Electrospinning Technology to Produce Innovative Nanostructured Polymer Materials: Current Applications and Future Perspectives

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2024) | Viewed by 43613

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Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa, Italy
Interests: functional polymeric materials; biomaterials; polymeric nanostructures; study of the physical properties,rheology and mechanical properties of polymers; surface modification and surface properties characterization of polymeric materials.

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa, Italy
Interests: biopolymers; biomedical applications; hydrogels; electrospinning; rheology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa, Italy
Interests: science and technology of polymericmaterials and chemistry for the conservation and protection of differentsubstrates, including items belonging to the Cultural Heritage, as stone,mortars and paper

Special Issue Information

The electrospinning technique is recognised worldwide as a promising, simple and cost-effective tool for the preparation of nanofibers and/or microfibers with a broad range of applications. Electrospun membranes offer several advantages compared to other fibrous yarns, such as a high surface area and an interconnected porous structure, as well as the possibility to produce functionalized and composite materials in a single step procedure. In particular, in the last decade, a lot of progress has been made in obtaining highly efficient filter membranes for water and air purification, packaging for products able to increase food shelf life, implantable biomedical scaffolds with enhanced cell viability and drug delivery capabilities, energy harvesting devices, biosensors and cultural heritage conservation. The great feasibility of electrospinning indeed allows the obtaining of structures with tailor-made properties depending on the desired purpose; however, besides the recent advancements, the electrospinning technique still remains a challenge at the industrial scale. In this regard, rheology has been demonstrated to provide useful information, being able to correlate the viscoelastic properties of the starting materials with the electrospinning process itself and the final product features.

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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28 pages, 5267 KiB  
Article
Production of Blended Poly(acrylonitrile): Poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate) Electrospun Fibers for Neural Applications
by Fábio F. F. Garrudo, Giulia Filippone, Leonor Resina, João C. Silva, Frederico Barbosa, Luís F. V. Ferreira, Teresa Esteves, Ana Clara Marques, Jorge Morgado and Frederico Castelo Ferreira
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132760 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
This study describes, for the first time, the successful incorporation of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) fibers. While electroconductive PEDOT:PSS is extremely challenging to electrospun into fibers. Therefore, PAN, a polymer easy to electrospun, was chosen as a carrier due to its [...] Read more.
This study describes, for the first time, the successful incorporation of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) fibers. While electroconductive PEDOT:PSS is extremely challenging to electrospun into fibers. Therefore, PAN, a polymer easy to electrospun, was chosen as a carrier due to its biocompatibility and tunable chemical stability when cross-linked, particularly using strong acids. PAN:PEDOT:PSS blends, prepared from PEDOT:PSS Clevios PH1000, were electrospun into fibers (PH1000) with a diameter of 515 ± 120 nm, which after being thermally annealed (PH1000 24H) and treated with heated sulfuric acid (PH1000 H2SO4), resulted in fibers with diameters of 437 ± 109 and 940 ± 210 nm, respectively. The fibers obtained over the stepwise process were characterized through infra-red/Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The final fiber meshes showed enhanced electroconductivity (3.2 × 10−3 S cm−1, four-points-assay). Fiber meshes biocompatibility was evaluated using fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs) following, respectively, the ISO10993 guidelines and standard adhesion/proliferation assay. NSCs cultured on PH1000 H2SO4 fibers presented normal morphology and high proliferation rates (0.37 day−1 vs. 0.16 day−1 for culture plate), indicating high biocompatibility for NSCs. Still, the low initial NSC adhesion of 7% calls for improving seeding methodologies. PAN:PEDOT:PSS fibers, here successful produced for the first time, have potential applications in neural tissue engineering and soft electronics. Full article
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17 pages, 7727 KiB  
Article
Chitosan/PVA Nanofibers as Potential Material for the Development of Soft Actuators
by Rigel Antonio Olvera Bernal, Roman Olegovich Olekhnovich and Mayya Valerievna Uspenskaya
Polymers 2023, 15(9), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15092037 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Chitosan/PVA nanofibrous electroresponsive soft actuators were successfully obtained using an electrospinning process, which showed fast speed displacement under an acidic environment. Chitosan/PVA nanofibers were prepared and characterized, and their electroactive response was tested. Chitosan/PVA nanofibers were electrospun from a chitosan/PVA solution at different [...] Read more.
Chitosan/PVA nanofibrous electroresponsive soft actuators were successfully obtained using an electrospinning process, which showed fast speed displacement under an acidic environment. Chitosan/PVA nanofibers were prepared and characterized, and their electroactive response was tested. Chitosan/PVA nanofibers were electrospun from a chitosan/PVA solution at different chitosan contents (2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 wt.%). Nanofibers samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared analyses, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, and tensile test. The electroactive behavior of the nanofiber hydrogels was tested under different HCl pH (2–6) under a constant voltage (10 V). The electroactive response test showed a dependence between the nanofiber’s chitosan content and pH with the bending speed displacement, reaching a maximum speed displacement of 1.86 mm−1 in a pH 3 sample with a chitosan content of 4 wt.%. The results of the electroactive response were further supported by the determination of the proportion of free amine groups, though deconvoluting the FTIR spectra in the range of 3000–3700 cm−1. Deconvolution results showed that the proportion of free amine increased as the chitosan content was higher, being 3.6% and 4.59% for nanofibers with chitosan content of 2.5 and 4 wt.%, respectively. Full article
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15 pages, 6873 KiB  
Article
Electrospun PLA-Based Biomaterials Loaded with Melissa officinalis Extract with Strong Antioxidant Activity
by Nikoleta Stoyanova, Mariya Spasova, Nevena Manolova, Iliya Rashkov, Mariana Kamenova-Nacheva, Plamena Staleva and Maya Tavlinova-Kirilova
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051070 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
In the present study, the plant extract Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) was successfully loaded in polymer fibrous materials on the basis of a biodegradable polyester–poly(L-lactide) (PLA) and biocompatible polyether–polyethylene glycol (PEG) by applying the electrospinning method. The optimal process conditions for the [...] Read more.
In the present study, the plant extract Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) was successfully loaded in polymer fibrous materials on the basis of a biodegradable polyester–poly(L-lactide) (PLA) and biocompatible polyether–polyethylene glycol (PEG) by applying the electrospinning method. The optimal process conditions for the preparation of hybrid fibrous materials were found. The extract concentration was varied—0, 5 or 10 wt% in respect of the polymer weight, in order to study its influence on the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of the obtained electrospun materials. All the prepared fibrous mats were composed of defect-free fibers. The mean fiber diameters of the PLA, PLA/M. officinalis (5 wt%) and PLA/M. officinalis (10 wt%) were 1370 ± 220 nm, 1398 ± 233 nm and 1506 ± 242 nm, respectively. The incorporation of the M. officinalis into the fibers resulted in slight increase of the fiber diameters and in increase of the water contact angle values to 133°. The presence of the polyether in the fabricated fibrous material assisted the wetting of the materials imparting them with hydrophilicity (the value of the water contact angle become 0°). Extract-containing fibrous materials displayed strong antioxidant activity as determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate free radical method. The DPPH solution color changed to yellow and the absorbance of the DPPH radical dropped by 88.7% and 91% after being in contact with PLA/M. officinalis and PLA/PEG/M. officinalis mats, respectively. These features revealed the M. officinalis—containing fibrous biomaterials promising candidates for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biomedical use. Full article
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14 pages, 4997 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Shape Memory Effect of Random and Aligned Electrospun Polyurethane Mats with Different Fibers Diameter
by Ewa Kijeńska-Gawrońska, Adrian Maliszewski and Monika Bil
Polymers 2022, 14(24), 5468; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14245468 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Fibrous shape memory scaffolds composed of thermoplastic polyurethane based on a mixture of polycaprolactone diols were fabricated. The effect of the fiber diameter and arrangement– random (rPU) or aligned (aPU), on crystallinity, mechanical properties, and shape memory was analyzed. The diameters of the [...] Read more.
Fibrous shape memory scaffolds composed of thermoplastic polyurethane based on a mixture of polycaprolactone diols were fabricated. The effect of the fiber diameter and arrangement– random (rPU) or aligned (aPU), on crystallinity, mechanical properties, and shape memory was analyzed. The diameters of the fibers were controlled by changing the concentration of polyurethane (PU) solutions in the range of 5% to 16% and fibers alignment by utilization of different collectors. The chemical structure was confirmed by Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), crystallinity was evaluated based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC,) and mechanical properties were measured by the tensile test. Additionally, shape memory programming was performed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), and shape recovery was evaluated in the air and in the water environment. DSC results showed that the electrospinning process did not change the crystallinity or melting temperature of synthesized thermoplastic polyurethanes. The melting temperature of the crystalline switching segments was around 26–27 °C, and the crystalline phase of hard segments was around 130 °C. Shape memory properties were analyzed in the contest of the fiber diameter and alignment of the fibers, while changes in the fibers’ diameters from 360 nm to 1760 nm did not result in significant changes in shape recovery coefficient (Rr) especially evaluated in the air. The longitudinal fiber alignment enhanced mechanical and shape recovery to up to 96% for aPU, with the highest fiber diameter when evaluated in water. Full article
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13 pages, 2705 KiB  
Article
Electrospinning vs. Electro-Assisted Solution Blow Spinning for Fabrication of Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
by Tatiana S. Demina, Evgeniy N. Bolbasov, Maria A. Peshkova, Yuri M. Efremov, Polina Y. Bikmulina, Aisylu V. Birdibekova, Tatiana N. Popyrina, Nastasia V. Kosheleva, Sergei I. Tverdokhlebov, Peter S. Timashev and Tatiana A. Akopova
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235254 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Biodegradable polymeric fibrous non-woven materials are widely used type of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Their morphology and properties could be controlled by composition and fabrication technology. This work is aimed at development of fibrous scaffolds from a multicomponent polymeric system containing biodegradable synthetic [...] Read more.
Biodegradable polymeric fibrous non-woven materials are widely used type of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Their morphology and properties could be controlled by composition and fabrication technology. This work is aimed at development of fibrous scaffolds from a multicomponent polymeric system containing biodegradable synthetic (polylactide, polycaprolactone) and natural (gelatin, chitosan) components using different methods of non-woven mats fabrication: electrospinning and electro-assisted solution blow spinning. The effect of the fabrication technique of the fibrous materials onto their morphology and properties, including the ability to support adhesion and growth of cells, was evaluated. The mats fabricated using electrospinning technology consist of randomly oriented monofilament fibers, while application of solution blow spinning gave a rise to chaotically arranged multifilament fibers. Cytocompatibility of all fabricated fibrous mats was confirmed using in vitro analysis of metabolic activity, proliferative capacity and morphology of NIH 3T3 cell line. Live/Dead assay revealed the formation of the highest number of cell–cell contacts in the case of multifilament sample formed by electro-assisted solution blow spinning technology. Full article
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11 pages, 4689 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal-Assisted Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles-Decorated Titania Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Photodegradation and Catalyst for Sodium Borohydride Dehydrogenation
by Ahmed Abutaleb
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5180; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235180 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Simple and inexpensive electrospinning and hydrothermal techniques were used to synthesize titania nanofibers (TiO2 NFs) (composite NFs) decorated with copper nanoparticle (Cu NPs). The fabricated composite NFs have been tested as a photocatalytic material to degrade methylene blue (MB) as a model [...] Read more.
Simple and inexpensive electrospinning and hydrothermal techniques were used to synthesize titania nanofibers (TiO2 NFs) (composite NFs) decorated with copper nanoparticle (Cu NPs). The fabricated composite NFs have been tested as a photocatalytic material to degrade methylene blue (MB) as a model dye under visible light. The introduced composite NFs have shown good photocatalytic activity compared with pristine TiO2 NFs; 100% and 50% of dye were degraded in 120 min for composite NFs and pristine TiO2 NFs, respectively. Furthermore, composite NFs demonstrated good stability for four cycles. In addition, the fabricated Cu-TiO2 NFs have shown good photocatalytic activity for the production of H2 from sodium borohydride. Full article
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11 pages, 3383 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Electrospun Cellulose Acetate/Nanoclay Composites for Pollutant Removal
by Petya Tsekova and Olya Stoilova
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5070; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235070 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The creation of eco-friendly clay-based composites for pollutant removal by adsorption still remains a challenge. This problem might be successfully solved by the development of electrospun polymer–clay composites. For the first time in this study, a one-step fabrication of cellulose acetate (CA) fibers [...] Read more.
The creation of eco-friendly clay-based composites for pollutant removal by adsorption still remains a challenge. This problem might be successfully solved by the development of electrospun polymer–clay composites. For the first time in this study, a one-step fabrication of cellulose acetate (CA) fibers filled with commercially available nanoclays (NCs) was described. The optimal ratio at which CA/NCs dispersions remained stable was accomplished by varying the nanoclay concentration with respect to CA. Furthermore, the selected solvent system and the electrospinning conditions allowed for the successful fabrication of electrospun CA/NC composites. It was found that the composites’ surface morphology was not affected by the incorporated nanoclays and was the same as that of the electrospun CA fibers. The performed analyses clearly showed that CA and nanoclays did not react during the electrospinning process. It was found that the distribution of nanoclay layers probably was a mixture of intercalated and exfoliated structures. Notably, the type of the nanoclay strongly influenced the adsorption ability of CA/NC composites toward Cr(VI) ions and MB dye. These results suggested that the fabricated CA/NC composites are suitable for pollutant removal due to their specific structure. Full article
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22 pages, 7035 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Sound-Absorbing Nanofibrous Webs from Recycled Poly(vinyl butyral)
by Petr Filip, Tomas Sedlacek, Petra Peer and Martin Juricka
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 5049; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14225049 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
The amount of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) foils added to car windscreens to suppress glass shattering represents a huge worldwide volume of the material, and once a vehicle is end-of-life it also becomes a significance contributor to landfill. The recycling of PVB materials from [...] Read more.
The amount of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) foils added to car windscreens to suppress glass shattering represents a huge worldwide volume of the material, and once a vehicle is end-of-life it also becomes a significance contributor to landfill. The recycling of PVB materials from windscreens has been expensive and despite improvements in recycling technologies, the landfill burden still increases. However, an increase in oil prices can shift the economic balance and stimulates the possible applicability of recycled PVB. As PVB is a relatively easy electrospinnable material, it is shown that nanofibrous mats produced from recycled PVB blends in ethanol exhibit very good sound-absorbing properties. To achieve an optimal composition between virgin and recycled PVB blends, a series of their ratios was consecutively characterized using various techniques (rheometry, SEM, FTIR, DSC, TGA, DMA, an impedance tube for determining sound absorbance). The best result was obtained with two wt. portions of 8 wt.% solution of virgin PVB in ethanol and one wt. portion of 12 wt.% solution of recycled PVB in ethanol. Full article
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16 pages, 4585 KiB  
Article
In Situ Synthesis of AZO-Np in Guar Gum/PVOH Composite Fiber Mats for Potential Bactericidal Release
by Adriana Freire Lubambo, Ney Mattoso, Lucy Ono, Gisele Gomes da Luz, Bruno Gavinho, Andressa Amado Martin, Maria Rita Sierakowski and Cyro Ketzer Saul
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 4983; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14224983 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Since the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is growing and cases are getting worse every year, the search for new alternative bactericidal wound dressing treatments is becoming crucial. Within this context, the use of polysaccharides from plants and seeds in innovative biopolymer technologies [...] Read more.
Since the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is growing and cases are getting worse every year, the search for new alternative bactericidal wound dressing treatments is becoming crucial. Within this context, the use of polysaccharides from plants and seeds in innovative biopolymer technologies is of key importance. In this work, bio-nano-composite guar gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) membranes loaded with aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced via electrospinning. Citric acid was added to the mixture to increase spinnability. However, depending on the pH, zinc oxide nanoparticles are partially dissociated, decreasing their bactericidal efficiency. Thus, a second successful alkaline thermo-chemical regrowth step was added to the process to treat the obtained fibers. This alkaline thermo-chemical treatment reconstituted both the nanoparticles and their bactericidal properties. The Staphylococcus aureus antibacterial assay results show that the membranes obtained after the alkaline thermo-chemical treatment presented a 57% increase in growth inhibition. Full article
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17 pages, 7721 KiB  
Article
Multi-Functional Materials Based on Cu-Doped TiO2 Ceramic Fibers with Enhanced Pseudocapacitive Performances and Their Dielectric Characteristics
by Petronela Pascariu, Mihaela Homocianu, Loredana Vacareanu and Mihai Asandulesa
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4739; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214739 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
In this work, pure TiO2 and Cu (0.5, 1, 2%)-doped TiO2 composites prepared by electrospinning technique followed by calcination at 900 °C, and having high pseudocapacitive and dielectric characteristics were reported. These nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, [...] Read more.
In this work, pure TiO2 and Cu (0.5, 1, 2%)-doped TiO2 composites prepared by electrospinning technique followed by calcination at 900 °C, and having high pseudocapacitive and dielectric characteristics were reported. These nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and dynamic water sorption vapor measurements. The structural characterization of these nanostructures highlighted good crystallinity including only the rutile phase. The electrochemical characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements, which were performed in a KOH electrolyte solution. Among the Cu-doped TiO2 nanostructures that were prepared, the one containing 0.5% Cu exhibited superior electrochemical properties, including high specific gravimetric capacitance of 1183 F·g−1, specific capacitance of 664 F·g−1, energy density of 45.20 Wh·kg−1, high power density of 723.14 W·kg−1, and capacitance retention of about 94% after 100 cycles. The dielectric investigation shows good dielectric properties for all materials, where the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased with the frequency increase. Thus, all the interconnected studies proved that these new materials show manifold ability and real applicative potential as pseudocapacitors and high-performance dielectrics. Future work and perspectives are anticipated for characterizing electrochemical and dielectric properties for materials including larger amounts of Cu dopant. Full article
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17 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Effect of Crosslinking Type on the Physical-Chemical Properties and Biocompatibility of Chitosan-Based Electrospun Membranes
by Andrea Dodero, Sonia Scarfi, Serena Mirata, Alina Sionkowska, Silvia Vicini, Marina Alloisio and Maila Castellano
Polymers 2021, 13(5), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050831 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3637
Abstract
Chitosan nanofibrous membranes are prepared via an electrospinning technique and explored as potential wound healing patches. In particular, the effect of a physical or chemical crosslinking treatment on the mat morphological, mechanical, water-related, and biological properties is deeply evaluated. The use of phosphate [...] Read more.
Chitosan nanofibrous membranes are prepared via an electrospinning technique and explored as potential wound healing patches. In particular, the effect of a physical or chemical crosslinking treatment on the mat morphological, mechanical, water-related, and biological properties is deeply evaluated. The use of phosphate ions (i.e., physical crosslinking) allows us to obtain smooth and highly homogenous nanofibers with an average size of 190 nm, whereas the use of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (i.e., chemical crosslinking) leads to rougher, partially coalesced, and bigger nanofibers with an average dimension of 270 nm. Additionally, the physically crosslinked mats show enhanced mechanical performances, as well as greater water vapour permeability and hydrophilicity, with respect to the chemically crosslinked ones. Above all, cell adhesion and cytotoxicity experiments demonstrate that the use of phosphate ions as crosslinkers significantly improves the capability of chitosan mats to promote cell viability owing to their higher biocompatibility. Moreover, tuneable drug delivery properties are achieved for the physically crosslinked mats by a simple post-processing impregnation methodology, thereby indicating the possibility to enrich the prepared membranes with unique features. The results prove that the proposed approach may lead to the preparation of cheap, biocompatible, and efficient chitosan-based nanofibers for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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16 pages, 4117 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Hyperthermia Evaluation of Electrospun Polymer Composite Fibers Loaded with Reduced Graphene Oxide
by Ignacio A. Zárate, Héctor Aguilar-Bolados, Mehrdad Yazdani-Pedram, Guadalupe del C. Pizarro and Andrónico Neira-Carrillo
Polymers 2020, 12(11), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112663 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Electrospun meshes (EM) composed of natural and synthetic polymers with randomly or aligned fibers orientations containing 0.5% or 1% of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TrGO) were prepared by electrospinning (ES), and their hyperthermia properties were evaluated. EM loaded with and without TrGO were [...] Read more.
Electrospun meshes (EM) composed of natural and synthetic polymers with randomly or aligned fibers orientations containing 0.5% or 1% of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TrGO) were prepared by electrospinning (ES), and their hyperthermia properties were evaluated. EM loaded with and without TrGO were irradiated using near infrared radiation (NIR) at 808 nm by varying the distance and electric potential recorded at 30 s. Morphological, spectroscopic, and thermal aspects of EM samples were analyzed by using SEM-EDS, Raman and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and NIR radiation response. We found that the composite EM made of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), natural rubber (NR), and arabic gum (AG) containing TrGO showed improved hyperthermia properties compared to EM without TrGO, reaching an average temperature range of 42–52 °C. We also found that the distribution of TrGO in the EM depends on the orientation of the fibers. These results allow infering that EM loaded with TrGO as a NIR-active thermal inducer could be an excellent candidate for hyperthermia applications in photothermal therapy. Full article
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18 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Mechanical and Dynamic-Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone Membranes: A Design of Experiment Approach
by Andrea Dodero, Elisabetta Brunengo, Maila Castellano and Silvia Vicini
Polymers 2020, 12(7), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12071524 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Polyvinylpyrrolidone electrospun membranes characterized by randomly, partially, or almost completely oriented nanofibers are prepared using a drum collector in static (i.e., 0 rpm) or rotating (i.e., 250 rpm or 500 rpm) configuration. Besides a progressive alignment alongside the tangential speed direction, the nanofibers [...] Read more.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone electrospun membranes characterized by randomly, partially, or almost completely oriented nanofibers are prepared using a drum collector in static (i.e., 0 rpm) or rotating (i.e., 250 rpm or 500 rpm) configuration. Besides a progressive alignment alongside the tangential speed direction, the nanofibers show a dimension increasing with the collector rotating speed in the range 410–570 nm. A novel design of experiment approach based on a face-centred central composite design is employed to describe membrane mechanical properties using the computation of mathematical models and their visualization via response surface methodology. The results demonstrate the anisotropic nature of the fibre-oriented membranes with Young’s modulus values of 165 MPa and 71 MPa parallelly and perpendicularly to the alignment direction, respectively. Above all, the proposed approach is proved to be a promising tool from an industrial point of view to prepare electrospun membranes with a tailored mechanical response by simply controlling the collector speed. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

27 pages, 1828 KiB  
Review
Overview of Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Applications
by Muhammad Zikri Aiman Zulkifli, Darman Nordin, Norazuwana Shaari and Siti Kartom Kamarudin
Polymers 2023, 15(11), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15112418 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3947
Abstract
Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging field of study that incorporates the principles of biology, medicine, and engineering for designing biological substitutes to maintain, restore, or improve tissue functions with the goal of avoiding organ transplantation. Amongst the various scaffolding techniques, electrospinning is [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging field of study that incorporates the principles of biology, medicine, and engineering for designing biological substitutes to maintain, restore, or improve tissue functions with the goal of avoiding organ transplantation. Amongst the various scaffolding techniques, electrospinning is one of the most widely used techniques to synthesise a nanofibrous scaffold. Electrospinning as a potential tissue engineering scaffolding technique has attracted a great deal of interest and has been widely discussed in many studies. The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanofibres, coupled with their ability to fabricate scaffolds that may mimic extracellular matrices, facilitates cell migration, proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation. These are all very desirable properties for TE applications. However, despite its widespread use and distinct advantages, electrospun scaffolds suffer from two major practical limitations: poor cell penetration and poor load-bearing applications. Furthermore, electrospun scaffolds have low mechanical strength. Several solutions have been offered by various research groups to overcome these limitations. This review provides an overview of the electrospinning techniques used to synthesise nanofibres for TE applications. In addition, we describe current research on nanofibre fabrication and characterisation, including the main limitations of electrospinning and some possible solutions to overcome these limitations. Full article
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25 pages, 4135 KiB  
Review
Electrospun Magnetic Nanofiber Mats for Magnetic Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment Applications—Technology, Mechanism, and Materials
by Al Mamun and Lilia Sabantina
Polymers 2023, 15(8), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15081902 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2965
Abstract
The number of cancer patients is rapidly increasing worldwide. Among the leading causes of human death, cancer can be regarded as one of the major threats to humans. Although many new cancer treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical methods are nowadays [...] Read more.
The number of cancer patients is rapidly increasing worldwide. Among the leading causes of human death, cancer can be regarded as one of the major threats to humans. Although many new cancer treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical methods are nowadays being developed and used for testing purposes, results show limited efficiency and high toxicity, even if they have the potential to damage cancer cells in the process. In contrast, magnetic hyperthermia is a field that originated from the use of magnetic nanomaterials, which, due to their magnetic properties and other characteristics, are used in many clinical trials as one of the solutions for cancer treatment. Magnetic nanomaterials can increase the temperature of nanoparticles located in tumor tissue by applying an alternating magnetic field. A very simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method is the fabrication of various types of functional nanostructures by adding magnetic additives to the spinning solution in the electrospinning process, which can overcome the limitations of this challenging treatment process. Here, we review recently developed electrospun magnetic nanofiber mats and magnetic nanomaterials that support magnetic hyperthermia therapy, targeted drug delivery, diagnostic and therapeutic tools, and techniques for cancer treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 2157 KiB  
Review
Electrospun Nanomaterials Based on Cellulose and Its Derivatives for Cell Cultures: Recent Developments and Challenges
by Kristina Peranidze, Tatiana V. Safronova and Nataliya R. Kildeeva
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051174 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
The development of electrospun nanofibers based on cellulose and its derivatives is an inalienable task of modern materials science branches related to biomedical engineering. The considerable compatibility with multiple cell lines and capability to form unaligned nanofibrous frameworks help reproduce the properties of [...] Read more.
The development of electrospun nanofibers based on cellulose and its derivatives is an inalienable task of modern materials science branches related to biomedical engineering. The considerable compatibility with multiple cell lines and capability to form unaligned nanofibrous frameworks help reproduce the properties of natural extracellular matrix and ensure scaffold applications as cell carriers promoting substantial cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. In this paper, we are focusing on the structural features of cellulose itself and electrospun cellulosic fibers, including fiber diameter, spacing, and alignment responsible for facilitated cell capture. The study emphasizes the role of the most frequently discussed cellulose derivatives (cellulose acetate, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, etc.) and composites in scaffolding and cell culturing. The key issues of the electrospinning technique in scaffold design and insufficient micromechanics assessment are discussed. Based on recent studies aiming at the fabrication of artificial 2D and 3D nanofiber matrices, the current research provides the applicability assessment of the scaffolds toward osteoblasts (hFOB line), fibroblastic (NIH/3T3, HDF, HFF-1, L929 lines), endothelial (HUVEC line), and several other cell types. Furthermore, a critical aspect of cell adhesion through the adsorption of proteins on the surfaces is touched upon. Full article
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29 pages, 3055 KiB  
Review
Review on Electrospun Nanofiber-Applied Products
by Fatirah Fadil, Nor Dalila Nor Affandi, Mohd Iqbal Misnon, Noor Najmi Bonnia, Ahmad Mukifza Harun and Mohammad Khursheed Alam
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132087 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 9247
Abstract
Electrospinning technology, which was previously known as a scientific interdisciplinary research approach, is now ready to move towards a practice-based interdisciplinary approach in a variety of fields, progressively. Electrospun nanofiber-applied products are made directly from a nonwoven fabric-based membranes prepared from polymeric liquids [...] Read more.
Electrospinning technology, which was previously known as a scientific interdisciplinary research approach, is now ready to move towards a practice-based interdisciplinary approach in a variety of fields, progressively. Electrospun nanofiber-applied products are made directly from a nonwoven fabric-based membranes prepared from polymeric liquids involving the application of sufficiently high voltages during electrospinning. Today, electrospun nanofiber-based materials are of remarkable interest across multiple fields of applications, such as in electronics, sensors, functional garments, sound proofing, filters, wound dressing and scaffolds. This article presents such a review for summarizing the current progress on the manufacturing scalability of electrospun nanofibers and the commercialization of electrospun nanofiber products by dedicated companies globally. Despite the clear potential and limitless possibilities for electrospun nanofiber applications, the uptake of electrospinning by the industry is still limited due to the challenges in the manufacturing and turning of electrospun nanofibers into physical products. The recent developments in the field of electrospinning, such as the prominent nonwoven technology, personal views and the potential path forward for the growth of commercially applied products based on electrospun nanofibers, are also highlighted. Full article
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