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Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2023) | Viewed by 34347

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Interests: asphalt paving technologies; engineering modified asphalts; asphalt laboratory characterization; asphalt material performance modeling; pavement image analysis
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Guest Editor
1. Professor, Pavement Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Delft, The Netherlands
2. Principal Specialist, Rijkswaterstaat, Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, The Netherlands
Interests: testing and modeling of pavement materials; pavement materials and structures; asphalt concrete; road engineering materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Section of Pavement Engineering, Department of Engineering Structures, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: mechanics of multiphase media; experimental testing and constitutive modelling of pavement materials; pavement analysis & design; multi-physics flow and damage phenomena in asphalt mixtures; non-linear finite element analysis techniques; experimental testing and constitutive modelling of structural interlayer systems; experimental testing and computational characterization of multilayer asphalt surfacing systems on orthotropic steel deck bridges; multi-scale constitutive modelling of asphalt concrete; induction healing technology for asphalt concrete; warm rubberized asphalt concrete technology; waterproofing membrane material development and testing method; epoxy modified bitumen technology for durable and sustainable pavement; cold in place asphalt concrete recycling; high quality recycling of polymer modified asphalt; warm/cold rubberized asphalt concrete technology
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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
Interests: solid waste recycling in road engineering; road and pavement materials; asphalt pavement maintenance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Beijing Key Laboratory of Traffic Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China
Interests: Infrastructure monitoring and analysis based on artificial intelligence; Road green energy; Intelligent road for vehicle-road collaboration; Multi-scale characterization and simulation of infrastructure structures and materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Symposium on Frontiers of Road and Airport Engineering (iFRAE) 2021 will be hosted on July 12–14, 2021, by the Section of Pavement Engineering, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. This conference is co-sponsored by the College of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, China.

The iFRAE was started by College of Transportation Engineering of Tongji University. This symposium was first held in 2011 and then biennially since 2015. The theme of the iFRAE 2021 is to promote research in the field of “Circular, Sustainable and Smart Airport and Highway Pavements” and is dedicated to the state-of-the-art and state-of-practice areas of long-life and circular materials for sustainable, cost-effective smart airport and highway pavement construction. This symposium will facilitate the exchange of new ideas in these fields among academicians, engineers, scientists, and practitioners. It includes plenary, keynote and invited speeches, oral presentations, and poster sessions on different topics.

The aim of this Special Issue of Materials is to provide researchers, practitioners, and administrators a unique and rewarding opportunity to present and forward new and emerging ideas. Furthermore, the symposium will also serve as a platform for scientific exchange, creating scientific communities with complementary activities that work in the broader field of pavement engineering.

Participants at the iFRAE 2021 are highly encouraged to submit papers in this Special Issue for possible publication in Materials. Those not attending iFRAE 2021 are also warmly invited to submit a paper to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Hussain Bahia
Prof. Dr. Sandra Erkens
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Xueyan Liu
Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao
Dr. Yue Hou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green and sustainable pavement materials
  • Recycled materials in pavement
  • Warm and cold mix asphalt materials
  • Functional materials for pavement design
  • Self-healing pavement materials
  • Eco-efficiency pavement materials
  • Smart pavement materials and structures

Published Papers (17 papers)

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16 pages, 3587 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Effect and Adsorption Mechanism of High Content Zeolite Ceramsite on Asphalt VOCs
by Wei Chen, Hui Zhao, Yongjie Xue and Xiwen Chang
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176100 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
In order to meet the requirements of industrial-scale fixed beds and develop an excellent adsorbent for asphalt VOCs. Zeolite ceramsite containing binder was prepared and successfully applied to the inhibition of asphalt VOCs. The results showed that prepared zeolite ceramsite possessed a high [...] Read more.
In order to meet the requirements of industrial-scale fixed beds and develop an excellent adsorbent for asphalt VOCs. Zeolite ceramsite containing binder was prepared and successfully applied to the inhibition of asphalt VOCs. The results showed that prepared zeolite ceramsite possessed a high degree of crystallinity, and its main crystal phase is zeolite. The micropores with a pore size of 0.88 nm dominated the pore size distribution of the material. The adsorption experiment of asphalt VOCs showed a lower VOCs adsorption effect of 8.72% at a small dosage of 5%, while at a large dosage of 50%, the adsorption effect of VOCs exceeded 45%. This might be caused by the quite small external specific surface area, which occupied only 8.3% of the total specific surface area, and the low intraparticle diffusion coefficient due to the micropores. Meanwhile, the kinetics diameters of most aromatic hydrocarbons, which were comparable to the pore size of micropores, and the increase in the intraparticle diffusion resistance of aliphatic hydrocarbon molecules were the important factors in obtaining high adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt VOCs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the particulate adsorbent with a microporous structure should be mixed into the asphalt as a fine aggregate rather than an asphalt modifier for better asphalt VOCs adsorption effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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18 pages, 2167 KiB  
Article
An Innovation of the Markov Probability Model for Predicting the Remaining Service Life of Civil Airport Rigid Pavements
by Baoli Wei, Chengchao Guo and Miaoyi Deng
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176082 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
In view of the time series update of airport runway health status detection data, the Markov chain of stochastic process theory was adopted. Considering the influence of aircraft traffic load, age, and pavement structure surface-layer thickness on the performance deterioration process of airport [...] Read more.
In view of the time series update of airport runway health status detection data, the Markov chain of stochastic process theory was adopted. Considering the influence of aircraft traffic load, age, and pavement structure surface-layer thickness on the performance deterioration process of airport runways, the method of survival analysis was used. The parameter model of survival analysis was used to establish the duration function model of the four condition states of the airport runway PCI (pavement condition index). The Markov transition matrix for the performance prediction of airport runways was constructed. In order to evaluate the ability of the Markov transition matrix method to predict the trend of deterioration for PCI of the airport runway under different conditions of aircraft traffic volume and thickness of the runway pavement surface, a data set was constructed with the actual inspection data of the airport runway, and the corresponding samples were selected for analysis. The results showed that a Markov transition matrix for airport runway performance prediction, constructed based on survival analysis theory, can combine discontinuous inspection data or monitoring data with Weibull function survival curves. The method proposed in this paper can quantitatively predict the remaining service life of airport runways and provide support for cost-effective decisions about airport pavement maintenance and rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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24 pages, 9454 KiB  
Article
Crushing Characteristics of Coarse Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures under Simulated Laboratory Compaction Loads and Repeated Traffic Loads
by Shijia Jiang, Hao Yu and Liantong Mo
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175865 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The crushing characteristics of coarse aggregates for asphalt concrete were investigated under static and dynamic aggregate crushing value tests (ACVTs). The effect of various compaction loads was also examined by using a Marshall hammer, gyratory compactor and steel roller. Six types of coarse [...] Read more.
The crushing characteristics of coarse aggregates for asphalt concrete were investigated under static and dynamic aggregate crushing value tests (ACVTs). The effect of various compaction loads was also examined by using a Marshall hammer, gyratory compactor and steel roller. Six types of coarse aggregates were tested, including basalt aggregate, steel slag, limestone aggregate, marble aggregate, recycled concrete aggregate and slightly weathered limestone aggregate. Test results indicate that static ACVT failed to reflect the crushing behavior of coarse aggregates under traditional traffic and compaction loads. The type of aggregate strongly influenced the crushing resistance, independent of type of load. The compaction loads simulated by using a Marshall hammer, gyratory compactor and steel roller resulted in a high aggregate breakage ratio and can distinguish the coarse aggregates with high crushing susceptibility. The crushing resistance was evaluated by using various crushing parameters and the corresponding critical value of these parameters was established. Gyratory compactor compaction resulted in more serious aggregate crushing when compared to Marshall hammer and steel roller compaction. Finite element modelling results on roller compaction and Marshall hammer compaction are in agreement with the aggregate crushing results. The aggregate crushing mechanism was found to be controlled by the fracture mode; the contribution of the attrition and abrasion modes was relatively small. When coarse aggregates with low crushing resistance are considered for the use for asphalt mixture, proper compaction is proved to be vital to prevent excessive aggregate breakage during mixture preparation and construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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14 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
Durability of Recycled Concrete Aggregates Prepared with Mechanochemical and Thermal Treatment
by Mujaheed Yunusa, Xiaoshan Zhang, Peiqiang Cui and Xiaowu Tian
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165792 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) have low quality when compared with natural or conventional aggregates as the paste adhering to it is the key aspect that affects its functionality. Since the adhering cementitious paste weakens the adhesion between the aggregate and the binder, it [...] Read more.
Recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) have low quality when compared with natural or conventional aggregates as the paste adhering to it is the key aspect that affects its functionality. Since the adhering cementitious paste weakens the adhesion between the aggregate and the binder, it becomes a decisive factor in the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture. It turns out that enhancing the surface of the aggregate or eliminating the paste attached to the NA (natural aggregate) is crucial for improving interfacial bonding. Therefore, the treatment and evaluation of the RCAs by laboratory testing method were studied in this research to assess their reuse in the asphalt pavement surface coarse layer. With the various techniques for removing paste from the RCA, a combination of three enhancement processes were developed for the effective removal of the cement paste, which are mechanical, chemical, and 400 °C conditioning thermal treatment. The RCAs were first charged in a Los Angeles machine for the mechanical treatment to remove parts of the attached cement. Then they were soaked in two types of acids, namely hydrochloric and sulfuric, with different concentrations to determine the most effective or optimum molarity for about a 48 h soaking duration. Then a 2 h thermal treatment was conducted on the RCA samples. After all the treatments were done, the RCA aggregates were subjected to different types of tests to examine their properties in order to ensure their full potential in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and surface microstructure characteristics. Based on the experiment design, the study intends to examine the quality of the treated recycled aggregates generated by the combination approach as well as to investigate the optimal acid concentration and type. The results show that the proposed mechanochemical and thermal treatment reinforced the quality of the RCAs when compared to the non-treated samples. Meanwhile, HCl proved to be the optimum compared to H2SO4 in most examinations of the properties. In the end, better chemical qualities were validated, and the RCA qualities were improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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15 pages, 4924 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Construction Waste Recycled Powder as Filler in Asphalt Concrete
by Zemeng Guo and Zongwu Chen
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165742 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Processing construction waste into aggregate and reusing it in asphalt pavement is beneficial in terms of environmental protection and resource utilization. However, recycled aggregate (RA) possesses some property defects. Therefore, RA usually needs to be strengthened by modification technologies prior to use. In [...] Read more.
Processing construction waste into aggregate and reusing it in asphalt pavement is beneficial in terms of environmental protection and resource utilization. However, recycled aggregate (RA) possesses some property defects. Therefore, RA usually needs to be strengthened by modification technologies prior to use. In order to promote the convenient and low-cost utilization of construction waste, a new method of preparing construction waste into powder and using recycled powder (RP) as asphalt filler is proposed in this research. The property defects of RA and the applicability of RP used as filler were first analyzed based on their material characteristics. Then, asphalt concrete with RP was designed according to the Superpave method, and the engineering performance of the asphalt mixture was further investigated. According to the results, we recommend the use of acidic RP in combination with other highly alkaline fillers, such as Portland cement (PC), with a suitable blending ratio of RP to PC of 1:1. Preparing asphalt concrete with filler composed of RP and PC can achieve satisfactory engineering performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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24 pages, 7427 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study on the Rejuvenation Efficiency of Compound Rejuvenators for the Characterization of the Bituminous Binder, Mortar, and Mixture
by Mingliang Li, Shisong Ren, Xueyan Liu, Zhe Wu, Haopeng Zhang, Weiyu Fan, Peng Lin and Jian Xu
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155458 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
This study aims to comprehensively investigate the rejuvenation efficiency of various self-developed compound rejuvenators on the physical, mechanical, and aging properties of aged bitumen, asphalt mortar, and mixture. The results revealed that the restoration capacity of vacuum distilled-oil rejuvenators on high-and-low temperature performance-grade [...] Read more.
This study aims to comprehensively investigate the rejuvenation efficiency of various self-developed compound rejuvenators on the physical, mechanical, and aging properties of aged bitumen, asphalt mortar, and mixture. The results revealed that the restoration capacity of vacuum distilled-oil rejuvenators on high-and-low temperature performance-grade of aged bitumen is more significant. In contrast, an aromatic-oil based rejuvenator is good at enhancing low-temperature grade and aging resistance. Moreover, the temperature and time of the curing conditions for mixing recycling of asphalt mixture were optimized as 150 °C and 120 min. Furthermore, the sufficient anti-rutting, structural stability, and moisture resistance of recycled asphalt mixture affirmed the rejuvenation efficiency of compound rejuvenators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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16 pages, 4868 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Cracking Evolution and Model of Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixtures during Different Curing Times
by Yu Xia, Juntao Lin, Zongwu Chen, Jun Cai, Jinxiang Hong and Xiaobin Zhu
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134476 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the fatigue cracking evolution of cold recycled asphalt mixtures with asphalt emulsion (CRME) under different curing times. The fatigue cracking model of CRME based on damage mechanics and fracture mechanics was analyzed according to the fatigue loading curve. [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate the fatigue cracking evolution of cold recycled asphalt mixtures with asphalt emulsion (CRME) under different curing times. The fatigue cracking model of CRME based on damage mechanics and fracture mechanics was analyzed according to the fatigue loading curve. Firstly, the fatigue cracking evolution of CRME was studied through an SCB strength test and SCB fatigue test. Then, the fatigue damage mechanics were used to establish a nonlinear fatigue cracking model, and the damage degree of CRME at the initial cracking point was determined. The Paris formula was used to characterize the law of fatigue crack propagation. Finally, the microstructure of CRME was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the backscattering method. The results indicate that the initial cracking point appears at around 60% of the fatigue life according to the SCB fatigue test by means of image analysis. The damage variable was obtained through the cracking model, and the value of the damage variable was determined as 0.06–0.17 at the initial cracking point. In addition, the Paris formula showed that the crack growth of CRME can be reflected by the stress intensity factor and correlative parameters. Moreover, cement hydration products were mixed with the asphalt membrane to form a denser spatial structure during the curing process, which may provide higher fatigue performance of CRME. This research may provide a theoretical reference for studying the fatigue cracking behavior of CRME. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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19 pages, 3711 KiB  
Article
Co-Utilization of Sewage Sludge and Rice Husk in Ceramsite Preparation with Selective Adsorption Capacity to Pb
by Rui Wang, Meng Lu and Junxing Wang
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124310 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Realizing the green recycling of sludge is an important link to effectively solve the problem of sludge disposal. In this paper, sewage sludge (SS) and rice husk (RH) were utilized as raw materials in preparing novel ceramsite (SRC) for the treatment of lead-containing [...] Read more.
Realizing the green recycling of sludge is an important link to effectively solve the problem of sludge disposal. In this paper, sewage sludge (SS) and rice husk (RH) were utilized as raw materials in preparing novel ceramsite (SRC) for the treatment of lead-containing wastewater, and its adsorption mechanism was explored. The results showed that the optimal preparation conditions were 40% RH + 60% SS mixture, a sintering temperature of 1190 °C, and a sintering time of 20 min. The basic properties of SRC met Chinese artificial ceramsite filter material standards for water treatment (CJ/T 299-2008). Under optimum adsorption conditions (pH = 6, 1 g/L SRC dosage, 20 mg/L Pb(NO)3 concentration, 18 h), the removal rate of Pb2+ reached 94.7%, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 18.94 mg/g. The adsorption process was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model, indicating that the adsorption process was dominated by chemisorption. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH0 > 0, ΔG0 < 0, ΔS0 > 0) indicated that the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. The possible adsorption mechanisms are as follows: (1) SRC is rich in layered mesoporous structure, which provides sufficient reaction sites for Pb adsorption; (2) the sintered lawsonite and muscovite can strongly attract Pb and then form a new phase (Pb10[Si2O7]3(OH)2); (3) Pb2+ can bond with the Si–O- bond in aluminosilicates, and the introduction of Pb elevates the degree of polymerization of aluminosilicates in turn, indicating that the adsorption process is stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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24 pages, 8602 KiB  
Article
Evaluation on the Performance of Hydraulic Bitumen Binders under High and Low Temperatures for Pumped Storage Power Station Projects
by Changgen Zou, Zhao Hua, Liantong Mo, Cong Qi, Zhixin Liu, Yanjun Xie, Hao Yu and Juntao Ke
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051890 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
The high and low-temperature performance of five hydraulic bitumen binders was evaluated using the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test, infrared spectrum test and direct tensile (DT) test. These hydraulic bitumen binders were respectively applied for several pumped storage power stations (PSPS) projects that [...] Read more.
The high and low-temperature performance of five hydraulic bitumen binders was evaluated using the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test, infrared spectrum test and direct tensile (DT) test. These hydraulic bitumen binders were respectively applied for several pumped storage power stations (PSPS) projects that were constructed or under construction. In order to relate the bitumen performance to the mixture performance, the slope flow test, three-point bending test and thermal stress restrained specimen test were carried out on hydraulic asphalt mixtures. The test results indicated the DSR rheological master curves can well distinguish the difference of each bitumen binder as well as the effect of polymer modification. Phase angle master curves, black diagrams and infrared spectra all indicated that several penetration-grade hydraulic bitumen binders were not virgin bitumen binders but were modified with relatively lower SBS polymer content when compared with traditional SBS-modified bitumen. When selecting the commonly used Karamay SG70 hydraulic bitumen as a reference, the normal SBS-modified bitumen was superior to other bitumen in terms of low- and high-temperature performance. Several slightly SBS-modified bitumen binders did not always show consistent results, which indicated that slightly modified bitumen may not really have the desired performance as expected. Therefore, SBS-modified bitumen will be more promising when dealing with extremely low or high temperatures. Bitumen performance was well compared with the mixture performance by using the bitumen creep, relaxation and tensile failure strain corresponding to the asphalt concrete slope flow, the maximum bending strain and the failure temperature, respectively. Compared with the traditional penetration, softening point and ductility test, it indicated that the DSR rheological test, creep test, direct tensile test and stress relaxation test can be used as more powerful tools for the characterization and optimization of hydraulic bitumen binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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16 pages, 20233 KiB  
Article
Rheological and Chemical Evolution of HMA and WMA Binders Based on Ageing Kinetics
by Ao Huang, Gang Liu, Virginie Mouillet, Saannibe Ciryle Somé, Tingwei Cao and Haoliang Huang
Materials 2022, 15(2), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020679 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
It is fundamental to predict or estimate the rheological behavioural evolutions of binders and mixture to ensure a durability service life of the whole infrastructure. This study compared the long-term ageing kinetics of hot mix asphalt (HMA) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) produced [...] Read more.
It is fundamental to predict or estimate the rheological behavioural evolutions of binders and mixture to ensure a durability service life of the whole infrastructure. This study compared the long-term ageing kinetics of hot mix asphalt (HMA) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) produced with the same base bitumen. The difference in the component was that the WMA contained 1% of Cecabase warm agent and 5.5% of water by the weight of bitumen, to obtain a large expansion ratio (47 times). Rolling thin-film oven test (RTFOT) and pressure ageing vessel (PAV) laboratory ageing were carried out on the binder with or without the warm agent. The oven ageing procedure was conducted on the loose HMA and WMA mixtures for 0, 3, 6, and 9 days. Research results indicated that the dual effect of the studied warm agent and the foaming water sharply decreased the viscosity of the binder at a high temperature. Compared with the HMA, the warm agent improved the ageing resistance of the asphalt binder. However, higher content, such as 5.5 wt.%, of foaming water deteriorated viscosity due to a thinner bitumen film, which was more susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, less than 2 wt.% of warm agent and foaming water was recommended in the foamed WMA preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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12 pages, 5130 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rejuvenators on the Workability and Performances of Reclaimed Asphalt Mixtures
by Wei Tang, Xin Yu, Ning Li, Fuqiang Dong, Zhongyuan Wang and Yu Zhang
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216385 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
The use of rejuvenators has enhanced the workability of asphalt mixtures containing the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This conclusion is based on the determination of viscosity of asphalt binders, while not validated from reclaimed asphalt mixtures. In this study, the effect of two [...] Read more.
The use of rejuvenators has enhanced the workability of asphalt mixtures containing the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This conclusion is based on the determination of viscosity of asphalt binders, while not validated from reclaimed asphalt mixtures. In this study, the effect of two rejuvenators (ordinary and emulsified rejuvenator) on the workability of reclaimed asphalt mixtures was evaluated by measuring the mixing torque and determining the air void content of reclaimed mixtures. In addition, their effects on the performances of reclaimed mixture were studied via the three indexes tests, rutting test and freeze-thaw splitting tests. The experimental results show that mixing torque and air void content of reclaimed mixtures with the emulsified rejuvenator is 4% and 6% lower than that with the ordinary rejuvenator, respectively. This indicates that improvement of the workability of reclaimed mixtures can be achieved by using an emulsified rejuvenator, but not by an ordinary rejuvenator. That is also the reason that at least 20% greater high-temperature stability is found for reclaimed mixtures by using the emulsified rejuvenator than using the ordinary rejuvenator. In addition, reclaimed mixtures with the emulsified rejuvenator show similar moisture susceptibility to that with the ordinary rejuvenator. This study provides a feasible method to assess the workability effect of rejuvenators on reclaimed mixtures directly and recommends the use of an emulsified rejuvenator to improve the workability and high-temperature stability of reclaimed mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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22 pages, 4836 KiB  
Article
Effect of Weather Aging on Viscoelasticity and Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Mastic
by Gang Xu, Yixin Zhou, Yu Zhu, Rui Wang and Xianhua Chen
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206163 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The long-term effect of climate factors, such as sunlight, oxygen, and water, leads to the performance degradation of the asphalt mastic, which is the binding part in the asphalt mixture. It is not conducive to satisfy the long-term performance requirements of long-life asphalt [...] Read more.
The long-term effect of climate factors, such as sunlight, oxygen, and water, leads to the performance degradation of the asphalt mastic, which is the binding part in the asphalt mixture. It is not conducive to satisfy the long-term performance requirements of long-life asphalt pavement. In this study, five kinds of base asphalt mastic and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt mastic were prepared with the filler-asphalt ratio of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4. The indoor simulated weather aging tests were carried out considering multi-factors including sunlight, oxygen, and water. The master curves of the complex shear modulus and phase angle of the asphalt mastic with different aging degrees were obtained by the frequency sweep test. The curves of fatigue damage characteristics and fatigue life were fitted based on the viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model. The influence of weather aging on the viscoelasticity and fatigue performance of asphalt mastic were analyzed. Results indicated that the effect of weather aging increases the elastic component and decreases the viscous component. The fatigue performance of SBS modified asphalt mastic was better than that of base asphalt mastic. As the aging degree deepens, the brittle failure characteristics of asphalt mastic with a higher filler–asphalt ratio were more obvious. The base asphalt mastic becomes more sensitive to the strain level due to weather aging, and its fatigue life increased under the low strain loading and decreased under the high strain loading. The fatigue performance of SBS modified asphalt mastic was less sensitive to the strain level. The fatigue life reduced after aging under low and high strain load. Taking the impact of weather aging on the fatigue performance into consideration, the optimal filler–asphalt ratios of the base asphalt mastic SBS modified asphalt mastic are 1.0 and 1.2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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15 pages, 6275 KiB  
Article
Calculation Derivation and Test Verification of Indirect Tensile Strength of Asphalt Pavement Interlayers at Low Temperatures
by Qian Zhang, Zhihe Fang, Yiheng Xu and Zhao Ma
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206041 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
When the direct tensile test is adopted to determine the interlayer tensile strength of the asphalt pavements, specimen separation or internal cracking often occurs at the bonding area of the loading head, rather than at the interlaminar bonding interface. In view of the [...] Read more.
When the direct tensile test is adopted to determine the interlayer tensile strength of the asphalt pavements, specimen separation or internal cracking often occurs at the bonding area of the loading head, rather than at the interlaminar bonding interface. In view of the tedious and discrete data of the direct tensile test, this paper attempts to introduce an indirect tensile test to determine the interlayer bond strength of asphalt pavement to solve this problem. However, the indirect tensile test method of a binder lacks the corresponding mechanical theory. This paper deduces the calculation formula of the indirect tensile strength of a binder based on elastic theory. A mechanical model of the test was established with the finite element method. In accordance with the two-dimensional elastic theory and the Flamant solution, an analytical solution of tensile stress in the indirect tensile test is proposed through the stress superposition. On this basis, the calculation formula for the indirect tensile strength of the interlaminar bonding is derived according to Tresca’s law. A low-temperature indirect tensile test was designed and conducted to verify the correctness of the formula. By comparing the results of the indirect tensile test and direct tensile test, it is found that the interlaminar strength of the mixture measured by them is similar, and the dispersion of indirect tensile test results is small. The results show that the indirect tensile test can replace the direct tensile test to evaluate the interlaminar tensile strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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13 pages, 4290 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Sustainable Asphalt Mixtures Containing High Reclaimed Asphalt and Steel Slag
by Panos Georgiou and Andreas Loizos
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174938 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Policymakers are implementing the transition to a circular model in all economic sectors to drastically mitigate the effects of climate change. In this regard, the producers of paving products should promote the reuse and recycling of solid waste in the design of sustainable [...] Read more.
Policymakers are implementing the transition to a circular model in all economic sectors to drastically mitigate the effects of climate change. In this regard, the producers of paving products should promote the reuse and recycling of solid waste in the design of sustainable asphalt materials. This study evaluated the performance-based properties of three highly recycled mixtures for wearing courses of asphalt pavements containing steel slag and varying amounts (25, 40, and 50%) of fractionated reclaimed asphalt (RA). In addition, the mixtures incorporated a warm mix asphalt (WMA) organic additive to lower production temperatures compared to a reference hot mix asphalt (HMA). Based on the experimental results, the warm recycled asphalt mixtures show equivalent or better performance compared to HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility, stiffness, rutting and fracture resistance, and surface macrotexture. Therefore, the combined incorporation of RA and steel slag with WMA was proven to be an effective option in designing environmentally friendly and high-performance wearing course mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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28 pages, 9321 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanomaterials for Enhancing the Thermal, Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binders
by Zhelun Li, Xin Yu, Yangshi Liang and Shaopeng Wu
Materials 2021, 14(10), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102585 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Effective thermal conduction modification in asphalt binders is beneficial to reducing pavement surface temperature and relieving the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the utilization of solar harvesting and snow melting pavements. This study investigated the performance of two nanometer-sized modifiers, graphene (Gr) [...] Read more.
Effective thermal conduction modification in asphalt binders is beneficial to reducing pavement surface temperature and relieving the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the utilization of solar harvesting and snow melting pavements. This study investigated the performance of two nanometer-sized modifiers, graphene (Gr) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on enhancing the thermal, physical and rheological properties of asphalt binders. Measurements depending on a transient plant source method proved that both Gr and CNTs linearly increased the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of asphalt binders, and while 5% Gr by volume of matrix asphalt contributed to 300% increments, 5% CNTs increased the two parameters of asphalt binders by nearly 72% at 20 °C. Meanwhile, a series of empirical and rheological properties experiments were conducted. The results demonstrated the temperature susceptibility reduction and high-temperature properties promotion of asphalt binders by adding Gr or CNTs. The variation trends in the anti-cracking properties of asphalt binders modified by Gr and CNTs with the modifier content differed at low temperatures, which may be due to the unique nature of Gr. In conclusion, Gr, whose optimal content is 3% by volume of matrix asphalt, provides superior application potential for solar harvesting and snow melting pavements in comparison to CNTs due to its comprehensive contributions to thermal properties, construction feasibility, high-temperature performance and low-temperature performance of asphalt binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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22 pages, 9620 KiB  
Article
Design of a Novel Road Pavement Using Steel and Plastics to Enhance Performance, Durability and Construction Efficiency
by Wei Jiang, Dongdong Yuan, Aimin Sha, Yue Huang, Jinhuan Shan and Pengfei Li
Materials 2021, 14(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030482 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6491
Abstract
Durability is one important problem that pavement engineers need to address in pavement’s long service life. Furthermore, easily recycled pavement materials, and safe and efficient pavement construction are also important areas for development in road engineering. For these reasons, a new asphalt steel [...] Read more.
Durability is one important problem that pavement engineers need to address in pavement’s long service life. Furthermore, easily recycled pavement materials, and safe and efficient pavement construction are also important areas for development in road engineering. For these reasons, a new asphalt steel plastic (ASP) pavement structure was proposed with an asphalt mixture forming the surface layer, and steel plate and plastic materials functioning as the main load-bearing layers. Based on a comprehensive performance review and cost-benefit analysis, stone mastic asphalt (SMA) is recommended to be used as the surface layer; and A656 steel plate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic materials should be the main load-bearing layer, on top of a foundation layer made with graded crushed stones. A glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) insulation layer is recommended for use between the steel plate and ABS. Mechanical properties of the ASP pavement were analyzed using the finite element method. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the thermal insulation performance of GFRP, the high-temperature stability and the fatigue resistance of ASP pavement. Results show that some of the mechanical properties of ASP pavement (with a structure of 80 mm SMA asphalt mixture, 8 mm steel plate, 140 mm ABS and 200 mm crushed stones) are comparable with conventional long-life pavement (with 350 mm asphalt layer overlaying 400 mm graded crushed stones). Dynamic stability of the ASP slab specimens can reach 10,000 times/mm, and the fatigue life is about twice that of SMA. Besides, the ASP pavement can be prefabricated and assembled on-site, and thus can greatly improve construction efficiency. From the lifecycle perspective, ASP pavement has many advantages over traditional pavements, such as durability, lower environmental footprint and recyclability, making it is worth further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

13 pages, 1765 KiB  
Review
Global Bibliometric Developments on Solid Waste Recycling in Concrete Construction Engineering
by Xiaoshan Zhang, Yue Xiao, Yongjie Xue, Jian Liu, Zongwu Chen and Ronghui Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124142 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The precise and visual analysis of solid waste recycling in concrete construction engineering is critical for the development of ecological civilization and for the secure supply of resources. This research makes a bibliometric analysis of the solid waste application in concrete construction engineering [...] Read more.
The precise and visual analysis of solid waste recycling in concrete construction engineering is critical for the development of ecological civilization and for the secure supply of resources. This research makes a bibliometric analysis of the solid waste application in concrete construction engineering from 2000 to 2021 based on the Web of Science. The global bibliometric status, current research focus and future directions were used to indicate the global development of solid waste recycling in concrete construction engineering. The most reused solid wastes and most solid waste productive regions were concluded with this bibliometric analysis. China is far ahead of other countries in solid waste recycling in all aspects and heavy metal is one of the most prominent solid waste themes in China. By analyzing the most studied solid waste, fly ash appears to be the most popular and is widely used; half of the top ten-cited papers are correlated with it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Life and Circular Pavement Materials)
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