Diet and Muscle Metabolism

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 May 2024 | Viewed by 4311

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via F. Sforza, 28, 20122 Milan, Italy
Interests: geriatrics; nutrition; protein intake; sarcopenia; frailty

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Guest Editor
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli", IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: geriatrics; nutrition; frailty; sarcopenia; cognitive function
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via F. Sforza, 28, 20122 Milan, Italy
Interests: geriatrics; diet; sports

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advancing age is associated with a progressive decline in muscle mass and function, so-called “sarcopenia”, leading to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. Despite sarcopenia being a typical condition of old age, it can occur earlier in life in association with a range of conditions. Unfortunately, although several agents are under investigation, at present, there are no approved pharmacological treatments to counteract the muscle decline. The main strategies to prevent and manage the condition are based on lifestyle interventions (i.e., diet and physical activity). It is thus pivotal to better characterize the factors contributing to the condition as well as to identify novel targets of intervention. 

This Special Issue, entitled “Diet and Muscle Metabolism”, will include observational and experimental studies as well as full-length and short reviews and meta-analyses focused on skeletal muscle metabolism. Broadly, the Special Issue aims at: 1) providing an overview of the state of the art in the field; 2) exploring the possible biological mechanisms underlying muscle abnormalities; and 3) enhancing our current understanding regarding potential areas of interventions.

Dr. Domenico Azzolino
Dr. Riccardo Calvani
Dr. Gianturco Vincenzo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diet
  • nutrition
  • sarcopenia
  • muscle
  • life course
  • frailty
  • malnutrition
  • public health
  • obesity
  • protein intake

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2059 KiB  
Article
Sucrose-Enriched and Carbohydrate-Free High-Fat Diets Distinctly Affect Substrate Metabolism in Oxidative and Glycolytic Muscles of Rats
by Daniel Da Eira, Shailee Jani, Mateja Stefanovic and Rolando B. Ceddia
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020286 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Skeletal muscle substrate preference for fuel is largely influenced by dietary macronutrient availability. The abundance of dietary carbohydrates promotes the utilization of glucose as a substrate for energy production, whereas an abundant dietary fat supply elevates rates of fatty acid (FA) oxidation. The [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle substrate preference for fuel is largely influenced by dietary macronutrient availability. The abundance of dietary carbohydrates promotes the utilization of glucose as a substrate for energy production, whereas an abundant dietary fat supply elevates rates of fatty acid (FA) oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic, high-fat, sucrose-enriched (HFS) diet or a carbohydrate-free ketogenic diet (KD) exert distinct effects on fat, glucose, and ketone metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscles. Male Wistar rats were fed either a HFS diet or a KD for 16 weeks. Subsequently, the soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles were extracted to measure palmitate oxidation, insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, ketolytic capacity, and cataplerotic and anaplerotic machinery. Sol, EDL, and Epit muscles from KD-fed rats preserved their ability to elevate glycogen synthesis and lactate production in response to insulin, whereas all muscles from rats fed with the HFS diet displayed blunted responses to insulin. The maintenance of metabolic flexibility with the KD was accompanied by muscle-fiber-type-specific adaptive responses. This was characterized by the Sol muscle in KD-fed rats enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and ketolytic capacity without elevating its rates of FA oxidation in comparison with that in HFS feeding. Conversely, in the Epit muscle, rates of FA oxidation were increased, whereas the ketolytic capacity was markedly reduced by the KD in comparison with that by HFS feeding. In the EDL muscle, the KD also increased rates of FA oxidation, although it did so without altering its ketolytic capacity when compared to HFS feeding. In conclusion, even though obesogenic and ketogenic diets have elevated contents of fat and alter whole-body substrate partitioning, these two dietary interventions are associated with opposite outcomes with respect to skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Muscle Metabolism)
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13 pages, 844 KiB  
Article
Discovering the Individualized Factors Associated with Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity Phenotypes—A Machine Learning Approach
by Alessia Moroni, Simone Perna, Domenico Azzolino, Clara Gasparri, Roberta Zupo, Margherita Micheletti Cremasco and Mariangela Rondanelli
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214536 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
The literature shows how sarcopenia often occurs along with different phenotypes based either on the concomitant presence of adipose tissue excess (i.e., sarcopenic obesity, SO), or osteopenia/osteoporosis (osteosarcopenia, OS), or the combination of the two conditions, so-called osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO). This research aimed [...] Read more.
The literature shows how sarcopenia often occurs along with different phenotypes based either on the concomitant presence of adipose tissue excess (i.e., sarcopenic obesity, SO), or osteopenia/osteoporosis (osteosarcopenia, OS), or the combination of the two conditions, so-called osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO). This research aimed to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia phenotypes (SO, OS, OSO), their associated risk factors and their health impact in a population of out- and inpatients living in the North of Italy. Male and female subjects aged ≥18 years were enrolled for the study. A blood sample was collected to measure targeted blood makers. A comprehensive anthropometric clinical assessment (height, weight, Body Mass Index, BMI and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, DXA) was performed to measure ponderal, bone, fat, and muscle status. A total of 1510 individuals participated to the study (females, n = 1100; 72.85%). Sarcopenia was the most prevalent phenotype (17%), followed by osteosarcopenia (14.7%) and sarcopenic obesity. Only 1.9% of the sample was affected by OSO. According to logistic regression analysis, sarcopenia was associated with age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) (positively) and BMI, Iron (Fe), Total Cholesterol, albumin (%), albumin (g), and gamma proteins (negatively). Sarcopenic obesity was associated with age, ferritin, ESR, CRP (positively) and BMI, Fe, and albumin (%) (negatively). Osteosarcopenia was associated with age, ESR (positively) and BMI, Total Cholesterol, albumin (%), albumin (g), and Ca (negatively). Osteosarcopenic obesity was associated with glycemia and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gGT) (positively). According to random forest analysis, a higher BMI was the most important protective factor for sarcopenia, for sarcopenic obesity (along with Iron) and for osteosarcopenia (along with albumin). Moreover, osteosarcopenic obesity was positively associated with GgT and glycaemia. The possibility of gaining such information, especially in the younger population, could help to prevent the onset of such diseases and best fit the patient’s needs, according to a precision-medicine approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Muscle Metabolism)
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16 pages, 3042 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences in the Skeletal Muscle Response to a High Fat, High Sucrose Diet in Rats
by Nicholas A. Hulett, Leslie A. Knaub, Sara E. Hull, Gregory B. Pott, Rick Peelor, Benjamin F. Miller, Kartik Shankar, Michael C. Rudolph, Jane E. B. Reusch and Rebecca L. Scalzo
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204438 - 19 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Men are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at lower body mass indexes than women; the role of skeletal muscle in this sex difference is poorly understood. Type 2 diabetes impacts skeletal muscle, particularly in females who demonstrate a lower oxidative capacity compared to [...] Read more.
Men are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at lower body mass indexes than women; the role of skeletal muscle in this sex difference is poorly understood. Type 2 diabetes impacts skeletal muscle, particularly in females who demonstrate a lower oxidative capacity compared to males. To address mechanistic differences underlying this sex disparity, we investigated skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in female and male rats in response to chronic high-fat, high-sugar (HFHS) diet consumption. Four-week-old Wistar Rats were fed a standard chow or HFHS diet for 14 weeks to identify sex-specific adaptations in mitochondrial respirometry and characteristics, transcriptional patterns, and protein profiles. Fat mass was greater with the HFHS diet in both sexes when controlled for body mass (p < 0.0001). Blood glucose and insulin resistance were greater in males (p = 0.01) and HFHS-fed rats (p < 0.001). HFHS-fed males had higher mitochondrial respiration compared with females (p < 0.01 sex/diet interaction). No evidence of a difference by sex or diet was found for mitochondrial synthesis, dynamics, or quality to support the mitochondrial respiration sex/diet interaction. However, transcriptomic analyses indicate sex differences in nutrient handling. Sex-specific differences occurred in PI3K/AKT signaling, PPARα/RXRα, and triacylglycerol degradation. These findings may provide insight into the clinical sex differences in body mass index threshold for diabetes development and tissue-specific progression of insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Muscle Metabolism)
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