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Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2023) | Viewed by 38614

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Special Issue Editors

Section of Pavement Engineering, Department of Engineering Structures, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: mechanics of multiphase media; experimental testing and constitutive modelling of pavement materials; pavement analysis & design; multi-physics flow and damage phenomena in asphalt mixtures; non-linear finite element analysis techniques; experimental testing and constitutive modelling of structural interlayer systems; experimental testing and computational characterization of multilayer asphalt surfacing systems on orthotropic steel deck bridges; multi-scale constitutive modelling of asphalt concrete; induction healing technology for asphalt concrete; warm rubberized asphalt concrete technology; waterproofing membrane material development and testing method; epoxy modified bitumen technology for durable and sustainable pavement; cold in place asphalt concrete recycling; high quality recycling of polymer modified asphalt; warm/cold rubberized asphalt concrete technology
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The Via Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 301N Patton Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Interests: smart and sustainable technologies; innovative infrastructure assessment and performance predictions; high-performance materials, material design; multiple-scale characterization, modeling, and simulation; pavement testing and mechanistic pavement design
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA
Interests: design, construction, and maintenance of pavements; micromechanics for road materials; discrete and finite element modeling techniques; construction materials: asphalt, aggregate; alternative and recycled materials for civil engineering
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Aston Institute of Materials Research (AIMR), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Interests: renewable construction materials; multiphysics and multiscale modeling; performance predictions of road infrastructures; intelligent and nondestructive road technologies
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Guest Editor
School of Architecture and Transportation Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: microstructure and performance of pavement materials; GPU-based parallel computing of granular materials; polymer-modified asphalt binder; climate and disaster risk assessment of road facilities; testing instrument and software development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pavement materials such as asphalt mixtures, granular aggregates, and soils exhibit complex material properties and engineering performance under external loading and environmental conditions. For instance, the asphalt mixture shows highly nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties at high temperatures, and it presents fatigue cracking damage and fracture properties at intermediate or low temperatures. Constitutive models based on mechanics theories have been the kernel of performance prediction of pavement infrastructures and materials. They lay down a solid foundation for material selection, design and pavement structural evaluation, and maintenance decisions. Advances in mechanics modeling and the associated experimental testing for pavement infrastructures and construction materials are emerging constantly, such as nonlinear viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, fracture, and damage mechanics models. Meanwhile, various numerical modeling technologies are being developed and implemented to solve the multiscale and multiphysical equations and models for pavement structures and materials. Examples include finite element, discrete element, and micromechanics or molecular dynamics simulations at different dimensions and scales. These are being applied to both existing traditional pavement materials and novel and emerging materials such as recycled, modified or alternative materials. All the aforementioned advances have been leading to a large number of new studies and discoveries in the relevant areas. This Special Issue provides a unique platform to collect and present these novel studies and new discoveries in the areas of mechanics, numerical modeling and experimental testing of pavement infrastructures and materials.

Some suggested topics related to this Special Issue include:

  • Advanced constitutive modeling and experimental testing of pavement materials;
  • Viscoelastic, viscoplastic, fracture, and damage mechanics analysis;
  • Finite/boundary/discrete element modeling of pavements and materials;
  • Molecular dynamics modeling and micromechanics modeling;
  • Performance predictions of pavement structures and materials;
  • Multiscale and multiphysics modeling and evaluations;
  • Modified, renewable, recyclable or alternative pavement materials;
  • Artificial-intelligence-based constitutive behavior of asphalt mixtures;
  • Microscopic test method and instrument development of pavement materials;
  • Rapid repair materials for pavement structures: development or application.

Dr. Xueyan Liu
Prof. Dr. Linbing Wang
Prof. Dr. Zhanping You
Dr. Yuqing Zhang
Dr. Changhong Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pavement materials
  • advanced mechanics and modeling
  • experimental testing and characterization
  • multiscale and multiphysics simulations
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials
by Xueyan Liu, Yuqing Zhang, Zhanping You, Linbing Wang and Changhong Zhou
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114186 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Pavement materials such as asphalt mixtures, granular aggregates and soils exhibit complex material properties and engineering performance under external loading and environmental conditions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

17 pages, 5659 KiB  
Article
Identify the Micro-Parameters for Optimized Discrete Element Models of Granular Materials in Two Dimensions Using Hexagonal Close-Packed Structures
by Xiaodong Zhou, Dongzhao Jin, Dongdong Ge, Siyu Chen and Zhanping You
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083073 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The widely used simple cubic-centered (SCC) model structure has limitations in handling diagonal loading and accurately representing Poisson’s ratio. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a set of modeling procedures for granular material discrete element models (DEM) with high efficiency, [...] Read more.
The widely used simple cubic-centered (SCC) model structure has limitations in handling diagonal loading and accurately representing Poisson’s ratio. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a set of modeling procedures for granular material discrete element models (DEM) with high efficiency, low cost, reliable accuracy, and wide application. The new modeling procedures use coarse aggregate templates from an aggregate database to improve simulation accuracy and use geometry information from the random generation method to create virtual specimens. The hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure, which has advantages in simulating shear failure and Poisson’s ratio, was employed instead of the SCC structure. The corresponding mechanical calculation for contact micro-parameters was then derived and verified through simple stiffness/bond tests and complete indirect tensile (IDT) tests of a set of asphalt mixture specimens. The results showed that (1) a new set of modeling procedures using the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure was proposed and was proved to be effective, (2) micro-parameters of the DEM models were transit form material macro-parameters based on a set of equations that were derived based on basic configuration and mechanism of discrete element theories, and (3) that the results from IDT tests prove that the new approach to determining model micro-parameters based on mechanical calculation is reliable. This new approach may enable a wider and deeper application of the HCP structure DEM models in the research of granular material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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16 pages, 4272 KiB  
Article
Key Performance Analysis of Emulsified Asphalt Cold Recycling Mixtures of the Middle Layer of Pavement Structure
by Jun Li, Mingliang Li and Hao Wu
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041613 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
In the maintenance engineering of asphalt pavement, it is often encountered that both the surface and middle layers are damaged and need to be maintained. The cold in-place recycling technology can be used to simultaneously treat multi-layer diseases and reduce the waste of [...] Read more.
In the maintenance engineering of asphalt pavement, it is often encountered that both the surface and middle layers are damaged and need to be maintained. The cold in-place recycling technology can be used to simultaneously treat multi-layer diseases and reduce the waste of pavement materials. The cold in-place recycling mixture is rarely used for high layer of pavement structure in high-grade highway. In the supporting practical engineering, the emulsified asphalt cold in-place recycling mixtures were paved as the middle layer of pavement structure by the laying of an overlay. In order to comprehensively evaluate the material performances, coring samples were drilled after cold recycling pavement opening to traffic, and different performance tests were carried out based on the coring samples. The newly paved SMA mixtures were set as the control group. The high temperature stability of cold recycling mixture was analyzed by dynamic creep test and MMLS3 accelerated loading test. Then, the cracking resistance of cold recycling mixture was studied by semi-circular bending test. Finally, the effect of curing time on splitting strength of cold recycling mixture was measured, and the moisture susceptibility was analyzed by dry–wet splitting test and freeze–thaw splitting test. The test results showed that the high temperature stability of cold recycling mixture was worse than SMA mixture. For the cold recycling mixture, the deformation value at the early stage and deformation rate at the stable stage were larger than SMA mixture in the accelerated loading process, and shear failure at high temperature occurred earlier. The cracking resistance of cold recycling mixture was worse than SMA mixture because of the aging effect of the old asphalt and adverse influence of the added cement binder. The effect of curing time on splitting strength of cold recycling mixture was significant, and two stable periods of early strength were, respectively, reached after curing 3 days and 7 days. The indexes of moisture susceptibility, including dry–wet splitting strength ratio and freeze–thaw splitting strength ratio, were obviously lower than that of SMA mixture, and the test values not up to the standard requirement existed. For the emulsified asphalt cold in-place recycling mixture, the improvement of material performances should be focused on, especially the moisture susceptibility. In the research, the emulsified asphalt cold in-place recycling mixtures were acceptably used as the middle layer of maintenance pavement structure. The reliable discussions were summarized based on coring samples collected from real-life road sections. The case can provide guidance and reference for similar engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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27 pages, 8627 KiB  
Article
Investigation into Rheological Behavior of Warm-Mix Recycled Asphalt Binders with High Percentages of RAP Binder
by Hui Xu, Yiren Sun, Jingyun Chen, Jiyang Li, Bowen Yu, Guoqing Qiu, Yan Zhang and Bin Xu
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041599 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The rheological properties of warm-mix recycled asphalt binders are critical to enhancing design quality and interpreting the performance mechanisms of the corresponding mixtures. This study investigated the rheological behavior of warm-mix recycled asphalt binders with high percentages of RAP binder. The effects of [...] Read more.
The rheological properties of warm-mix recycled asphalt binders are critical to enhancing design quality and interpreting the performance mechanisms of the corresponding mixtures. This study investigated the rheological behavior of warm-mix recycled asphalt binders with high percentages of RAP binder. The effects of two warm-mix additives [wax-based Sasobit (S) and surfactant-based Evotherm-M1 (E)], a rejuvenating aging [ZGSB (Z)], four RAP binder contents (0%, 30%, 50% and 70%), and three aging states (unaged, short-term aged and long-term aged) were evaluated in detail using the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR) and Brookfield rotational viscometer tests as well as conventional performance tests over the whole range of temperatures. The results showed that the rejuvenating agent Z effectively alleviated the aging effect of the RAP binder; however, it could hardly eliminate entirely this negative impact, especially at higher RAP binder contents. The addition of S remarkably lowered the apparent viscosity of the warm-mix recycled binders by up to 35.0%, whereas E had little influence on the binder viscosity due to its surfactant nature. Besides, S performed much better in improving rutting resistance (with the increase of up to 411.3% in |G*|/sinδ) than E, while E exhibited superior fatigue performance (with the reduction of up to 42.3% in |G*|·sinδ) to that of S. In terms of the thermal cracking resistance, E had very slight influence and S even yielded an adverse impact (with the increase of up to 70.2% in Sa and the decrease of up to 34.1% in m-value). Further, S broadened the ranges of pavement service temperatures by about 12 °C, whereas E almost did not change the PG grades of the binders. Finally, regarding the characteristics of viscoelastic master curves, S considerably improved the dynamic modulus and lowered the phase angle of the binders over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures but led to the failure of the time-temperature superposition principle due to its thermorheologically complex nature. Nevertheless, in this regard, the effect of E was found very mild. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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21 pages, 8914 KiB  
Article
Improved Procedure for the 3D Reconstruction of Asphalt Concrete Mesostructures Considering the Similarity of Aggregate Phase Geometry between Adjacent CT Slices
by Chao Wang, Hui Xu, Yan Zhang, Yiren Sun, Weiying Wang and Jingyun Chen
Materials 2023, 16(1), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010234 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Existing image segmentation algorithms used for the computed tomography (CT) images of asphalt concrete mostly ignore the similarity of aggregate phase geometry between adjacent CT slices, thus increasing the variability in the aggregate phase pixel values between adjacent slices and leading to a [...] Read more.
Existing image segmentation algorithms used for the computed tomography (CT) images of asphalt concrete mostly ignore the similarity of aggregate phase geometry between adjacent CT slices, thus increasing the variability in the aggregate phase pixel values between adjacent slices and leading to a large number of model defects, e.g., interconnected aggregates, flaky aggregates, and incomplete aggregates. The developed mesostructural models with these defects pose a challenge to following simulation operations. To address this issue, an improved procedure for the 3D reconstruction of asphalt concrete mesostructures considering the similarity of aggregate phase geometry between adjacent slices was developed, which includes two adjacent-slice pixel-value-correction algorithms, a multi-directional multiple-correction method, and an image pixel interpolation process. First, the bilinear interpolation algorithm was employed to improve the pixel density of 2D CT images and the average filtering algorithm was used to reduce the noise of the CT images. Subsequently, the OTSU method was employed to separate the asphalt mortar matrix phase from the aggregate phase, and the marker-based watershed segmentation method was used to separate the interconnected aggregates. Finally, the adjacent-slice pixel-value-correction algorithm was used to recover the similarity of aggregate phase geometry between adjacent CT slices, and the multi-directional multiple-correction method was used to further enhance the geometric similarity. The results show that the developed 3D reconstruction procedure removes most of the model defects in the 3D mesostructural model of asphalt concrete, thus realistically maintaining the 3D spatial distribution features and contour characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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19 pages, 5969 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Effect of Different Fibers on Asphalt Mastic
by Tingting Xie, Kang Zhao and Linbing Wang
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238304 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Fiber materials as an asphalt mixture additive and stabilizer can effectively improve the performance index of asphalt pavement. In this study, lignin and carbon fiber were used as modifiers to study their effects on the road performance of asphalt mastic. Based on the [...] Read more.
Fiber materials as an asphalt mixture additive and stabilizer can effectively improve the performance index of asphalt pavement. In this study, lignin and carbon fiber were used as modifiers to study their effects on the road performance of asphalt mastic. Based on the frequency sweep, linear amplitude sweep (LAS) and multi-stress creep recovery (MSCR) experiments were conducted to test the high-temperature rutting and medium-temperature fatigue resistance of asphalt mastic with different fiber incorporation and low-temperature performance tests based on bending beam rheometer (BBR). The results indicate that adding fibers increased the stiffness of the asphalt mastic, and the modification effect of lignin fibers was better than that of carbon fibers. Meanwhile, the characteristic flow index of the asphalt mastic gradually increased with the increase in temperature, indicating that it gradually became a near-Newtonian fluid at higher temperatures. The addition of fibers also improved the high temperature rutting resistance of the asphalt mastic but did not have an advantageous effect on fatigue and low temperature cracking resistance. Additionally, the fitting results of the four-parameter Burgers model show that the use of fiber modification decreases the proportion of elasticity and viscous creep compliance but increases the delayed elasticity part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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15 pages, 6825 KiB  
Article
Study on the Extraction of CT Images with Non-Uniform Illumination for the Microstructure of Asphalt Mixture
by Lei Zhang, Guiping Zheng, Kai Zhang, Yongfeng Wang, Changming Chen, Liting Zhao, Jiquan Xu, Xinqing Liu, Liqing Wang, Yiqiu Tan and Chao Xing
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207364 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
An adaptive image-processing method for CT images of asphalt mixture is proposed in this paper. Different methods are compared according to the error analysis calculated between the real gradation and 3D reconstruction gradation. As revealed by the test results, the adaptive image-processing method [...] Read more.
An adaptive image-processing method for CT images of asphalt mixture is proposed in this paper. Different methods are compared according to the error analysis calculated between the real gradation and 3D reconstruction gradation. As revealed by the test results, the adaptive image-processing method was effective in carrying out different brightness homogenization processes for each image. The Wiener filter with 7 × 7 size filter was able to produce a better noise reduction effect without compromising image sharpness. Among the three methods, the adaptive image-processing method performed best in the accuracy of coarse aggregate recognition, followed by the ring division method and the global threshold segmentation method. The error of the gradation extracted by the adaptive image-processing method was found to be lowest compared with the real gradation. For a variety of engineering applications, the developed method helps to improve the analysis of CT images of asphalt mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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19 pages, 12336 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Rutting Damage by the Change of Air-Void Characteristics in the Asphalt Mixture Based on Two-Dimensional Image Analysis
by Kang Zhao, Hailu Yang, Wentao Wang and Linbing Wang
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207190 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
In the process of the rutting test, the air-void characteristics in asphalt mixture specimens are a dynamic change process. It is of great significance to systematically study the correlation between the change of air-void characteristics and the depth of the rutting slab and [...] Read more.
In the process of the rutting test, the air-void characteristics in asphalt mixture specimens are a dynamic change process. It is of great significance to systematically study the correlation between the change of air-void characteristics and the depth of the rutting slab and establish a relationship with damage. In this paper, the air-void information of rutting specimen sections with different loading cycles (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 times) is obtained by two-dimensional image technology. The dynamic change process of the micro characteristics of internal air voids of two graded asphalt mixtures (AC-13 and AC-16) under cyclic wheel load is analyzed, and it is used as an index to characterize the microstructure damage of the asphalt mixture. The results show that the variation of air-void distribution, air-void shape characteristics, and air-void fractal dimension with the loading process can well characterize the permanent deformation law of the rutting slab. The fractal dimension of the air void increases with the increase in load. It is a dynamic process in which the air-void content changes with crack initiation and propagation. After rutting deformation, the total air-void area and average air-void size of the sample increase, and the total air-void number decreases. Because microcracks are formed in the specimen after rutting damage, the aspect ratio of the air void increases, and the roundness value decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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16 pages, 5648 KiB  
Article
Interlayer Shear Characteristics of Bridge Deck Pavement through Experimental and Numerical Analysis
by Weidong Chen, Bing Hui and Ali Rahman
Materials 2022, 15(19), 7001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15197001 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
In order to study the interlayer shear behavior of bridge deck pavement, a numerical simulation was conducted to analyze the influence of varying interfacial conditions on shear stress at the bottom of pavement layers under the moving loading effect. Moreover, the shear strength [...] Read more.
In order to study the interlayer shear behavior of bridge deck pavement, a numerical simulation was conducted to analyze the influence of varying interfacial conditions on shear stress at the bottom of pavement layers under the moving loading effect. Moreover, the shear strength of the different adhesive and waterproof adhesive materials was evaluated by conducting laboratory tests. The results showed that improving the bonding condition at the upper interlayer led to the reduction of the shear stress at the bottom of the pavement layers. With the increase of the friction coefficient of the upper interface to the full bonding state, the resulting shear stress at the bottom of the upper layer declined to the lowest value, which was about 35% of that of the full slip state. When the lower interlayer was in the full slip or partial bonding state, the resulting shear stress at the bottom of the lower layer decreased linearly with the increase of the friction coefficient of the upper interlayer. Moreover, once the contact state of the upper interlayer reached the full bonding state, the resulting shear stress at the bottom of the lower layer reached the minimum, which is about 88% of that of the full slip state. To improve the integrity and shear resistance of the bridge deck pavement structure, interlayer bonding should be strengthened. In this regard, the resin emulsified asphalt was determined as an appropriate adhesive material to be applied at the upper and lower interlayers. In addition, interlayer shear bond strength, regardless of the type of adhesive materials, was decreased with increasing temperature. Finally, statistical analysis results indicated that all factors of structure type, type of adhesive material, and temperature statistically have a significant effect on interlayer bond strength. The findings of this study could provide a theoretical basis and experimental support for improving the interlayer design and construction in the concrete bridge deck pavement structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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18 pages, 6390 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Adhesion Performance of Wax Based Warm Mix Asphalt with Molecular Dynamics Simulation
by Chao Peng, Hanneng Yang, Zhanping You, Hongchao Ma, Fang Xu, Lingyun You, Aboelkasim Diab, Li Lu, Yudong Hu, Yafeng Liu, Jing Dai and Zhibo Li
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175930 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Compared with traditional hot mix asphalt (HMA), wax based warm mix asphalt (WWMA) can be mixed with the aggregate at a lower temperature and achieve the desired compaction. However, the adhesion performance of WWMA on aggregate is uncertain. To evaluate the adhesion performance [...] Read more.
Compared with traditional hot mix asphalt (HMA), wax based warm mix asphalt (WWMA) can be mixed with the aggregate at a lower temperature and achieve the desired compaction. However, the adhesion performance of WWMA on aggregate is uncertain. To evaluate the adhesion performance of asphalt and aggregate, researchers used contact angle test, pull-off test, and ultrasonic washing experiments. However, these tests cannot adequately explain the microscopic mechanism of the interface between asphalt and aggregate. Molecular dynamics (MD) can better explain the adhesion mechanism of asphalt aggregates because they can be simulated at the molecular scale. So, the purpose of this research is to use the MD method to study the adhesion performance between WWMA and aggregate. Two aggregate oxides (CaCO3 and SiO2) models, the matrix asphalt model and WWMA models, were built in Materials Studio (MS) software. The adhesion work of asphalt and aggregate oxides was calculated. With the increase of wax modifier content, the adhesion work of asphalt and aggregate oxides (CaCO3 and SiO2) first increases and then decreases. When the wax modifier is increased to 3 wt%, the adhesion works of the WWMA-SiO2 and WWMA-CaCO3 increase by 31.2% and 14.0%, compared with that of matrix asphalt. In this study, the accuracy of the MD calculation result was verified by the pull-off experiments and the contact angle experiments. WWMA was prepared by a high-shear mixer emulsifier. In the pull-off experiments and the contact angle experiments, the tensile strength and the adhesion work between the aggregate and the asphalt containing 3% wax modifier reaches peak values. These values are 140.7% and 124.9%, compared with those between the aggregate and the matrix asphalt. In addition, the results of the pull-off experiments and the contact angle experiments are in good agreement with that of the MD simulation. Finally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows that the carbonyl content of WWMA is greater than that of matrix asphalt. It explains well that the wax modifier promotes the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate. This paper provides an important theoretical basis to understand the adhesion performance of WWMA and aggregate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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22 pages, 12127 KiB  
Article
Anti-Skid Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement Based on Partial Tire Aquaplane Conditions
by Miao Yu, Yao Kong, Zhanping You, Jue Li, Liming Yang and Lingyun Kong
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144976 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
This study presented a finite element model of radial tire–asphalt pavement interaction using ABAQUS 6.14 software to investigate the skid resistance properties of asphalt pavement under partial tire aquaplane conditions. Firstly, the pavement profile datum acquired by laser scanning were imported to Finite [...] Read more.
This study presented a finite element model of radial tire–asphalt pavement interaction using ABAQUS 6.14 software to investigate the skid resistance properties of asphalt pavement under partial tire aquaplane conditions. Firstly, the pavement profile datum acquired by laser scanning were imported to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to conduct the pavement modeling. Secondly, a steady state rolling analysis of a tire on three types of asphalt pavements under drying conditions was carried out. Variation laws of the friction coefficient of the radial tire on different pavements with different pavement textures, tire pressures, and loads on the tire were examined. Subsequently, calculation results of the steady state rolling analysis were transmitted to dynamic explicit analysis, and an aquaplane model of a radial tire on asphalt pavements was built by inputting the flow Euler grids. The tire–pavement adhesive characteristics under partial aquaplane conditions are discussed regarding the aquaplane model. Influences of the thickness of water film, the texture of asphalt pavement, and the rolling speed of the tire on the vertical pavement-tire contact force are analyzed. It is found that the vertical contact force between open graded friction course (OGFC) pavement and tire is the highest, followed by stone mastic asphalt (SMA) pavement and dense graded asphalt concrete (AC) pavement surface. The vertical contact force between tire and pavement will be greatly reduced, even with increasing speed or water film thickness. As tire speed increases from 70 km/h to 130 km/h, the tire–pavement contact force is reduced by about 25%. Moreover, when the thickness of water film increases from 0 (dry condition) to 4 mm and then to 12 mm, the vertical contact force reduced 50% and 15%, respectively, compared with under the dry contact condition. This study provided a key theoretical reference for safe driving on wet pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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17 pages, 4509 KiB  
Article
Dosage Effect of Wet-Process Tuff Silt Powder as an Alternative Material of Sand on the Performance of Reactive Powder Concrete
by Yanxia Cai, Zhi Lin, Jingrui Zhang, Kaiji Lu, Linbing Wang, Yue Zhao and Qianlong Huang
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113930 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
A large amount of stone powder is produced during the production of machine-made sand. This research aims to study the effect of wet-process tuff silt powder (WTSP) dosages (as an alternative sand material to utilize waste stone powder and reduce environmental hazards) on [...] Read more.
A large amount of stone powder is produced during the production of machine-made sand. This research aims to study the effect of wet-process tuff silt powder (WTSP) dosages (as an alternative sand material to utilize waste stone powder and reduce environmental hazards) on reactive powder concrete’s (RPC) mechanical performance. The physical and chemical properties of WTSP were analyzed as per relevant standards. This study prepared RPC samples with various WTSP content (0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%) to replace quartz sand at the same water–binder ratio (0.14) and allowed the samples to cure for 3 days, 7 days and 28 days prior to unconfined compression testing and flexural testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) testing were also carried out to observe the evolution of macroscopic properties in response to replacing part of quartz sand with the same amount of WTSP. The results show that the developed flexural and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) decreases slowly with a greater dosage of WTSP. However, when the WTSP content is 12% or less, the RPC made with WTSP satisfies the industrial application threshold regarding mechanical properties. For RPC samples containing more than 12% WTSP, the UCS and flexural strength showed a dramatic drop. Thus 12% of WTSP content was deemed the maximum and the corresponding UCS of 104.6 MPa and flexural strength of 12 MPa for 28 days of curing were the optimums. The microscopic characteristics indicate that the addition of WTSP can effectively fill the large pores in the RPC micro-structure, hence reducing the porosity of RPC. Furthermore, the WTSP can react with the cementitious material to form calcium aluminate during the hydration process, further strengthening the interface. The alkaline calcium carbonate in WTSP could improve the interfacial adhesion and make the structure stronger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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19 pages, 7452 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Embedded Sensor Packaging Used in Rollpave Pavement Based on Test and Simulation
by Zhoujing Ye, Yanxia Cai, Chang Liu, Kaiji Lu, Dylan G. Ildefonzo and Linbing Wang
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062283 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Rollpave pavement, as a rollable prefabricated asphalt pavement technology, can effectively reduce the overall road closure time required for pavement construction and maintenance. Sensors can be integrated into Rollpave pavement, thereby avoiding sensor damage that may otherwise result from high temperatures and compactive [...] Read more.
Rollpave pavement, as a rollable prefabricated asphalt pavement technology, can effectively reduce the overall road closure time required for pavement construction and maintenance. Sensors can be integrated into Rollpave pavement, thereby avoiding sensor damage that may otherwise result from high temperatures and compactive forces during the rolling process, as well as pavement structural damage resulting from cutting and drilling. However, the embedment of sensors into Rollpave pavement still presents certain challenges, namely poor interfacial synergy between the embedded sensor and the asphalt mixture. To solve this problem, three-point bending tests and dynamic response FEM simulations were used to optimize the embedded sensor’s packaging. The influence of sensor embedment on Rollpave pavement under different working conditions was analyzed. Results of these analyses show that low temperature and the epoxy resin negatively affect the bending performance of specimens, and that packaging with cylindrical shape, flat design, and consisting of a material with modulus similar to that of the asphalt mixture should be preferred. This study is conducive to improve the intellectual level and service life of road infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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13 pages, 24503 KiB  
Article
Influence of Basalt Fibers on the Crack Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures and Mechanism Analysis
by Bangwei Wu, Weijie Meng, Ji Xia and Peng Xiao
Materials 2022, 15(3), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030744 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
The paper aims to investigate the influence of basalt fiber (BF) on the crack resistance of the asphalt mixture and conduct a mechanical analysis. First, two typical asphalt mixtures, namely AC-13 and SMA-13, were designed. The impact of BF on the mixture design [...] Read more.
The paper aims to investigate the influence of basalt fiber (BF) on the crack resistance of the asphalt mixture and conduct a mechanical analysis. First, two typical asphalt mixtures, namely AC-13 and SMA-13, were designed. The impact of BF on the mixture design results was analyzed. Then, several macroscopic tests, namely the four-point bending test, indirect tensile test, and semicircular bending test (SCB), were conducted to assess the effect of BF on the cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures. Finally, the influence of BF on the cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures was analyzed based on an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) observation. The results show that: (1) BF increases the optimal asphalt content of AC13 and decreases the optimal asphalt content of SMA-13, which is caused by the different asphalt-absorption capacity of BF and lignin fiber (LF). (2) BF enhances both the fatigue crack resistance and temperature crack resistance of asphalt mixtures. The enhancement on the SMA-13 is more significant, indicating that the enhancement of BF on asphalt mixtures is related to the type of aggregate gradation. (3) BFs in the asphalt mixture lap each other to form a spatial network structure. Such structure can effectively improve the crack resistance of the mixture by dispersing the load stress and preventing the flow of asphalt mastic. The study results provide an effective method to design crack-resistant asphalt mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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24 pages, 21904 KiB  
Article
Fast-Acquiring High-Quality Prony Series Parameters of Asphalt Concrete through Viscoelastic Continuous Spectral Models
by Yan Zhang and Yiren Sun
Materials 2022, 15(3), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030716 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Prony series representations have been extensively applied to characterizing the time-domain linear viscoelastic (LVE) material functions for asphalt concrete. However, existing methods that can generate high-quality Prony series parameters (i.e., discrete spectra) mostly involve complicated programming algorithms, which poses a challenge for quick [...] Read more.
Prony series representations have been extensively applied to characterizing the time-domain linear viscoelastic (LVE) material functions for asphalt concrete. However, existing methods that can generate high-quality Prony series parameters (i.e., discrete spectra) mostly involve complicated programming algorithms, which poses a challenge for quick access of Prony series parameters. Also, very limited research has been devoted to establishing methods for simultaneously determining both retardation and relaxation spectra. To resolve these issues, this study presented a practical approach to fast acquiring high-quality Prony series parameters for both relaxation modulus and creep compliance of asphalt concrete by using the complex modulus test data. The approach adopts the analytical representations of the continuous relaxation and retardation spectra from the Havriliak-Negami (HN) and 2S2P1D complex modulus models to directly determine the discrete spectra, and the elastic constants, Ee and Dg, for both LVE modulus and compliance functions are further calculated by fitting the corresponding generalized Maxwell model representations to smoothed data from the storage modulus representations of the HN and 2S2P1D complex modulus models. In this way, all the procedures in the proposed method can be easily implemented in Microsoft Excel. The results showed that the HN and 2S2P1D models yielded slightly different continuous spectral patterns at shorter relaxation times and longer retardation times. However, at the region covered by the test data, the continuous spectra of the two complex modulus models were very close to each other. Thus, the two models can generate comparable Prony series parameters within the time or frequency range covered by the test data. Considering that the quality of the resulting Prony series parameters are closely related to the master curve models used for presmoothing, the HN and 2S2P1D models were compared with the conventional Sigmoidal model. Additionally, the Black diagram was recommended for examining the quality of the complex modulus test data before constructing the master curves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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20 pages, 3223 KiB  
Article
Viscoelastic Damage Characteristics of Asphalt Mixtures Using Fractional Rheology
by Qipeng Zhang, Xingyu Gu, Zilu Yu, Jia Liang and Qiao Dong
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195892 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixtures at high stress levels are characterized by non-linear viscoelasticity and damage evolution. A nonlinear damage constitutive model considering the existence of creep hardening and creep damage mechanisms in the entire creep process is proposed in this study [...] Read more.
The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixtures at high stress levels are characterized by non-linear viscoelasticity and damage evolution. A nonlinear damage constitutive model considering the existence of creep hardening and creep damage mechanisms in the entire creep process is proposed in this study by adopting the fractional rheology theory to characterize the three-stage creep process of mixtures. A series of uniaxial compressive creep tests under various stresses were conducted at different temperatures to verify the model. The results indicated that the model predictions were in good agreement with the creep tests. The relationship between the model parameters and applied stresses was established, and the stress range in which the mixture exhibited only creep consolidation was obtained. The damage to the asphalt mixture was initiated in the steady stage; however, it developed in the tertiary stage. A two-parameter Weibull distribution function was used to describe the evolution between the damage values and damage strains at different stress levels and temperatures. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99 at different temperatures, indicating that a unified damage evolution model could be established. Thus, the parameters of the unified model were related to material properties and temperature, independent of the stress levels applied to the mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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14 pages, 3033 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Aging of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Modified Asphalt Binder with Different Polymer Additives
by Bangwei Wu, Chufan Luo, Zhaohui Pei, Chuangchuang Chen, Ji Xia and Peng Xiao
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195715 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
A wide variety of polymer additives have been widely used in recent years. However, the effect of different polymer additives on the durability of asphalt binders has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the aging property of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) asphalt binder with different [...] Read more.
A wide variety of polymer additives have been widely used in recent years. However, the effect of different polymer additives on the durability of asphalt binders has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the aging property of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) asphalt binder with different polymer additives, three polymer modifiers, namely high modulus modifier (HMM), anti-rutting agent (ARA), and high viscosity modifier (HVM), were added to it. First, the Thin Film Over Test (TFOT) and Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) was performed on the asphalt binders. The rheological properties of the four asphalt binders before and after aging were then checked by the Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test (DSR). The chemical compositions of the asphalt binders were determined by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) test. Several aging indicators were adopted to reflect the aging degree of the asphalt binders. The results show that when polymer additives are added to the SBS asphalt binder, the complex modulus, storage modulus, loss modulus, and rutting factor substantially increase and the phase angle decreases. All the test parameters become higher after aging. The phase angle of the SBS asphalt binder is the highest at both unaged and aged states, while its other parameters values are the smallest. Moreover, the Carbonyl Aging Indicator (CAI) of SBS with polymer additives becomes lower under both TFOT and PAV conditions, indicating that polymer additives can improve the aging resistance of SBS asphalt, of which HVM modifies the aging resistance best. Complex Modulus Aging Indicator (CMAI) and Storage Modulus Aging Indicator (SMAI) have the best correlation coefficients with CAI, and the two aging indicators can be used to predict the aging degree of polymer modified asphalt binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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14 pages, 5433 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Aeolian Sand on the Anti-Skid Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement
by Jingsheng Pan, Hua Zhao, Yong Wang and Gang Liu
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195523 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
The influence of sand accumulation on the skid resistance of asphalt pavement was studied. Many scholars have researched the anti-skid performance of conventional asphalt pavements. However, there is a lack of research on the anti-skid performance of desert roads under the condition of [...] Read more.
The influence of sand accumulation on the skid resistance of asphalt pavement was studied. Many scholars have researched the anti-skid performance of conventional asphalt pavements. However, there is a lack of research on the anti-skid performance of desert roads under the condition of sand accumulation. In this study, AC-13 and AC-16 asphalt mixtures were used. The British Pendulum Number (BPN) under different sand accumulations was measured with a pendulum friction coefficient meter, and the Ames engineering texture scanner was used to obtain different sand accumulations. The texture index of asphalt mixture was used to study the macro and micro texture of asphalt pavement under different amounts of sand accumulation, and the degree of influence of different particle sizes on BPN was obtained through gray correlation analysis. The test results show that the presence of aeolian sand has a significant impact on the macro and micro texture of the asphalt pavement and will cause the anti-skid performance to decrease. Moreover, there is an apparent positive linear correlation between the road surface texture index and BPN. The research results may provide reference and reference for the design and maintenance of desert highways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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21 pages, 5126 KiB  
Article
An Improved Mechanistic-Empirical Creep Model for Unsaturated Soft and Stabilized Soils
by Xunli Jiang, Zhiyi Huang and Xue Luo
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154146 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Soft soils are usually treated to mitigate their engineering problems, such as excessive deformation, and stabilization is one of most popular treatments. Although there are many creep models to characterize the deformation behaviors of soil, there still exist demands for a balance between [...] Read more.
Soft soils are usually treated to mitigate their engineering problems, such as excessive deformation, and stabilization is one of most popular treatments. Although there are many creep models to characterize the deformation behaviors of soil, there still exist demands for a balance between model accuracy and practical application. Therefore, this paper aims at developing a Mechanistic-Empirical creep model (MEC) for unsaturated soft and stabilized soils. The model considers the stress dependence and incorporates moisture sensitivity using matric suction and shear strength parameters. This formulation is intended to predict the soil creep deformation under arbitrary water content and arbitrary stress conditions. The results show that the MEC model is in good agreement with the experimental data with very high R-squared values. In addition, the model is compared with the other classical creep models for unsaturated soils. While the classical creep models require a different set of parameters when the water content is changed, the MEC model only needs one set of parameters for different stress levels and moisture conditions, which provides significant facilitation for implementation. Finally, a finite element simulation analysis of subgrade soil foundation is performed for different loading levels and moisture conditions. The MEC model is utilized to predict the creep behavior of subgrade soils. Under the same load and moisture level, the deformation of soft soil is largest, followed by lime soil and RHA–lime-stabilized soil, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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13 pages, 7431 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber/Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene Composite Modified Asphalt Based on Rheological Properties
by Jingyao Yang, Gang Xu, Peipei Kong and Xianhua Chen
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143780 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
With the growing interest in bituminous construction materials, desulfurized crumb rubber (CR)/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) modified asphalts have been investigated by many researchers as low-cost environmental-friendly road construction materials. This study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt within various [...] Read more.
With the growing interest in bituminous construction materials, desulfurized crumb rubber (CR)/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) modified asphalts have been investigated by many researchers as low-cost environmental-friendly road construction materials. This study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt within various temperature ranges. Bending beam rheometer (BBR), linear amplitude sweep (LAS), and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests were performed on conventional CR/SBS composite modified asphalt and five types of desulfurized CR/SBS modified asphalts. Meanwhile, Burgers’ model and the Kelvin–Voigt model were used to derive nonlinear viscoelastic parameters and analyze the viscoelastic mechanical behavior of the asphalts. The experimental results indicate that both the desulfurized CR/SBS composite modifier and force chemical reactor technique can enhance the crosslinking of CR and SBS copolymer, resulting in an improved high-, intermediate-, and low-temperature performance of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt. Burgers’ model was found to be apposite in simulating the creep stages obtained from MSCR tests for CR/SBS composite modified asphalts. The superior high-temperature performance of desulfurized CR/SBS modified asphalt prepared with 4% SBS, 20% desulfurized rubber, and a force chemical reactor time of 45 min contributes to the good high-temperature elastic properties of the asphalt. Therefore, this combination is recommended as an optimal preparation process. In summary, the desulfurization of crumb rubber and using the force chemical reactor technique are beneficial to composite asphalt performance and can provide a new way of utilizing waste tire rubber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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19 pages, 8772 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Hybrid Self-Healing System in Porous Asphalt under Fatigue Loadings
by Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabaković and Erik Schlangen
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123415 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Self-healing asphalt, which is designed to achieve autonomic damage repair in asphalt pavement, offers a great life-extension prospect and therefore not only reduces pavement maintenance costs but also saves energy and reduces CO2 emissions. The combined asphalt self-healing system, incorporating both encapsulated [...] Read more.
Self-healing asphalt, which is designed to achieve autonomic damage repair in asphalt pavement, offers a great life-extension prospect and therefore not only reduces pavement maintenance costs but also saves energy and reduces CO2 emissions. The combined asphalt self-healing system, incorporating both encapsulated rejuvenator and induction heating, can heal cracks with melted binder and aged binder rejuvenation, and the synergistic effect of the two technologies shows significant advantages in healing efficiency over the single self-healing method. This study explores the fatigue life extension prospect of the combined healing system in porous asphalt. To this aim, porous asphalt (PA) test specimens with various healing systems were prepared, including: (i) the capsule healing system, (ii) the induction healing system, (iii) the combined healing system and (iv) a reference system (without extrinsic healing). The fatigue properties of the PA samples were characterized by an indirect tensile fatigue test and a four-point bending fatigue test. Additionally, a 24-h rest period was designed to activate the built-in self-healing system(s) in the PA. Finally, a damaging and healing programme was employed to evaluate the fatigue damage healing efficiency of these systems. The results indicate that all these self-healing systems can extend the fatigue life of porous asphalt, while in the combined healing system, the gradual healing effect of the released rejuvenator from the capsules may contribute to a better induction healing effect in the damaging and healing cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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22 pages, 34725 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Study on the Stability of Large-Size Graded Crushed Stone under Cyclic Rotating Axial Compression
by Bo Tan, Tao Yang, Heying Qin and Qi Liu
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071584 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
In this paper, the stability of large-size graded crushed stone used for road base or cushioning under repeated load is investigated. Using an in-house developed device, large-size crushed stone mix was compacted and molded by the vibration and rotary compaction method. Cyclic rotating [...] Read more.
In this paper, the stability of large-size graded crushed stone used for road base or cushioning under repeated load is investigated. Using an in-house developed device, large-size crushed stone mix was compacted and molded by the vibration and rotary compaction method. Cyclic rotating axial compression was applied, and the shakedown theory was used to study the cumulative deformation of the large-size crushed stone specimens. The effects of gradation parameters on the cumulative strain and stability behavior were analyzed, and the critical stability and failure loads were determined according to the shakedown theory. The test results indicate that there are three obvious instability behavior stages of large-size graded crushed stone under cyclic rotating axial compression: elastic stability, plastic creep, and incremental plastic failure. Large-size graded crushed stone has a higher critical stability load stiffness than conventional-size graded crushed stone. The critical shakedown load of the specimen is mainly affected by the skeleton structure performance, and the critical failure load by the properties of the crushed stone material. Increasing the content and compactness of large-size crushed stone in the specimen can improve the stiffness and stability performance, and to achieve improvements, the content of large-size crushed stone should be controlled between 22% and 26%. The critical shakedown load increases with the increase in the California bearing ratio (CBR) value, while, on the other hand, the CBR value has little relationship with the critical failure load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

20 pages, 4446 KiB  
Review
Fatigue Models for Airfield Concrete Pavement: Literature Review and Discussion
by Jie Yuan, Wenhao Li, Yuening Li, Lukuan Ma and Jiake Zhang
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216579 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
The fatigue model plays an important role in the mechanistic–empirical design procedure of airfield pavement. As for cement concrete pavement, the fatigue model represents the relationship between the stress and the number of load repetitions. To further understand the fatigue model, a literature [...] Read more.
The fatigue model plays an important role in the mechanistic–empirical design procedure of airfield pavement. As for cement concrete pavement, the fatigue model represents the relationship between the stress and the number of load repetitions. To further understand the fatigue model, a literature review was performed in this paper along with the discussion. In this paper, the developed fatigue models available now were classified as the full-scale testing-based fatigue model and the concrete beam testing-based fatigue model, according to the data source. Then, the regression analysis process and stress calculation method of each fatigue model were summarized. Besides, the fatigue model proposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was compared with the fatigue model of the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The design thicknesses using the two models were obtained based on the finite element analysis. The results show that the designed slab using the fatigue model of FAA is thicker than that of CAAC, meaning that the fatigue model of FAA is comparatively conservative. Moreover, it can be concluded that the differences in the slab thickness become more significant with the increase in the wheel load and the foundation strength. Finally, the recommendation was proposed to refine the fatigue model in the future study from three aspects: data source, stress calculation method, and regression analysis process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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