Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 10822

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
Interests: bioprocessing; biorefinery; sustainable design; fermentation: technoeconomic analysis; bioproducts

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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Interests: industrial fermentation; industrial microbiology; biofuels; beverage alcohols; distilled spirits; beer; life cycle assessment; efficiencies; technoeconomic analysis
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Guest Editor
Renewable and Sustainable Manufacturing Lab, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID 83402, USA
Interests: renewable and sustainable manufacturing

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Guest Editor
Biological Systems and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Interests: biomass deconstruction; biofuels; downstream purification; bioactive carbohydrates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wastes derived from various sectors have been regarded as renewable resources for further conversion to value-added products. There has been a number of studies demonstrating innovative process designs to upgrade waste into biofuels, platform chemicals, fertilizers, and other applications. Examples include waste upcycling, anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes, waste biorefinery for producing high-value green chemicals and biomaterials, etc. There are several reports of novel technologies used to mitigate the environmental impacts arising from wastes. These advancements in waste conversion and handling technologies can deliver a high impact to ensure resource and energy securities and long-term environmental sustainability.

This Special Issue on “Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste” seeks high-quality research focusing on the novel process design and technology development for product innovation from wastes. Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Process design and development;
  • Downstream purification, separation, and recovery;
  • Products innovation from wastes;
  • Applications of value-added products;
  • Process simulation;
  • Lifecycle assessment;
  • Waste treatment strategy (waste upcycling, upgrading);
  • Sustainable circular bioeconomy.

Dr. Ming-Hsun Cheng
Prof. Dr. Kurt A. Rosentrater
Dr. Amin Mirkouei
Dr. Ramkrishna Singh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioprocess
  • bioproducts
  • biorefinery
  • anaerobic digestion
  • fermentation
  • waste upcycling
  • organic wastes
  • biofuels
  • platform chemicals

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Fixed Bed Batch Slow Pyrolysis Process for Polystyrene Waste Recycling
by Galo Albor, Amin Mirkouei, Armando G. McDonald, Ethan Struhs and Farid Sotoudehnia
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041126 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
This study evaluates the potential of recycling polystyrene (PS) plastic wastes via a fixed bed (batch) slow pyrolysis reactor. The novelty lies in examining the reactor design, conversion parameters, and reaction kinetics to improve the process yield, activation energy, and chemical composition. PS [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the potential of recycling polystyrene (PS) plastic wastes via a fixed bed (batch) slow pyrolysis reactor. The novelty lies in examining the reactor design, conversion parameters, and reaction kinetics to improve the process yield, activation energy, and chemical composition. PS samples were pyrolyzed at 475–575 °C for 30 min under 10–15 psi. Process yield and product attributes were evaluated using different methods to understand PS thermal degradation characteristics better. The results show that PS decomposition started within 2 min from all temperatures, and the total decomposition point of 97% at 475 °C at approximately 5 min. Additionally, analytical results indicate that the average necessary activation energy is 191 kJ/mol. Pyrolysis oil from PS was characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The results show that styrene was produced 57–60% from all leading oil compounds (i.e., 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene, 2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene, and toluene), and 475 °C has the major average of conversion effectiveness of 91.3%. The results show that the reactor temperature remains the main conversion parameter to achieve the high process yield for oil production from PS. It is concluded that pyrolysis provides a sustainable pathway for PS waste recycling and conversion to value-added products, such as resins and polymers. The proposed method and analytical results are compared with earlier studies to identify directions for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste)
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20 pages, 6613 KiB  
Article
Engineered Biomaterials for Reducing Phosphorus and Nitrogen Levels from Downstream Water of Aquaculture Facilities
by W. F. Rance Bare, Ethan Struhs, Amin Mirkouei, Kenneth Overturf and Brian Small
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041029 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
The United States (U.S.) has a nearly USD 17 billion seafood trade deficit annually. However, the U.S. aquaculture industry faces strict micronutrient (e.g., phosphorus and nitrogen) level mandates that negatively impact fish production, especially for the state of Idaho, which produces 70–75% of [...] Read more.
The United States (U.S.) has a nearly USD 17 billion seafood trade deficit annually. However, the U.S. aquaculture industry faces strict micronutrient (e.g., phosphorus and nitrogen) level mandates that negatively impact fish production, especially for the state of Idaho, which produces 70–75% of the nation’s rainbow trout. This study investigates the sustainability benefits of producing engineered biomaterials from lignocellulosic-based feedstocks near collection sites via portable biorefineries for use by fish farms to reduce eutrophication (oversupply of micronutrients) impacts. In this study, sustainability assessments are performed on a case study in southern Idaho, the largest U.S. commercial producer of rainbow trout. The results show that 20 and 60 min of water treatment, using small particle size biomaterial from lodgepole pine, has the highest total phosphorus removal rate, at 150–180 g of phosphorus per 1 metric ton of engineered biomaterials. The results of techno-economic and environmental impacts studies indicate that pinewood-based biomaterials production cost ranges from USD 213 USD 242 per ton and reduces the eutrophication potential by 5–17 kg PO4eq/ton. Additionally, the environmental impact results show that the total greenhouse gas emission for biomaterial production is 47–54 kg CO2eq/ton; however, the used biomaterials after water treatment can be sold for around USD 850 per ton as nutrient-rich soil conditioners. This study concluded that engineered biomaterials from lignocellulosic-based feedstocks could be a sustainable solution to the challenge that aquaculture faces, particularly capturing micronutrients from eutrophic water and reusing them as fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste)
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13 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
Development of Agar Substitute Formulated with Mucilage and Pectin from Opuntia Local Waste Matter for Cattleya sp. Orchids In Vitro Culture Media
by Arantza Elena Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Genaro Martín Soto-Zarazúa, Beatriz Liliana España-Sánchez, Sarahí Rodríguez-González and Sergio Zamora-Castro
Processes 2023, 11(3), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030717 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2338
Abstract
The technology for reproducing orchids in vitro has had to evolve due to the demand for these plants and the high cost of the biotechnology used due to the agar, the gelling agent. Consequently, research has tended to search for natural substitutes for [...] Read more.
The technology for reproducing orchids in vitro has had to evolve due to the demand for these plants and the high cost of the biotechnology used due to the agar, the gelling agent. Consequently, research has tended to search for natural substitutes for agar. Our work describes the use of pectin and mucilage hydrocolloids extracted from the local waste matter of two species of Opuntia (O. ficus-indica and O. robusta) to study as a gelling agent in vitro culture media for Cattleya sp. These hydrocolloids were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis. Subsequently, these were used in proportions of 0.8%, 0.6%, 0.4%, and 0.2% in combination with agar to study the gelation time, texture profile analysis (TPA), seed germination under light and dark conditions, and a phenological study, including orchid analyses of leaves and roots, root and leaf length, seedling height, and width of the best-designed treatment were studied. Our results demonstrate that the treatment composed of 0.4% O. ficus-indica pectin and 0.4% agar improves the germination time, plant growth, and the number of leaves and roots, resulting in a biostimulant formula for optimal in vitro growth of Cattleya sp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste)
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18 pages, 6081 KiB  
Article
Single-Step Fabrication of a Dual-Sensitive Chitosan Hydrogel by C-Mannich Reaction: Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Screening of its Cu2+ Uptake
by John Rey Apostol Romal and Say Kee Ong
Processes 2023, 11(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020354 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Uncovering the value of waste materials is one of the keys to sustainability. In this current work, valorization of chitosan was pursued to fabricate a novel modified chitosan functional hydrogel using a process-efficient protocol. The fabrication proceeds by a one-pot and single-step C-Mannich [...] Read more.
Uncovering the value of waste materials is one of the keys to sustainability. In this current work, valorization of chitosan was pursued to fabricate a novel modified chitosan functional hydrogel using a process-efficient protocol. The fabrication proceeds by a one-pot and single-step C-Mannich condensation of chitosan (3% w/v), glutaraldehyde (20 eq.), and 4-hydroxycoumarin (40 eq.) at 22 °C in 3% v/v acetic acid. The Mannich base modified chitosan hydrogel (CS-MB) exhibits a dual-responsive swelling behavior in response to pH and temperature that has not been observed in any other hydrogel systems. Combining the pre-defined optimal swelling pH (pH = 4) and temperature (T = 22 °C), the CS-MB was screened for its Cu2+ adsorption capacity at this condition. The CS-MB achieved an optimal adsorption capacity of 12.0 mg/g with 1.2 g/L adsorbent dosage after 36 h with agitation. The adsorption of Cu2+ on the surface of CS-MB was verified by EDS, and an overview of the adsorption sites was exhibited by FT-IR. The simply fabricated novel CS-MB hydrogel under investigation presents a unique response to external stimuli that exhibits a promise in heavy metal removal from aqueous media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste)
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Review

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26 pages, 3154 KiB  
Review
Exploring Tannery Solid Wastes as a Source of Animal Feed
by Nelly Esther Flores Tapia and Hannibal Brito Moina
Processes 2023, 11(10), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11102965 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
This review delves into the processing of tannery solid waste, emphasizing fleshings and chromium-tanned leather waste. This paper centers on fat recovery, chromium elimination, and protein preservation, aiming to make them apt for animal consumption. This paper also assesses the potential of introducing [...] Read more.
This review delves into the processing of tannery solid waste, emphasizing fleshings and chromium-tanned leather waste. This paper centers on fat recovery, chromium elimination, and protein preservation, aiming to make them apt for animal consumption. This paper also assesses the potential of introducing such recycled products to the global market. Drawing on the literature from the past two decades, sourced comprehensively from Scopus and Web of Science, 36 articles were selected because of their significant contributions from leather production powerhouses such as India and Brazil. Fleshings have shown immense potential as animal feed, and the extraction of tallow and collagen from rawhide trimmings yields up to 98% and 93%, respectively. Fermented tannery fleshings, notably with Enterococcus faecium HAB01, also demonstrate strong antioxidant capabilities. The overarching consensus emphasizes the need for rigorous purification when dealing with chromium-containing wastes, addressing concerns tied to Cr (III) and Cr (VI). Furthermore, raw tannery fleshings stand out as a sustainable, cost-effective, and globally marketable solution for animal feed production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Value-Added Products from Waste)
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