecules is one of the major approaches for reversing salt-induced toxicity in plants. Application of the signaling molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene (ETH) and major mineral nutrient such as nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) play significant roles in combatting the major consequences of salt stress impacts in plants. However, the literature available on gaseous signaling molecules (NO/ETH) or/and mineral nutrients (N/S) stands alone, and major insights into the role of NO or/and ETH along with N and S in plant-tolerance to salt remained unclear. Thus, this review aimed to (a) briefly overview salt stress and highlight salt-induced toxicity, (b) appraise the literature reporting potential mechanisms underlying the role of gaseous signaling molecules and mineral nutrient in salt stress tolerance, and (c) discuss NO and ETH along with N and S in relation to salt stress tolerance. In addition, significant issues that have still to be investigated in this context have been mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Responses in Crops)
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