Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 33626

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
Interests: antioxidants; abiotic stress tolerance; plant metabolites; ROS signaling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the industrial era, the most important and potential threats to crop production are abiotic stresses. Among them, toxic metal stress is one of the major concerns. The growing population and fast industrialization coincide, resulting in the generation and dissemination of huge amounts of toxic metals in the environment. Toxic metals and metalloids result in growth reduction, altered physiology, and metabolisms, and diminish cellular integrity. Toxic metals also alter the redox homeostasis by influencing the reactive oxygen species generation. They also interfere with the nutrient and water uptake. As a result, both the crop yield and quality are hampered. Considering these effects, plant biologists, breeders, and agronomists are working to find approaches to enhancing plants’ tolerance to metal/metalloid toxicity. Remarkable progress has been made in understanding the metal chelation, antioxidant defense, and phytoremediation. A number of biotechnological tools and molecular approaches also contribute to such developments. In this Special Issue, we will publish reviews, mini-reviews, and research articles focusing on plant responses and their tolerance to metal/metalloid stress.

Prof. Dr. Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Prof. Dr. Masayuki Fujita
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • arsenic
  • cadmium
  • ecotoxicology
  • environmental pollutants
  • heavy metals
  • metal chelation
  • metalloids
  • phytoremediation
  • trace elements

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

19 pages, 1833 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Shoot Priming Efficiency to Counteract Complex Metal Stress in Halotolerant Lobularia maritima
by Alina Wiszniewska and Wojciech Makowski
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071440 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The study investigated whether short-term priming supports plant defense against complex metal stress and multiple stress (metals and salinity) in halophyte Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. Plants were pre-treated with ectoine (Ect), nitric oxide donor—sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or hydrogen sulfide donor—GYY4137 for 7 days, [...] Read more.
The study investigated whether short-term priming supports plant defense against complex metal stress and multiple stress (metals and salinity) in halophyte Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. Plants were pre-treated with ectoine (Ect), nitric oxide donor—sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or hydrogen sulfide donor—GYY4137 for 7 days, and were transferred onto medium containing a mixture of metal ions: Zn, Pb, and Cd. To test the effect of priming agents in multiple stress conditions, shoots were also subjected to low salinity (20 mM NaCl), applied alone, or combined with metals. Hydropriming was a control priming treatment. Stress impact was evaluated on a basis of growth parameters, whereas defense responses were on a basis of the detoxification activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), radical scavenging activity, and accumulation of thiols and phenolic compounds. Exposure to metals reduced shoot biomass and height but had no impact on the formation of new shoots. Priming with nitric oxide annihilated the toxic effects of metals. It was related to a sharp increase in GST activity, glutathione accumulation, and boosted radical scavenging activity. In NO-treated shoots level of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and flavonoids remained unaffected, in contrast to other metal-treated shoots. Under combined metal stress and salinity, NO and H2S were capable of restoring or improving growth parameters, as they stimulated radical scavenging activity. Ect and H2S did not exert any effect on metal-treated shoots in comparison to hydropriming. The results revealed the stimulatory role of nitric oxide and low doses of NaCl in combating the toxic effects of complex metal stress in L. maritima. Both NO and NaCl interfered with thiol metabolism and antioxidant activity, whereas NaCl also contributed to the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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17 pages, 2076 KiB  
Article
Growing of the Cretan Therapeutic Herb Origanum Dictamnus in The Urban Fabric: The Effect of Substrate and Cultivation Site on Plant Growth and Potential Toxic Element Accumulation
by Aikaterini N. Martini, Maria Papafotiou, Ioannis Massas and Nikoleta Chorianopoulou
Plants 2023, 12(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020336 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Origanum dictamnus L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb endemic to the Greek island of Crete, widely used for tea preparation, medicinal purposes, and food flavoring, as well as an ornamental plant. The aim of this work was to introduce the species to the [...] Read more.
Origanum dictamnus L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb endemic to the Greek island of Crete, widely used for tea preparation, medicinal purposes, and food flavoring, as well as an ornamental plant. The aim of this work was to introduce the species to the green roof sector while serving urban agriculture. Thus, its growth potential was investigated, along with the content of nutrients (N, P, K, Na) and the accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Mn, Zn, Fe) in its tissues, in two cultivation sites in Athens, Greece, i.e., an extensive green roof and at ground level next to a moderate traffic road. Cultivation took place in plastic containers with a green roof infrastructure fitted, in two substrate types (grape marc compost, perlite, and pumice 3:3:4 v/v, and grape marc compost, perlite, pumice, and soil 3:3:2:2 v/v), with 10 cm depth. Plant growth was favored by the soil substrate, but it was also satisfactory in the soilless one. Cultivation site affected heavy metal accumulation, resulting in higher concentrations both in leaves and in flowers at street level, while no differences were observed in roots. Washing the tissues reduced heavy metal concentrations only in leaves produced at the street level. Substrate type significantly affected Mn concentration in all plant tissues and Fe in roots, with the highest values measured in the soil substrate. Thus, O. dictamnus could be effectively cultivated in sustainable green roofs, better on a soilless substrate to lower construction weight. Careful selection of the cultivation site could minimize contamination with environmental pollutants if human consumption is also desired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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25 pages, 4976 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Action of Silymarin and Dopamine Enhances Defense Mechanisms Related to Antioxidants, Polyamine Metabolic Enzymes, and Tolerance to Cadmium Stress in Phaseolus vulgaris
by Awatif M. Abdulmajeed, Basmah M. Alharbi, Hesham F. Alharby, Amani M. Abualresh, Ghada A. Badawy, Wael M. Semida and Mostafa M. Rady
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223069 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Silymarin (Sm) and dopamine (DA) act synergistically as potential antioxidants, mediating many physiological and biochemical processes. As a first report, we investigated the synergistic effect of Sm and DA in mitigating cadmium stress in Phaseolus vulgaris plants. Three experiments were conducted simultaneously using [...] Read more.
Silymarin (Sm) and dopamine (DA) act synergistically as potential antioxidants, mediating many physiological and biochemical processes. As a first report, we investigated the synergistic effect of Sm and DA in mitigating cadmium stress in Phaseolus vulgaris plants. Three experiments were conducted simultaneously using 40 cm diameter pots to elucidate how Sm and DA affect cadmium tolerance traits at morphological, physiological, and biochemical levels. Cadmium stress triggered a marked reduction in growth, productivity, and physio-biochemical characteristics of common bean plants compared to unstressed plants. Seed priming (SP) and foliar spraying (FS) with silymarin (Sm) or dopamine (DA) ((DA (SP) + Sm (FS) and Sm (SP) + DA (FS)) ameliorated the damaging effects of cadmium stress. Sm seed priming + DA foliar spraying (Sm (SP) + DA (FS)) was more efficient. The treated stressed common bean plants showed greater tolerance to cadmium stress by diminishing oxidative stress biomarkers (i.e., O2•−, H2O2, and MDA) levels through enhanced enzymatic (SOD, CAT, POD, APX) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol, choline, phenolics, flavonoids) antioxidant activities and osmoprotectants (proline, glycine betaine, and soluble sugars) contents, as well as through improved photosynthetic efficiency (total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, photochemical activity, and efficiencies of carboxylation (iCE) and PSII (Fv/Fm)), polyamines (Put, Spd, and Spm), and polyamine metabolic enzymes (ADC and ODC) accumulation. These findings signify that Sm and DA have remarkable anti-stress effects, which can help regulate plant self-defense systems, reflecting satisfactory plant growth and productivity. Thus, realizing the synergistic effect of Sm and DA in cadmium tolerance confers potential new capabilities for these compounds to function in sustainable agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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14 pages, 2451 KiB  
Article
Impact of Cadmium Stress on Growth and Physio-Biochemical Attributes of Eruca sativa Mill
by Abdul Waheed, Yakupjan Haxim, Waqar Islam, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sajjad Ali, Xuejing Wen, Khalid Ali Khan, Hamed A. Ghramh, Zhuqi Zhang and Daoyuan Zhang
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212981 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
Plants may experience adverse effects from Cadmium (Cd). As a result of its toxicity and mobility within the soil-plant continuum, it is attracting the attention of soil scientists and plant nutritionists. In this study, we subjected young Eruca sativa Mill. seedlings to different [...] Read more.
Plants may experience adverse effects from Cadmium (Cd). As a result of its toxicity and mobility within the soil-plant continuum, it is attracting the attention of soil scientists and plant nutritionists. In this study, we subjected young Eruca sativa Mill. seedlings to different levels of Cd applications (0, 1.5, 6 and 30 µmol/L) via pot experiment to explore its morpho-physio-biochemical adaptations. Our results revealed a significant Cd accumulation in leaves at high Cd stress. It was also demonstrated that Cd stress inhibited photosynthetic rate and pigment levels, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Conversely, the concentration of total ascorbate (TAS) increased at all levels of Cd application, whereas that of ascorbic acid (ASA), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) increased at 1.5 (non-significant), 6, 30 and 6 µmol/L (significant), though their concentrations decreased non-significantly at 30 µmol/L application. In conclusion, Cd-subjected E. sativa seedlings diverted much energy from growth towards the synthesis of anti-oxidant metabolites and osmolytes. However, they did not seem to have protected the E. sativa seedlings from Cd-induced oxidative stress, causing a decrease in osmotic adjustment, and an increase in oxidative damage, which resulted in a reduction in photosynthesis and growth. Accordingly, we recommend that the cultivation of E. sativa should be avoided on soil with Cd contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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14 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Fruit Characteristics of Citrus Trees Grown under Different Soil Cu Levels
by Xiaorong Mo, Chuanwu Chen, Muhammad Riaz, Mohamed G. Moussa, Xiangling Chen, Songwei Wu, Qiling Tan, Xuecheng Sun, Xiaohu Zhao, Libiao Shi and Chengxiao Hu
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2943; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212943 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The effects of the increased soil copper (Cu) on fruit quality due to the overuse of Cu agents have been a hot social issue. Seven representative citrus orchards in Guangxi province, China, were investigated to explore the fruit quality characteristics under different soil [...] Read more.
The effects of the increased soil copper (Cu) on fruit quality due to the overuse of Cu agents have been a hot social issue. Seven representative citrus orchards in Guangxi province, China, were investigated to explore the fruit quality characteristics under different soil Cu levels and the relationship between soil-tree Cu and fruit quality. These results showed that pericarp color a value, titratable acid (TA), and vitamin C (Vc) were higher by 90.0, 166.6, and 22.4% in high Cu orchards and by 50.5, 204.2, and 55.3% in excess Cu orchards, compared with optimum Cu orchards. However, the ratio of total soluble solids (TSS)/TA was lower by 68.7% in high Cu orchards and by 61.6% in excess Cu orchards. With the increase of soil Cu concentrations, pericarp color a value and Vc were improved, TA with a trend of rising first then falling, and TSS/TA with a trend of falling first then rising were recorded. As fruit Cu increased, pericarp color a value and TSS reduced and as leaf Cu increased, TSS/TA decreased while Vc was improved. Moreover, a rise in soil Cu enhanced leaf Cu accumulation, and a rise in leaf Cu improved fruit Cu accumulation. Fruit Cu accumulation reduced fruit quality by direct effects, leaf Cu improved fruit quality by direct and indirect effects. Soil Cu affected fruit quality by indirect effects by regulating leaf Cu and fruit Cu. Therefore, reasonable regulation and control of soil Cu concentrations can effectively increase pericarp color, sugar, and acid accumulation in citrus fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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19 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
Application of Rhizobacteria, Paraburkholderia fungorum and Delftia sp. Confer Cadmium Tolerance in Rapeseed (Brassica campestris) through Modulating Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems
by Md. Rakib Hossain Raihan, Mira Rahman, Nur Uddin Mahmud, Malay Kumar Adak, Tofazzal Islam, Masayuki Fujita and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202738 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
We investigated the role of two different plant growth-promoting probiotic bacteria in conferring cadmium (Cd) tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica campestris cv. BARI Sarisha-14) through improving reactive oxygen species scavenging, antioxidant defense, and glyoxalase system. Soil, as well as seeds of rapeseed, were [...] Read more.
We investigated the role of two different plant growth-promoting probiotic bacteria in conferring cadmium (Cd) tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica campestris cv. BARI Sarisha-14) through improving reactive oxygen species scavenging, antioxidant defense, and glyoxalase system. Soil, as well as seeds of rapeseed, were separately treated with probiotic bacteria, Paraburkholderia fungorum BRRh-4 and Delftia sp. BTL-M2. Fourteen-day-old seedlings were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 mM CdCl2 for two weeks. Cadmium-treated plants resulted in a higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, increased lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll damage, and impaired antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. Consequently, it reduced plant growth and biomass production, and yield parameters. However, probiotic bacteria-inoculated plants significantly ameliorated the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) and glyoxalase enzymes (glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II) which led to the mitigation of oxidative damage indicated by reduced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage that ultimately improved growth, physiology, and yield of the bacterial inoculants rapeseed plants. When taken together, our results demonstrated the potential role of the plant probiotic bacteria, BRRh-4 and BTL-M2, in mitigating the Cd-induced damages in rapeseed plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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20 pages, 40481 KiB  
Article
Comparison of In Vitro and In Planta Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation Potential of Different Armeria maritima Accessions from a Dry Coastal Meadow
by Līva Purmale, Astra Jēkabsone, Una Andersone-Ozola, Andis Karlsons, Anita Osvalde and Gederts Ievinsh
Plants 2022, 11(16), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11162104 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare the tolerance to several heavy metals and their accumulation potential of Armeria maritima subsp. elongata accessions from relatively dry sandy soil habitats in the Baltic Sea region using both in vitro cultivated shoot explants [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to compare the tolerance to several heavy metals and their accumulation potential of Armeria maritima subsp. elongata accessions from relatively dry sandy soil habitats in the Baltic Sea region using both in vitro cultivated shoot explants and long-term soil-cultivated plants at the flowering stage as model systems. The hypothesis that was tested was that all accessions will show a relatively high heavy metal tolerance and a reasonable metal accumulation potential, but possibly to varying degrees. Under the conditions of the tissue culture, the explants accumulated extremely high concentration of Cd and Cu, leading to growth inhibition and eventual necrosis, but the accumulation of Pb in their tissues was limited. When grown in soil, the plants from different accessions showed a very high heavy metal tolerance, as the total biomass was not negatively affected by any of the treatments. The accumulation potential for heavy metals in soil-grown plants was high, with several significant accession- and metal-related differences. In general, the heavy metal accumulation potential in roots and older leaves was similar, except for Mn, which accumulated more in older leaves. The absolute higher values of the heavy metal concentrations reached in the leaves of soil-grown A. maritima plants (500 mg Cd kg−1, 600 mg Cu kg−1, 12,000 mg Mn kg−1, 1500 mg Pb kg−1, and 15,000 mg Zn kg−1) exceeded the respective threshold values for hyperaccumulation. In conclusion, A. maritima can be characterized by a species-wide heavy metal tolerance and accumulation potential, but with a relatively high intraspecies diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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11 pages, 2474 KiB  
Article
Nickel Toxicity Interferes with NO3/NH4+ Uptake and Nitrogen Metabolic Enzyme Activity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Muhammad Rizwan, Kamal Usman, Mohammed Alsafran, Hareb Al Jabri, Tayyaba Samreen, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem and Shuxin Tu
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111401 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
The excessive use of nickel (Ni) in manufacturing and various industries has made Ni a serious pollutant in the past few decades. As a micronutrient, Ni is crucial for plant growth at low concentrations, but at higher concentrations, it can hamper growth. We [...] Read more.
The excessive use of nickel (Ni) in manufacturing and various industries has made Ni a serious pollutant in the past few decades. As a micronutrient, Ni is crucial for plant growth at low concentrations, but at higher concentrations, it can hamper growth. We evaluated the effects of Ni concentrations on nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations, and nitrogen metabolism enzyme activity in rice seedlings grown in hydroponic systems, using different Ni concentrations. A Ni concentration of 200 μM significantly decreased the NO3 concentration in rice leaves, as well as the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthetase (GOGAT), respectively, when compared to the control. By contrast, the NH4+ concentration and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity both increased markedly by 48% and 46%, respectively, compared with the control. Furthermore, the activity of most active aminotransferases, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), was inhibited by 48% and 36%, respectively, in comparison with the control. The results indicate that Ni toxicity causes the enzymes involved in N assimilation to desynchronize, ultimately negatively impacting the overall plant growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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17 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Cadmium Stabilization and Redox Transformation Mechanism in Maize Using Nanoscale Zerovalent-Iron-Enriched Biochar in Cadmium-Contaminated Soil
by Sehar Razzaq, Beibei Zhou, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Aamer Maqsood, Saddam Hussain, Ghous Bakhsh, Zhenshi Zhang, Qiang Yang and Adnan Raza Altaf
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081074 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a readily available metal in the soil matrix, which obnoxiously affects plants and microbiota; thus, its removal has become a global concern. For this purpose, a multifunctional nanoscale zerovalent—iron enriched biochar (nZVI/BC) was used to alleviate the Cd—toxicity in maize. [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a readily available metal in the soil matrix, which obnoxiously affects plants and microbiota; thus, its removal has become a global concern. For this purpose, a multifunctional nanoscale zerovalent—iron enriched biochar (nZVI/BC) was used to alleviate the Cd—toxicity in maize. Results revealed that the nZVI/BC application significantly enhanced the plant growth (57%), chlorophyll contents (65%), intracellular permeability (61%), and biomass production index (76%) by restraining Cd uptake relative to Cd control. A Cd stabilization mechanism was proposed, suggesting that high dispersion of organic functional groups (C–O, C–N, Fe–O) over the surface of nZVI/BC might induce complex formations with cadmium by the ion exchange process. Besides this, the regular distribution and deep insertion of Fe particles in nZVI/BC prevent self-oxidation and over-accumulation of free radicals, which regulate the redox transformation by alleviating Cd/Fe+ translations in the plant. Current findings have exposed the diverse functions of nanoscale zerovalent-iron-enriched biochar on plant health and suggest that nZVI/BC is a competent material, feasible to control Cd hazards and improve crop growth and productivity in Cd-contaminated soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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13 pages, 2480 KiB  
Article
Phosphorus Fertilizers Enhance the Phytoextraction of Cadmium through Solanum nigrum L.
by Arosha Maqbool, Muhammad Rizwan, Tahira Yasmeen, Muhammad Saleem Arif, Afzal Hussain, Asim Mansha, Shafaqat Ali, Huda Alshaya and Mohammad K. Okla
Plants 2022, 11(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030236 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity strongly influences plants growth and seed germination in crop plants. This pot trial had aimed evaluate the benefits of two different kinds of phosphorus (P)-fertilizer in the phytoremediation of Cd by Solanum nigrum L. The current pot experiment was conducted [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity strongly influences plants growth and seed germination in crop plants. This pot trial had aimed evaluate the benefits of two different kinds of phosphorus (P)-fertilizer in the phytoremediation of Cd by Solanum nigrum L. The current pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of P-fertilizers in phytoremediation of Cd by Solanum nigrum L. Single superphosphate (SSP) contain 7 to 9% P and Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP) contain 46% P had been applied in single and combine form in soil with different ratios (0:0, 100:0, 0:100, 50:50%) accompanied by diverse Cd levels (0, 25, 50 mg kg−1). Three weeks seeding were transferred into pots, and plants had been harvested afterward seventy days of growth in the pots. Significantly inhibited plant growth was observed in shoots and roots of Cd contaminated plants. Cadmium stress had stimulated oxidative stress in subjected plants. However, supplementation of P-fertilizers in an optimum manner significantly increased plant biomass along with enhancing antioxidants enzymatic activities and inhibiting oxidative stress. Maximum plant-growth had been noted in SSP + DAP supplemented plants in contrast to single SSP, DAP supplemented plants. Higher Cd concentrations observed in SSP + DAP supplemented plants over single treatment. It has been concluded that combination of SSP + DAP might be a better option to improve growth as well as uptake capacity of Solanum nigrum L. under Cd stress. However, a field study is recommended for detailed future investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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Review

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17 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
Lead and Zinc Uptake and Toxicity in Maize and Their Management
by Tayebeh Abedi, Shahin Gavanji and Amin Mojiri
Plants 2022, 11(15), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11151922 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3930
Abstract
Soil contamination with heavy metals is a global problem, and these metals can reach the food chain through uptake by plants, endangering human health. Among the metal pollutants in soils, zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) are common co-pollutants from anthropogenic activities. Thus, we [...] Read more.
Soil contamination with heavy metals is a global problem, and these metals can reach the food chain through uptake by plants, endangering human health. Among the metal pollutants in soils, zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) are common co-pollutants from anthropogenic activities. Thus, we sought to define the accumulation of Zn and Pb in agricultural soils and maize. Concentrations of Pb in agricultural soil (in Namibia) could reach 3015 mg/Kg, whereas concentrations of Zn in soil (in China) could reach 1140 mg/Kg. In addition, the maximum concentrations of Zn and Pb were 27,870 and 2020 mg/Kg in maize roots and 4180 and 6320 mg/Kg in shoots, respectively. Recent studies have shown that soil properties (such as organic matter content, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, and clay content) can play important roles in the bioavailability of Zn and Pb. We also investigated some of the genes and proteins involved in the uptake and transport of Zn and Pb by maize. Among several amendment methods to reduce the bioavailability of Zn and Pb in soils, the use of biochar, bioremediation, and the application of gypsum and lime have been widely reported as effective methods for reducing the accumulation of metals in soils and plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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31 pages, 1500 KiB  
Review
Metal/Metalloid-Based Nanomaterials for Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance: An Overview of the Mechanisms
by Mohammad Sarraf, Kanchan Vishwakarma, Vinod Kumar, Namira Arif, Susmita Das, Riya Johnson, Edappayil Janeeshma, Jos T. Puthur, Sasan Aliniaeifard, Devendra Kumar Chauhan, Masayuki Fujita and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Plants 2022, 11(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030316 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 83 | Viewed by 8432
Abstract
In agriculture, abiotic stress is one of the critical issues impacting the crop productivity and yield. Such stress factors lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, and other plant metabolic activities. To neutralize the harmful effects of abiotic stress, several [...] Read more.
In agriculture, abiotic stress is one of the critical issues impacting the crop productivity and yield. Such stress factors lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, and other plant metabolic activities. To neutralize the harmful effects of abiotic stress, several strategies have been employed that include the utilization of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are now gaining attention worldwide to protect plant growth against abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, extreme temperatures, flooding, etc. However, their behavior is significantly impacted by the dose in which they are being used in agriculture. Furthermore, the action of nanomaterials in plants under various stresses still require understanding. Hence, with this background, the present review envisages to highlight beneficial role of nanomaterials in plants, their mode of action, and their mechanism in overcoming various abiotic stresses. It also emphasizes upon antioxidant activities of different nanomaterials and their dose-dependent variability in plants’ growth under stress. Nevertheless, limitations of using nanomaterials in agriculture are also presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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