Value-Added Co-products from Industrial Fermentation

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2022) | Viewed by 13041

Special Issue Editor

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Interests: industrial fermentation; industrial microbiology; biofuels; beverage alcohols; distilled spirits; beer; life cycle assessment; efficiencies; technoeconomic analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Throughout human history, carbohydrates have been fermented into alcohols for human consumption, especially for beer, wine, whiskey, and other alcoholic beverages. In recent years, we have also witnessed tremendous growth in the research, development, and commercialization of many biorenewable resources. Starches, lipids, proteins, and fibers can now be utilized to produce a variety of bio-based energy sources, fuels, products, chemicals, and other renewable materials. Many countries have experienced exponential growth in biofuels production, such as maize- and sugarcane-based ethanol as well as soy, canola, palm, and other oilseed-based biodiesels. Biochemicals such as succinic acid, muconic acid, and triacetic acid lactone; bioplastics such as polylactic acid; glycerol-based bioadhesives; and other bio-based products are increasingly being commercialized as well. Although the science, engineering, and technology of conversion and utilization are progressing, there is a critical need for more detailed studies on fermentation processes, the conditions used, and impacts on final products.

This Special Issue is particularly interested in papers that examine the processing and utilization of value-added coproducts from alcohol fermentation byproducts/non-fermentables, as well as waste valorization options. Some of these topics may include distillers’ grains, brewers’ grains, draff, stillage, pot ale syrup, spent lees, malt culms, etc. Topics could encompass science, engineering, marketing/merchandising, animal nutrition, processing technologies, and governmental regulations.

More than 40 million metric tonnes of fermentation coproducts are manufactured each year in the U.S. alone, and this will continue to increase as industrial fermentations continue to expand.

Prof. Dr. Kurt A. Rosentrater
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • animal feed
  • beer
  • biochemicals
  • bioenergy
  • biofuels
  • bioproducts
  • biorenewables
  • brewers’ grains
  • condensed distillers’ solubles (CDS)
  • distillers’ grains
  • draff
  • corn distillers’ dried grain with solubles (DDGS)
  • coproducts
  • fermentation
  • fiber
  • lipids
  • livestock
  • non-fermentables
  • pot ale syrup
  • protein
  • spent lees
  • stillage
  • syrup
  • value-added uses
  • whiskey/whisky
  • wine

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 6153 KiB  
Article
Fermentation Characteristics of Rye and Sorghum Depending on Water:Feed Ratio
Fermentation 2022, 8(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8040155 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the fermentation characteristics of rye or sorghum mixed with different ratios of water (25%, 37.5%, 50%, 62.5%, and 75% in dry matter (DM)), incubated up to 48 h. The pH of the fermented rye at a DM [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine the fermentation characteristics of rye or sorghum mixed with different ratios of water (25%, 37.5%, 50%, 62.5%, and 75% in dry matter (DM)), incubated up to 48 h. The pH of the fermented rye at a DM content of 25% after 24 h had the lowest values (3.57) compared to that at a DM content of 75% (6.42). In fermented sorghum, pH values were lower than 4 already after incubation at 25% DM for 12 h (3.93) in comparison to that at DM content 75% (6.51). The L-lactic acid concentration in the fermented rye with 25% DM content after 24 h was significantly the highest (18.7 g/kg DM), as was that of sorghum with 25% DM content after 24 h (22.2 g/kg DM). Moreover, the acetic acid level in the fermented rye with 25% DM content after 24 h was significantly the highest (3.02 g/kg DM) compared to the other DM contents of fermented rye. Also, in fermented sorghum (25% DM), the acetic acid content was significantly the greatest (1.49 g/kg DM) in comparison to the other DM contents of fermented sorghum. Overall, fermented rye and sorghum containing 25 or 37.5% DM for 24 h and 12 h for rye and sorghum, respectively are sufficient for fermentation to be optimized based on the values of pH and lactic acid content, except for acetic acid content, which may negatively affect the palatability in animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Added Co-products from Industrial Fermentation)
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15 pages, 3840 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microbial Enzymes on the Changes in the Composition and Microstructure of Hydrolysates from Poultry By-Products
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030190 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Poultry by-products are promising for the production of protein hydrolysates by enzymatic hydrolysis. The aim of the study is to research the effect of bacterial concentrates on the changes in the amino acid composition and microstructure of poultry by-products during fermentation. Hydrolysis of [...] Read more.
Poultry by-products are promising for the production of protein hydrolysates by enzymatic hydrolysis. The aim of the study is to research the effect of bacterial concentrates on the changes in the amino acid composition and microstructure of poultry by-products during fermentation. Hydrolysis of the gizzards and combs was carried out with a liquid concentrate of bifidobacteria and propionic acid bacteria. As a result of microstructural study of fermented by-products, a decrease in the perception of histological dyes, poor visualization of the cell elements and blurring of the connective tissue matrix were established. During morphometric analyses, we found a reduction in the specific area of connective tissue, the diameter of collagen fibers and the thickness of muscle fibers. A significant effect of the fermentation on the particle size distribution was noted; samples hydrolyzed by microbial enzymes were characterized by a high uniformity of particle sizes and a large number of small particles. Our research revealed an increase in the concentration of free amino acids in the hydrolysates during the fermentation period. The results of biochemical and microscopic analysis confirm the good hydrolysability of hen combs and gizzards under the action of microbial enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Added Co-products from Industrial Fermentation)
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Review

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23 pages, 2035 KiB  
Review
Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Rumen Microbiota, Rumen Fermentation, and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Ruminant Animals: A Review
Fermentation 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8010004 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 8107
Abstract
Enzymes excreted by rumen microbiome facilitate the conversion of ingested plant materials into major nutrients (e.g., volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial proteins) required for animal growth. Diet, animal age, and health affect the structure of the rumen microbial community. Pathogenic organisms in [...] Read more.
Enzymes excreted by rumen microbiome facilitate the conversion of ingested plant materials into major nutrients (e.g., volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial proteins) required for animal growth. Diet, animal age, and health affect the structure of the rumen microbial community. Pathogenic organisms in the rumen negatively affect fermentation processes in favor of energy loss and animal deprivation of nutrients in ingested feed. Drawing from the ban on antibiotic use during the last decade, the livestock industry has been focused on increasing rumen microbial nutrient supply to ruminants through the use of natural supplements that are capable of promoting the activity of beneficial rumen microflora. Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral commonly used as a supplement to regulate animal metabolism. However, a clear understanding of its effects on rumen microbial composition and rumen fermentation is not available. This review summarized the available literature for the effects of Se on specific rumen microorganisms along with consequences for rumen fermentation and digestibility. Some positive effects on total VFA, the molar proportion of propionate, acetate to propionate ratio, ruminal NH3-N, pH, enzymatic activity, ruminal microbiome composition, and digestibility were recorded. Because Se nanoparticles (SeNPs) were more effective than other forms of Se, more studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of synthetic SeNPs and lactic acid bacteria enriched with sodium selenite as a biological source of SeNPs and probiotics. Future studies also need to evaluate the effect of dietary Se on methane emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Added Co-products from Industrial Fermentation)
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