Feature Papers in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology

A topical collection in Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This collection belongs to the section "Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology".

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Guest Editor
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: nanomedicine; drug delivery; gene therapy; pharmaceutics; pharmaceutical education; topical delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, University of Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Interests: drug delivery; infectious diseases; nanomedicine; nanotechnology; pharmaceutics; women’s health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Interests: topical and transdermal drug delivery; penetration enhancement; nanotechnology; skin permeation mechanisms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce a Special Issue titled “Feature Papers in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology”. The Special Issue is a collection of papers highlighting and collecting recent progress in nanotechnology and their applications in pharmaceutical, clinical, diagnostic, environmental, and cosmetic fields.

The covered topics include the following:

  • Advances in methodologies for characterization of nanocarriers;
  • Nanodevices and nanosensors;
  • Stability studies;
  • Development of new drug delivery systems;
  • Nanotoxicity;
  • Skin and mucosal application;
  • Nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative nanomedicine;
  • Functionalization for a selective target;
  • Nanodelivery systems in cosmeceutical and nutraceutical field;
  • Nanodelivery as a strategy to improve bioavailability;
  • Strategies and formulations for controlled drug release;
  • In vitro and ex vivo testing;
  • In vivo testing;
  • Legislation regarding nanocarriers and nanomedicines.

We invite researchers to submit original research articles and reviews in this field. Authors will enjoy high-quality reviewing processes, rapid publication, and high visibility ranging from access to a broad readership.

Prof. Dr. Donatella Paolino
Dr. José das Neves
Prof. Dr. Heather Benson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceutics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomedicine
  • nanocarriers
  • nanotechnology
  • drug delivery
  • bioavailability
  • formulations
  • lipid nanoparticles
  • topical delivery
  • transdermal drug delivery
  • nanotheranostics
  • gene therapy

Published Papers (14 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

14 pages, 4399 KiB  
Article
Theranostic Role of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle for Treating Renal Anemia: Evidence of Efficacy and Significance by MRI, Histology and Biomarkers
by Jong-Kai Hsiao, Chih-Lung Chen, Wen-Yuan Hsieh and Ko-Lin Kuo
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(6), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061714 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
(1) Background: Increasing attention has been given to applying nanosized iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) to treat iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who suffer from IDA often need long-term iron supplements. We aim to evaluate the safety and therapeutic effect [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Increasing attention has been given to applying nanosized iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) to treat iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who suffer from IDA often need long-term iron supplements. We aim to evaluate the safety and therapeutic effect of MPB-1523, a novel IOPs, in anemic CKD mice and to monitor iron storage by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. (2) Methods: MPB-1523 was intraperitoneally delivered to the CKD and sham mice, and blood were collected for hematocrit, iron storage, cytokine assays, and MR imaging throughout the study. (3) Results: The hematocrit levels of CKD and sham mice dropped initially but increased gradually to reach a steady value 60 days after IOP injection. The body iron storage indicator, ferritin gradually rose and total iron-binding capacity stabilized 30 days after IOP injection. No significant inflammation or oxidative stress were observed in both groups. By T2-weighted MR imaging, the liver signal intensity gradually increased in both groups but was more pronounced in the CKD group, indicating aggressive utilization of MPB-1523. MR imaging, histology and electron microscopy showed MPB-1523 is liver-specific. (4) Conclusions: MPB-1523 can serve as a long-term iron supplement and is monitored by MR imaging. Our results have strong translatability to the clinic. Full article
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39 pages, 3073 KiB  
Review
Delivery of Chemotherapy Agents and Nucleic Acids with pH-Dependent Nanoparticles
by Qixin Leng, Zuha Imtiyaz, Martin C. Woodle and A. James Mixson
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(5), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15051482 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
With less than one percent of systemically injected nanoparticles accumulating in tumors, several novel approaches have been spurred to direct and release the therapy in or near tumors. One such approach depends on the acidic pH of the extracellular matrix and endosomes of [...] Read more.
With less than one percent of systemically injected nanoparticles accumulating in tumors, several novel approaches have been spurred to direct and release the therapy in or near tumors. One such approach depends on the acidic pH of the extracellular matrix and endosomes of the tumor. With an average pH of 6.8, the extracellular tumor matrix provides a gradient for pH-responsive particles to accumulate, enabling greater specificity. Upon uptake by tumor cells, nanoparticles are further exposed to lower pHs, reaching a pH of 5 in late endosomes. Based on these two acidic environments in the tumor, various pH-dependent targeting strategies have been employed to release chemotherapy or the combination of chemotherapy and nucleic acids from macromolecules such as the keratin protein or polymeric nanoparticles. We will review these release strategies, including pH-sensitive linkages between the carrier and hydrophobic chemotherapy agent, the protonation and disruption of polymeric nanoparticles, an amalgam of these first two approaches, and the release of polymers shielding drug-loaded nanoparticles. While several pH-sensitive strategies have demonstrated marked antitumor efficacy in preclinical trials, many studies are early in their development with several obstacles that may limit their clinical use. Full article
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15 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Dual-Labelled Nanoparticles Inform on the Stability of Fluorescent Labels In Vivo
by Sabrina Roussel, Philippe Grenier, Valérie Chénard and Nicolas Bertrand
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030769 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Fluorescent labelling is commonly used to monitor the biodistribution of nanomedicines. However, meaningful interpretation of the results requires that the fluorescent label remains attached to the nanomedicine. In this work, we explore the stability of three fluorophores (BODIPY650, Cyanine 5 and AZ647) attached [...] Read more.
Fluorescent labelling is commonly used to monitor the biodistribution of nanomedicines. However, meaningful interpretation of the results requires that the fluorescent label remains attached to the nanomedicine. In this work, we explore the stability of three fluorophores (BODIPY650, Cyanine 5 and AZ647) attached to polymeric hydrophobic biodegradable anchors. Using dual-labelled poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles that are both radioactive and fluorescent, we investigated how the properties of the fluorophores impact the stability of the labelling in vitro and in vivo. Results suggest that the more hydrophilic dye (AZ647) is released faster from nanoparticles, and that this instability results in misinterpretation of in vivo data. While hydrophobic dyes are likely more suitable to track nanoparticles in biological environments, quenching of the fluorescence inside the nanoparticles can also introduce artefacts. Altogether, this work raises awareness about the importance of stable labelling methods when investigating the biological fate of nanomedicines. Full article
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20 pages, 1446 KiB  
Review
Silver Nanoparticles and Their Therapeutic Applications in Endodontics: A Narrative Review
by Farzaneh Afkhami, Parisa Forghan, James L. Gutmann and Anil Kishen
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030715 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3453
Abstract
The efficient elimination of microorganisms and their byproducts from infected root canals is compromised by the limitations in conventional root canal disinfection strategies and antimicrobials. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are advantageous for root canal disinfection, mainly due to their wide-spectrum anti-microbial activity. Compared to [...] Read more.
The efficient elimination of microorganisms and their byproducts from infected root canals is compromised by the limitations in conventional root canal disinfection strategies and antimicrobials. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are advantageous for root canal disinfection, mainly due to their wide-spectrum anti-microbial activity. Compared to other commonly used nanoparticulate antibacterials, AgNPs have acceptable antibacterial properties and relatively low cytotoxicity. Owing to their nano-scale, AgNPs penetrate deeper into the complexities of the root canal systems and dentinal tubules, as well as enhancing the antibacterial properties of endodontic irrigants and sealers. AgNPs gradually increase the dentin hardness in endodontically treated teeth and promote antibacterial properties when used as a carrier for intracanal medication. The unique properties of AgNPs make them an ideal additive for different endodontic biomaterials. However, the possible side effects of AgNPs, such as cytotoxicity and tooth discoloration potential, merits further research. Full article
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16 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Arginine-Coated Nanoglobules for the Nasal Delivery of Insulin
by Atanu Das, Richa Vartak, Md Asrarul Islam, Sunil Kumar, Jun Shao and Ketan Patel
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020353 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Multiple daily injections via subcutaneous route are the primary modes of insulin delivery for patients with Diabetes Mellitus. While this process is invasive, painful and may cause patients to develop lipohypertrophy at injection site, the perception of fear surrounding this process causes patients [...] Read more.
Multiple daily injections via subcutaneous route are the primary modes of insulin delivery for patients with Diabetes Mellitus. While this process is invasive, painful and may cause patients to develop lipohypertrophy at injection site, the perception of fear surrounding this process causes patients to delay in initiation and remain persistent with insulin therapy over time. Moreover, poor glycemic control may often lead to acute complications, such as severe hypoglycemia and nocturnal hypoglycemia, especially in older patients with diabetes. To address the imperative need for a patient-convenient non-invasive insulin therapy, an insulin-loaded arginine-coated self-emulsifying nanoglobule system (INS-LANano) was developed for nasal delivery of insulin with a biodegradable cationic surfactant—Lauroyl Ethyl Arginate (LAE). Incorporation of LAE resulted in formation of positively charged nanoglobules with L-arginine oriented on the surface. LANano enabled binding of insulin molecules on the surface of nanoglobules via an electrostatic interaction between negatively charged α-helix and LAE molecules at physiological pH. INS-LANano showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 23.38 nm with a surface charge of +0.118 mV. The binding efficiency of insulin on LANano globules was confirmed by zeta potential, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and centrifugal ultrafiltration studies. The attachment of insulin with permeation-enhancing nanoglobules demonstrated significantly higher in vitro permeability of insulin of 15.2% compared to insulin solution across human airway epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayer. Upon intranasal administration of INS-LANano to diabetic rats at 2 IU/kg insulin dose, a rapid absorption of insulin with significantly higher Cmax of 14.3 mU/L and relative bioavailability (BA) of 23.3% was observed. Therefore, the INS-LANano formulation significant translational potential for intranasal delivery of insulin Full article
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19 pages, 3270 KiB  
Article
Niosomes Functionalized with a Synthetic Carbohydrate Binding Agent for Mannose-Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery
by Nastassja Burrini, Mario D’Ambrosio, Matteo Gentili, Roberta Giaquinto, Veronica Settimelli, Cristina Luceri, Marzia Cirri and Oscar Francesconi
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010235 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Niosomes are a potential tool for the development of active targeted drug delivery systems (DDS) for cancer therapy because of their excellent behaviour in encapsulating antitumorals and the possibility to easily functionalise their surface with targeting agents. Recently, some of us developed a [...] Read more.
Niosomes are a potential tool for the development of active targeted drug delivery systems (DDS) for cancer therapy because of their excellent behaviour in encapsulating antitumorals and the possibility to easily functionalise their surface with targeting agents. Recently, some of us developed a synthetic carbohydrate binding agent (CBA) able to target the mannosidic residues of high-mannose-type glycans overexpressed on the surface of several cancer cell lines, promoting their apoptosis. In this article, we modified the structure of this mannose receptor to obtain an amphiphilic analogue suitable for the functionalization of doxorubicin-based niosomes. Several niosomal formulations and preparation methods were investigated deeply to finally obtain functionalized niosomes suitable for parental administration, which were stable for over six months and able to encapsulate up to 85% of doxorubicin (DOXO). In vitro studies, carried out towards triple-negative cancer cells (MDA-MB231), overexpressing high-mannose-type glycans, showed a cytotoxic activity comparable to that of DOXO but with an appreciable increment in apoptosis given by the CBA. Moreover, niosomal formulation was observed to reduce doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity towards normal cell lines of rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2). This study is propaedeutic to further in vivo investigations that can aim to shed light on the antitumoral activity and pharmacokinetics of the developed active targeted DDS. Full article
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25 pages, 5673 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology-Based RNA Vaccines: Fundamentals, Advantages and Challenges
by Vitaly P. Pozharov and Tamara Minko
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010194 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Over the past decades, many drugs based on the use of nanotechnology and nucleic acids have been developed. However, until recently, most of them remained at the stage of pre-clinical development and testing and did not find their way to the clinic. In [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, many drugs based on the use of nanotechnology and nucleic acids have been developed. However, until recently, most of them remained at the stage of pre-clinical development and testing and did not find their way to the clinic. In our opinion, the main reason for this situation lies in the enormous complexity of the development and industrial production of such formulations leading to their high cost. The development of nanotechnology-based drugs requires the participation of scientists from many and completely different specialties including Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medicine, Engineering, Drug Delivery, Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Physiology and so on. Nevertheless, emergence of coronavirus and new vaccines based on nanotechnology has shown the high efficiency of this approach. Effective development of vaccines based on the use of nucleic acids and nanomedicine requires an understanding of a wide range of principles including mechanisms of immune responses, nucleic acid functions, nanotechnology and vaccinations. In this regard, the purpose of the current review is to recall the basic principles of the work of the immune system, vaccination, nanotechnology and drug delivery in terms of the development and production of vaccines based on both nanotechnology and the use of nucleic acids. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

15 pages, 2386 KiB  
Article
Novel Tumor-Targeted Self-Nanostructured and Compartmentalized Water-in-Oil-in-Water Polyurethane-Polyurea Nanocapsules for Cancer Theragnosis
by Joaquín Bonelli, María Velasco-de Andrés, Neus Isidro, Cristina Bayó, Sergi Chumillas, Laura Carrillo-Serradell, Sergi Casadó-Llombart, Cheryl Mok, Daniel Benítez-Ribas, Francisco Lozano, Josep Rocas and Vicente Marchán
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010058 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Encapsulation of water-soluble bioactive compounds for enabling specific accumulation in tumor locations, while avoiding premature clearance and/or degradation in the bloodstream, is one of the main hallmarks in nanomedicine, especially that of NIR fluorescent probes for cancer theragnosis. The herein reported technology furnishes [...] Read more.
Encapsulation of water-soluble bioactive compounds for enabling specific accumulation in tumor locations, while avoiding premature clearance and/or degradation in the bloodstream, is one of the main hallmarks in nanomedicine, especially that of NIR fluorescent probes for cancer theragnosis. The herein reported technology furnishes water-dispersible double-walled polyurethane-polyurea hybrid nanocapsules (NCs) loaded with indocyanine green (ICG-NCs), using a versatile and highly efficient one-pot and industrially scalable synthetic process based on the use of two different prepolymers to set up the NCs walls. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy confirmed that both ICG-loaded NCs internalized in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). The in vivo analysis of xenograft A375 mouse melanoma model revealed that amphoteric functionalization of NCs’ surface promotes the selective accumulation of ICG-NCs in tumor tissues, making them promising agents for a less-invasive theragnosis of cancer. Full article
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14 pages, 1552 KiB  
Review
Recent Applications of Contact Lenses for Bacterial Corneal Keratitis Therapeutics: A Review
by Linyan Nie, Yuanfeng Li, Yong Liu, Linqi Shi and Huiyun Chen
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122635 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Corneal keratitis is a common but severe infectious disease; without immediate and efficient treatment, it can lead to vision loss within a few days. With the development of antibiotic resistance, novel approaches have been developed to combat corneal keratitis. Contact lenses were initially [...] Read more.
Corneal keratitis is a common but severe infectious disease; without immediate and efficient treatment, it can lead to vision loss within a few days. With the development of antibiotic resistance, novel approaches have been developed to combat corneal keratitis. Contact lenses were initially developed to correct vision. Although silicon hydrogel-based contact lenses protect the cornea from hypoxic stress from overnight wear, wearing contact lenses was reported as an essential cause of corneal keratitis. With the development of technology, contact lenses are integrated with advanced functions, and functionalized contact lenses are used for killing bacteria and preventing infectious corneal keratitis. In this review, we aim to examine the current applications of contact lenses for anti-corneal keratitis. Full article
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25 pages, 2467 KiB  
Review
Direct and Reverse Pluronic Micelles: Design and Characterization of Promising Drug Delivery Nanosystems
by Almudena Naharros-Molinero, María Ángela Caballo-González, Francisco Javier de la Mata and Sandra García-Gallego
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122628 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2907
Abstract
Pluronics are a family of amphiphilic block copolymers broadly explored in the pharmaceutical field. Under certain conditions, Pluronics self-assemble in different structures including nanosized direct and reverse micelles. This review provides an overview about the main parameters affecting the micellization process of Pluronics, [...] Read more.
Pluronics are a family of amphiphilic block copolymers broadly explored in the pharmaceutical field. Under certain conditions, Pluronics self-assemble in different structures including nanosized direct and reverse micelles. This review provides an overview about the main parameters affecting the micellization process of Pluronics, such as polymer length, fragments distribution within the chain, solvents, additives and loading of cargo. Furthermore, it offers a guide about the most common techniques used to characterize the structure and properties of the micelles. Finally, it presents up-to-date approaches to improve the stability and drug loading of Pluronic micelles. Special attention is paid to reverse Pluronics and reverse micelles, currently underexplored in the literature. Pluronic micelles present a bright future as drug delivery agents. A smart design and thorough characterization will improve the transfer to clinical applications. Full article
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18 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Novel pH-Responsive Cubosome and Hexosome Lipid Nanocarriers of SN-38 Are Prospective for Cancer Therapy
by Sarigama Rajesh, Jiali Zhai, Calum J. Drummond and Nhiem Tran
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102175 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
pH-responsive nanoparticles enable the selective delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent to tumours while reducing adverse effects. Herein we synthesised four novel aminolipids and developed pH-responsive nanostructured lipid nanoparticles (LNP), which exhibited a slow-releasing hexagonal structure (H2) at physiological pH and quick [...] Read more.
pH-responsive nanoparticles enable the selective delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent to tumours while reducing adverse effects. Herein we synthesised four novel aminolipids and developed pH-responsive nanostructured lipid nanoparticles (LNP), which exhibited a slow-releasing hexagonal structure (H2) at physiological pH and quick release bicontinuous cubic phase (Q2) at the acidic tumour pH. The nanoparticles were used to encapsulate and control the release of the chemotherapeutic agent SN-38. High-throughput formulation techniques were employed to fabricate LNP by mixing various amounts of aminolipid with monoolein (MO). The effect of aminolipids on MO self-assembled structures was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at various pH values. Out of the four studied aminolipid-MO LNP systems, the nanoparticles containing N-(Pyridin-4-ylmethyl) oleamide (OAPy-4) or N-(2(piperidin-1yl)ethyl) oleamide (OAPi-1) exhibited a pH-induced H2 to Q2 phase transition in a tumour-relevant pH range (pH 5.5–7.0). SN-38 is 1000 times more efficacious than the commercially available prodrug irinotecan. However, low solubility in water and instability at physiological pH makes it unsuitable for clinical use. SN-38 was loaded into LNP containing MO and aminolipid OAPy-4. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency were determined, and the results indicated that the aqueous solubility of SN-38 loaded in LNP dispersions was ~100 times higher compared to the solubility of the pure drug in aqueous solution. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the in vitro SN-38 release rate from LNPs was faster at lower pH (pH 5) than at neutral pH. Therefore, pH-responsive LNPs developed in this study can potentially be employed in delivering and controlling the release of the potent drug SN-38 to tumour sites. Full article
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17 pages, 6977 KiB  
Article
AuNP/Chitosan Nanocomposites Synthesized through Plasma Induced Liquid Chemistry and Their Applications in Photothermal Induced Bacteria Eradication
by Zhijun Guo, Dan Sun, Xian Zhou, Huan Xu, Yizhou Huang, Chenglin Chu and Baolong Shen
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102147 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
In this work, a facile direct current atmospheric pressure micro-plasma (APM) technology was deployed for the synthesis of functional gold nanoparticle/chitosan (AuNP/CS) nanocomposites for the first time. Different experimental parameters, such as metal salt precursor concentration and chitosan viscosity, have been investigated to [...] Read more.
In this work, a facile direct current atmospheric pressure micro-plasma (APM) technology was deployed for the synthesis of functional gold nanoparticle/chitosan (AuNP/CS) nanocomposites for the first time. Different experimental parameters, such as metal salt precursor concentration and chitosan viscosity, have been investigated to understand their effects on the resulting nanocomposite structures and properties. The nanocomposites were fully characterized using a wide range of material characterization techniques such as UV–vis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Potential reaction pathways have been proposed for the nanocomposite synthesis process. Finally, potential of the synthesized nanocomposites towards photothermal conversion and bacteria eradiation applications has been demonstrated. The results show that APM is a facile, rapid and versatile technique for the synthesis of AuNP/CS functional nanocomposites. Through this work, a more in-depth understanding of the multi-phase system (consisting of gas, plasma, liquid and solid) has been established and such understanding could shine a light on the future design and fabrication of new functional nanocomposites deploying the APM technique. Full article
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16 pages, 3525 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Perspectives of Active SiO2FexOy/ZnO Composites
by Florin Matusoiu, Adina Negrea, Nicoleta Sorina Nemes, Catalin Ianasi, Mihaela Ciopec, Petru Negrea, Narcis Duteanu, Paula Ianasi, Daniel Duda-Seiman and Delia Muntean
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102063 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The antibacterial activity of zinc oxide particles has received significant interest worldwide, especially through the implementation of technology to synthesize particles in the nanometer range. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of silica-based iron oxide matrix (SiO2FexO [...] Read more.
The antibacterial activity of zinc oxide particles has received significant interest worldwide, especially through the implementation of technology to synthesize particles in the nanometer range. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of silica-based iron oxide matrix (SiO2FexOy) synthesized with various amounts of ZnO (SiO2FexOyZnO) against various pathogens. It is observed that, with the addition of ZnO to the system, the average size of the porosity of the material increases, showing increasingly effective antibacterial properties. Zinc-iron-silica oxide matrix composites were synthesized using the sol–gel method. The synthesized materials were investigated physicochemically to highlight their structural properties, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). At the same time, surface area, pore size and total pore volume were determined for materials synthesized using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. Although the material with 0.0001 g ZnO (600 m2/g) has the highest specific surface area, the best antimicrobial activity was obtained for the material with 1.0 g ZnO, when the average pore volume is the largest (~8 nm) for a specific surface of 306 m2/g. This indicates that the main role in the antibacterial effect has reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the ZnO that are located in the pores of the composite materials. The point of zero charge (pHpZc) is a very important parameter for the characterization of materials that indicate the acid-base behaviour. The pHpZc value varies between 4.9 and 6.3 and is influenced by the amount of ZnO with which the iron-silica oxide matrix is doped. From the antimicrobial studies carried out, it was found that for S. aureus the total antibacterial effect was obtained at the amount of 1.0 g ZnO. For Gram-negative bacteria, a total antibacterial effect was observed in S. flexneri (for the material with 0.1 g ZnO), followed by E. coli (for 1.0 g ZnO). For P. aeruginosa, the maximum inhibition rate obtained for the material with 1.0 g ZnO was approximately 49%. Full article
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24 pages, 3769 KiB  
Article
Barium Oxide Doped Magnesium Silicate Nanopowders for Bone Fracture Healing: Preparation, Characterization, Antibacterial and In Vivo Animal Studies
by Mostafa Mabrouk, Ghadha Ibrahim Fouad, Hanan H. Beherei and Diganta Bhusan Das
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(8), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14081582 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Magnesium silicate (MgS) nanopowders doped with barium oxide (BaO) were prepared by sol-gel technique, which were then implanted into a fracture of a tibia bone in rats for studying enhanced in vivo bone regeneration. The produced nanopowders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), [...] Read more.
Magnesium silicate (MgS) nanopowders doped with barium oxide (BaO) were prepared by sol-gel technique, which were then implanted into a fracture of a tibia bone in rats for studying enhanced in vivo bone regeneration. The produced nanopowders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Mechanical and bactericidal properties of the nanopowders were also determined. Increased crystallinity, particle diameter and surface area were found to decrease after the BaO doping without any notable alterations on their chemical integrities. Moreover, elevated mechanical and antibacterial characteristics were recognized for higher BaO doping concentrations. Our animal studies demonstrated that impressive new bone tissues were formed in the fractures while the prepared samples degraded, indicating that the osteogenesis and degradability of the BaO containing MgS samples were better than the control MgS. The results of the animal study indicated that the simultaneous bone formation on magnesium biomaterial silicate and barium MgS with completed bone healing after five weeks of implantations. The findings also demonstrated that the prepared samples with good biocompatibility and degradability could enhance vascularization and osteogenesis, and they have therapeutic potential to heal bone fractures. Full article
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