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Food Composition and Dedicated Databases: Key Tools for Human Health and Public Nutrition

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2021) | Viewed by 55559

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CREA-Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds; natural products; nutraceuticals; antioxidants; dietary supplements; food quality; nutrition; food composition databases; bioavailability, metabolic pathway; nanoformulations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CREA-Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Interests: natural compounds; nutraceuticals; natural products; food science and nutrition; food composition databases; bioaccesibility; dietary intake
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To better understand nutrition, food chemistry, and medicine, it is necessary to study bioactive constituents, which requires detailed knowledge and coverage on the composition of compounds of nutritional and nutraceutical character; the need for categorization of substances and for the implementation of specific and dedicated databases has emerged from both analytical data and collected data taken from literature throughout harmonized and standardized approach.

Food Composition Databases (FCDBs) aim to produce, collect, and present data in a standardized format to “speak a common language,” which allows the comparison of data from different national databases to foster exchange and collaboration between countries. At the same time, research is focused on the development of databases and models on metabolites in humans and novel dietary biomarkers.

The development of databases of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and metabolites are key tools for human health and public nutrition and represent resources for a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, epidemiology and medicinal areas.

The initial construction of a dataset of specific nutrients and bioactive compounds or class bioactive compounds and their inclusion in a specified and standardized database will be monitored; in addition, updating and expanding of comprehensive database is welcome. Also, a database dedicated to a peculiar and characteristic category of foods: traditional, certified, and recipe databases are welcome.

The design and construction of food databases requires foremost the exact identification of foods throughout an adequate food nomenclature and a precise description. There is a general consensus on the importance of the nomenclature, description, and classification of foods and food groups. A coherent food description system is essential for comparing and/or exchanging data from different databases, and data of same nature from different organizations and countries. Matching procedures for linking different databases are here encouraged.

Food Composition and other dedicated databases as well as metabolomic databases and biomarkers repositories represent an unique data resource for nutritionists, dietitians, and researchers for several applications, i.e., dietary assessment, exposure studies, food labelling, health claims processes; epidemiological studies and clinical trials.

Applications and utilization of databases from nutrition and medicine-related fields in other contexts are here explored. Current research trends are defined.

Dr. Alessandra Durazzo
Dr. Massimo Lucarini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food data
  • food groups
  • nutrients
  • natural substances
  • classification
  • categorization
  • food composition database
  • dedicated databases
  • metabolites
  • dietary biomarkers
  • nutrition knowledge
  • human health
  • epidemiology studies
  • applications and benefits
  • health claims
  • food labelling
  • public health
  • health promotion

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Food Composition and Dedicated Databases: Key Tools for Human Health and Public Nutrition
by Alessandra Durazzo and Massimo Lucarini
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4003; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114003 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
To better understand nutrition, food chemistry, and medicine, it is important to investigate biologically active constituents, which requires a detailed knowledge and coverage of the composition of compounds of nutritional and nutraceutical character [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 1223 KiB  
Communication
Food Composition Data and Tools Online and Their Use in Research and Policy: EuroFIR AISBL Contribution in 2022
by Alessandra Durazzo, Siân Astley, Maria Kapsokefalou, Helena Soares Costa, Angelika Mantur-Vierendeel, Loek Pijls, Luca Bucchini, Marija Glibetić, Karl Presser and Paul Finglas
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224788 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Food, nutrition, and health are linked, and detailed knowledge of nutrient compositions and bioactive characteristics is needed to understand these relationships. Additionally, increasingly these data are required by database systems and applications. This communication aims to describe the contribution to databases and nutrition [...] Read more.
Food, nutrition, and health are linked, and detailed knowledge of nutrient compositions and bioactive characteristics is needed to understand these relationships. Additionally, increasingly these data are required by database systems and applications. This communication aims to describe the contribution to databases and nutrition fields as well as the activities of EuroFIR AISBL; this member-based, non-profit association was founded to ensure sustained advocacy for food information in Europe and facilitate improved data quality, storage, and access as well as encouraging wider exploitation of food composition data for both research and commercial purposes. In addition to the description of its role and main objectives, a snapshot of EuroFIR AISBL’s activities over the years is also given using a quantitative research literature analysis approach. The focus of this communication is to provide descriptions and updates of EuroFIR’s online tools, i.e., FoodEXplorer, eBASIS, and PlantLIBRA, by highlighting the main uses and applications. Integrating food-related infrastructures and databases, following standardized and harmonized approaches, and considering interoperability and metrological principles are significant challenges. Ongoing activities and future plans of EuroFIR AISBL are highlighted, including, for instance, work within the Food Nutrition Security Cloud (FNS-Cloud) to make food, nutrition, and (food) security data more findable, accessible, interoperable, and ultimately reusable. Full article
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16 pages, 800 KiB  
Article
Potential Effects of Sucralose and Saccharin on Gut Microbiota: A Review
by Susana del Pozo, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Ligia E. Díaz, Esther Nova, Rafael Urrialde and Ascensión Marcos
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081682 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 11838
Abstract
Artificial sweeteners are additives widely used in our diet. Although there is no consensus, current evidence indicates that sucralose and saccharin could influence the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to analyze the existing scientific evidence on the effects of saccharin [...] Read more.
Artificial sweeteners are additives widely used in our diet. Although there is no consensus, current evidence indicates that sucralose and saccharin could influence the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to analyze the existing scientific evidence on the effects of saccharin and sucralose consumption on gut microbiota in humans. Different databases were used with the following search terms: sweeteners, non-caloric-sweeteners, sucralose, splenda, saccharin, sugartwin, sweet’n low, microbiota, gut microbiota, humans, animal model, mice, rats, and/or in vitro studies. In vitro and animal model studies indicate a dose-dependent relationship between the intake of both sweeteners and gut microbiota affecting both diversity and composition. In humans, long-term study suggests the existence of a positive correlation between sweetener consumption and some bacterial groups; however, most short-term interventions with saccharin and sucralose, in amounts below the ADI, found no significant effect on those groups, but there seems to be a different basal microbiota-dependent response of metabolic markers. Although studies in vitro and in animal models seem to relate saccharin and sucralose consumption to changes in the gut microbiota, more long-term studies are needed in humans considering the basal microbiota of participants and their dietary and lifestyle habits in all population groups. Toxicological and basal gut microbiota effects must be included as relevant factors to evaluate food safety and nutritional consequences of non-calorie sweeteners. In humans, doses, duration of interventions, and number of subjects included in the studies are key factors to interpret the results. Full article
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17 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Development of an Unified Food Composition Database for the European Project “Stance4Health”
by Daniel Hinojosa-Nogueira, Sergio Pérez-Burillo, Beatriz Navajas-Porras, Bartolomé Ortiz-Viso, Silvia Pastoriza de la Cueva, Fabio Lauria, Alexandra Fatouros, Kostas N. Priftis, Verónica González-Vigil and José Ángel Rufián-Henares
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124206 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
The European Commission funded project Stance4Health (S4H) aims to develop a complete personalised nutrition service. In order to succeed, sources of information on nutritional composition and other characteristics of foods need to be as comprehensive as possible. Food composition tables or databases (FCT/FCDB) [...] Read more.
The European Commission funded project Stance4Health (S4H) aims to develop a complete personalised nutrition service. In order to succeed, sources of information on nutritional composition and other characteristics of foods need to be as comprehensive as possible. Food composition tables or databases (FCT/FCDB) are the most commonly used tools for this purpose. The aim of this study is to describe the harmonisation efforts carried out to obtain the Stance4Health FCDB. A total of 10 FCT/FCDB were selected from different countries and organizations. Data were classified using FoodEx2 and INFOODS tagnames to harmonise the information. Hazard analysis and critical control points analysis was applied as the quality control method. Data were processed by spreadsheets and MySQL. S4H’s FCDB is composed of 880 elements, including nutrients and bioactive compounds. A total of 2648 unified foods were used to complete the missing values of the national FCDB used. Recipes and dishes were estimated following EuroFIR standards via linked tables. S4H’s FCDB will be part of the smartphone app developed in the framework of the Stance4Health European project, which will be used in different personalized nutrition intervention studies. S4H FCDB has great perspectives, being one of the most complete in terms of number of harmonized foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds included. Full article
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14 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Energy, Sodium, Sugar and Saturated Fat Content of New Zealand Fast-Food Products and Meal Combos in 2020
by Sally Mackay, Teresa Gontijo de Castro, Leanne Young, Grace Shaw, Cliona Ni Mhurchu and Helen Eyles
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114010 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5581
Abstract
This study aimed to benchmark the healthiness of the New Zealand (NZ) fast-food supply in 2020. There are currently no actions or policies in NZ regarding the composition, serving size and labeling of fast food. Data on serving size and nutrient content of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to benchmark the healthiness of the New Zealand (NZ) fast-food supply in 2020. There are currently no actions or policies in NZ regarding the composition, serving size and labeling of fast food. Data on serving size and nutrient content of products was collected from company websites and in-store visits to 27 fast-food chains. For each fast-food category and type of combo meal, medians and interquartile ranges were calculated for serving size and energy, sodium, total sugar, and saturated fat per serving. Nutrient contents/serving were benchmarked against the United Kingdom (UK) soft drinks levy sugar thresholds and targets for salt for away from home foods, the NZ daily intake guidelines for energy, sodium, and saturated fat, and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for free sugars. Analyses were conducted for the 30.3% (n = 1772) of products with available nutrition information and for 176 meal combos. Most (n = 67; 91.8%) sugar-sweetened drinks would qualify for a UK soft drink industry levy and 47% (n = 1072) of products exceeded the relevant UK sodium target. Half of the meal combos provided at least 50.3% of the daily energy requirements and at least 88.6% of the maximum recommended intake of sodium. Fast-food products and combo meals in NZ contribute far more energy and negative nutrients to recommended daily intake targets than is optimal for good health. The NZ Government should set reformulation targets and serving size guidance to reduce the potential impact of fast- food consumption on the health of New Zealanders. Full article
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15 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Non-Conjugated-Industrially-Produced-Trans Fatty in Lebanese Foods: The Case of Elaidic and Linolelaidic Acids
by Maha Hoteit, Edwina Zoghbi, Alissar Rady, Iman Shankiti, Carla Ibrahim and Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103664 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
To determine Industrially-Produced Trans fatty acids (IP-TFAs) distribution of Lebanese traditional foods, especially regarding Elaidic acid (EA; 9t18:1) and Linolelaidic acid (LEA; 9t12t18:2), a mapping exercise was enrolled between January 2019 and April 2021 in which 145 food samples of three categories (traditional [...] Read more.
To determine Industrially-Produced Trans fatty acids (IP-TFAs) distribution of Lebanese traditional foods, especially regarding Elaidic acid (EA; 9t18:1) and Linolelaidic acid (LEA; 9t12t18:2), a mapping exercise was enrolled between January 2019 and April 2021 in which 145 food samples of three categories (traditional dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products) were analyzed using Gas chromatography methods. Results showed that about 93% of the products tested in Lebanon, between 2019 and 2021, met the World Health Organization recommendations, while about 7% exceeded the limit. The mean level of the IP-TFAs Elaidic and Linolelaidic acid in most Traditional dishes (0.9%), Arabic sweets (0.6%), butter and margarine (1.6%), and market foods (0.52%) were relatively low compared with other countries. Despite that, the relative impact of IP-TFAs on heart diseases mortality in Lebanon is limited but unambiguously still substantial. The persistence of food products with high IP-TFAs levels threatens the health of Lebanese people. Fortunately, this problem is fairly easy to solve in Lebanon via proper legislation. Full article
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14 pages, 702 KiB  
Article
Sodium Content of Foods Sold in the Spanish Market. Results from the BADALI Project
by Marta Beltrá, Fernando Borrás and Ana B. Ropero
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103410 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2910
Abstract
High sodium/salt intake is a risk factor for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Excess sodium intake has been associated with high coronary heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure. The sodium daily intake is above the recommendations in the world as well as in Spain. [...] Read more.
High sodium/salt intake is a risk factor for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Excess sodium intake has been associated with high coronary heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure. The sodium daily intake is above the recommendations in the world as well as in Spain. Reducing salt content in processed foods and ready meals is one of the main strategies for reducing sodium intake. The aim of the present work is to characterise the presence of sodium in foods sold in the Spanish market. We also study a possible shift in sodium content in products over the last few years. For this purpose, 3897 products included in the BADALI food database were analysed, classified into 16 groups (G). We found that 93.3% of all foods displayed the sodium/salt content in the nutrition declaration. Meat—processed and derivatives (G8) had the highest mean and median values for sodium content, followed by snacks (G15) and sauces (G14). Only 12.7% of foods were sodium-free (≤5 mg/100 g or 100 mL), 32.4% had very low sodium (≤40 mg/100 g or 100 mL) and 48.2% were low in sodium (≤120 mg/100 g or 100 mL). On the contrary, 47.2% were high in sodium according to the Pan American Health Organisation Nutrient Profile Model (PAHO-NPM), while there were 31.9% according to the Chile-NPM. The agreement between the two NPMs was considered ‘substantial’ (κ = 0.67). When sodium content was compared over the years, no decrease was observed. This analysis was performed in the entire food population, by food group and in matched products. Therefore, more effort should be made by all parties involved in order to decrease the sodium/salt intake in the population. Full article
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18 pages, 1711 KiB  
Article
Identifying Nutrient Patterns in South African Foods to Support National Nutrition Guidelines and Policies
by Yusentha Balakrishna, Samuel Manda, Henry Mwambi and Averalda van Graan
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093194 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide the nutritional content of foods and are essential for developing nutrition guidance and effective intervention programs to improve nutrition of a population. In public and nutritional health research studies, FCDBs are used in the estimation of nutrient intake [...] Read more.
Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide the nutritional content of foods and are essential for developing nutrition guidance and effective intervention programs to improve nutrition of a population. In public and nutritional health research studies, FCDBs are used in the estimation of nutrient intake profiles at the population levels. However, such studies investigating nutrient co-occurrence and profile patterns within the African context are very rare. This study aimed to identify nutrient co-occurrence patterns within the South African FCDB (SAFCDB). A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 28 nutrients and 971 foods in the South African FCDB to determine compositionally similar food items. A second principal component analysis was applied to the food items for validation. Eight nutrient patterns (NPs) explaining 73.4% of the nutrient variation among foods were identified: (1) high magnesium and manganese; (2) high copper and vitamin B12; (3) high animal protein, niacin, and vitamin B6; (4) high fatty acids and vitamin E; (5) high calcium, phosphorous and sodium; (6) low moisture and high available carbohydrate; (7) high cholesterol and vitamin D; and (8) low zinc and high vitamin C. Similar food patterns (FPs) were identified from a PCA on food items, yielding subgroups such as dark-green, leafy vegetables and, orange-coloured fruit and vegetables. One food pattern was associated with high sodium levels and contained bread, processed meat and seafood, canned vegetables, and sauces. The data-driven nutrient and food patterns found in this study were consistent with and support the South African food-based dietary guidelines and the national salt regulations. Full article
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14 pages, 2025 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Control Plan in Primary Schools: Results of a Field Investigation on Nutritional and Hygienic Features in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy)
by Vincenzo Marcotrigiano, Giacomo Domenico Stingi, Simona Fregnan, Pantaleo Magarelli, Pietro Pasquale, Samuele Russo, Giovanni Battista Orsi, Maria Teresa Montagna, Christian Napoli and Christian Napoli
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093006 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Data concerning overweight and obesity in children and adolescent populations are alarming and represent one of the most serious public health problems of our time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the school environment may play an important role in health promotion with regard [...] Read more.
Data concerning overweight and obesity in children and adolescent populations are alarming and represent one of the most serious public health problems of our time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the school environment may play an important role in health promotion with regard to nutritional aspects. This article reports the results of a study conducted in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), aimed at providing an integrated surveillance of the behaviors related to nutrition habits in students and the hygienic and nutritional conditions of the school’s canteens attended by enrolled students. To this purpose, a sample of 501 students attending primary school (third class—children approximately eight years old) replied to a validated questionnaire, and official controls (OC), of both food and nutritional safety, were performed in 22 primary schools. A team of healthcare professionals carried out the study, and the implementation of all the prescribed improvement actions were subsequently verified through follow-up OC. The results of our study show a critical situation in the student sample, with 41.3% of children having a weight excess (overweight or obesity). With regard to the children’s behaviors, only 59.8% of children ate at least one fruit or had a fruit juice for breakfast, and 10.8% did not have breakfast at all. Overall, 40.1% of the total children played outdoors the afternoon before the survey and 45% reported going to school on foot or by bicycle. During the afternoon, 83.5% of the sample watched television or used video games/tablets/mobile phones, while 42.3% played sports. The schools had an internal canteen with on-site preparation of meals in 36.4%, the remaining 63.6% received meals from external food establishments. With regard to OC, for the hygienic–sanitary section, eleven prescriptions were issued, in the great part related to the structure and organization of the canteen. For the nutritional section, nine corrective actions were prescribed, mainly related to official documents and management. The follow-up OC showed that all prescriptions were subsequently addressed. Eating at school was less frequent among obese and overweight students compared with those with normal weight. Although this evidence needs to be further confirmed, it highlights the potential role that the school canteens may play in health promotion and prevention of nutritional disorders. On the other hand, in order to fulfill its health promotion task, the school canteens have to comply with official regulations and guidelines; therefore, OC during the management of the food service at school are needed. Full article
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19 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Healthiness, Labelling, and Price between Private and Branded Label Packaged Foods in New Zealand (2015–2019)
by Teresa Castro, Sally Mackay, Leanne Young, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Grace Shaw, Essa Tawfiq and Helen Eyles
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082731 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3752
Abstract
We aimed to compare New Zealand private label (PL) and branded label (BL) packaged food products in relation to their current (2019) healthiness (sodium and sugar contents, and estimated Health Star Rating (HSR) score), display of the voluntary HSR nutrition label on the [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare New Zealand private label (PL) and branded label (BL) packaged food products in relation to their current (2019) healthiness (sodium and sugar contents, and estimated Health Star Rating (HSR) score), display of the voluntary HSR nutrition label on the package, and price. Healthiness and HSR display of products were also explored over time (2015 to 2019). Data were obtained from Nutritrack, a brand-specific food composition database. Means and proportions were compared using Student t-tests and Pearson chi-square tests, respectively. Changes over time were assessed using linear regression and chi-square tests for trends (Mantel–Haenzel tests). Altogether, 4266 PL and 19,318 BL products across 21 food categories were included. Overall, PL products in 2019 had a significantly lower mean sodium content and price, a higher proportion of products with estimated HSR ≥ 3.5/5 (48.9% vs. 38.5%) and were more likely to display the HSR on the pack compared with BL products (92.4% vs. 17.2%, respectively). However, for most food categories, no significant difference was found in mean sodium or sugar content between PL and BL products. In the period 2015–2019, there were no consistent changes in estimated HSR score, sodium or sugar contents of PL or BL products, but there was an increase in the proportion of both PL and BL products displaying HSR labels. In most food categories, there were PL options available which were similar in nutritional composition, more likely to be labelled with the HSR, and lower in cost than their branded counterparts. Full article
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20 pages, 1012 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Plant Sterols in the Diet of Adult Polish Population with the Use of a Newly Developed Database
by Anna Maria Witkowska, Anna Waśkiewicz, Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko, Iwona Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Alicja Cicha-Mikołajczyk and Wojciech Drygas
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082722 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3046
Abstract
Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. This work attempted to use international food databases, additionally supplemented by scientific data [...] Read more.
Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. This work attempted to use international food databases, additionally supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database of plant sterols, which would cover various kinds of foods and dishes consumed in Poland. The aim was to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. The median intake of plant sterols in the Polish population was 255.96 mg/day, and for men and women 291.76 and 230.61 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. The study found that plant sterol intake in Poland is comparable to other populations, and women’s diets are more dense in plant sterols. Due to the lack of literature sources on plant sterol content in some foods, future studies should expand and complete the databases on plant sterol content in foods. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

9 pages, 434 KiB  
Review
Management Strategies and Nursing Activities for Nutritional Care in Hospitalized Patients with Cognitive Decline: A Scoping Review
by Gloria Liquori, Aurora De Leo, Daniele De Nuzzo, Victoria D’Inzeo, Rosario Marco Arancio, Emanuele Di Simone, Sara Dionisi, Noemi Giannetta, Francesco Ricciardi, Fabio Fabbian, Giovanni Battista Orsi, Marco Di Muzio and Christian Napoli
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194036 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Cognitive impairment and dementia can negatively impact the nutritional capacities of older people. Malnutrition is common in hospitalized frail elderly people with cognitive impairment and negatively affects prognosis. Malnutrition worsens the quality of life and increases morbidity and mortality. This scoping review aimed [...] Read more.
Cognitive impairment and dementia can negatively impact the nutritional capacities of older people. Malnutrition is common in hospitalized frail elderly people with cognitive impairment and negatively affects prognosis. Malnutrition worsens the quality of life and increases morbidity and mortality. This scoping review aimed to identify factors affecting the risk of malnutrition and preventive strategies in hospitalized patients with cognitive impairment, focusing on nursing interventions. The authors researched population, context, and concept in international databases of nursing interest. Full texts that met the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. The extracted data were subject to thematic analysis. A five-stage approach, already reported in the scientific literature, was utilized in the following scoping review. Of 638 articles yielded, 9 were included. Two focus areas were identified as follows: (1) prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition in older patients with cognitive decline; (2) nursing strategies used to enhance clinical outcomes. Nursing health interventions aim to recognize and reduce malnutrition risk, positively impacting this phenomenon. A multidisciplinary team is essential to meet the nutritional needs of these patients. Full article
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20 pages, 1279 KiB  
Review
Food Composition Databases: Does It Matter to Human Health?
by Amélia Delgado, Manel Issaoui, Margarida C. Vieira, Isabel Saraiva de Carvalho and Anthony Fardet
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082816 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 8513
Abstract
Food provides humans with more than just energy and nutrients, addressing both vital needs and pleasure. Food habits are determined by a wide range of factors, from sensorial stimuli to beliefs and, once commanded by local and seasonal availability, are nowadays driven by [...] Read more.
Food provides humans with more than just energy and nutrients, addressing both vital needs and pleasure. Food habits are determined by a wide range of factors, from sensorial stimuli to beliefs and, once commanded by local and seasonal availability, are nowadays driven by marketing campaigns promoting unhealthy and non-sustainable foodstuffs. Top-down and bottom-up changes are transforming food systems, driven by policies on SDGs and by consumer’s concerns about environmental and health impacts. Food quality, in terms of taste, safety, and nutritional value, is determined by its composition, described in food composition databases (FDBs). FDBs are then useful resources to agronomists, food and mechanical engineers, nutritionists, marketers, and others in their efforts to address at maximum human nutrient needs. In this work, we analyse some relevant food composition databases (viz., purpose, type of data, ease of access, regularity of updates), inspecting information on the health and environmental nexus, such as food origin, production mode as well as nutritional quality. The usefulness and limitations of food databases are discussed regarding what concerns sustainable diets, the food ‘matrix effect’, missing compounds, safe processing, and in guiding innovation in foods, as well as in shaping consumers’ perceptions and food choices. Full article
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